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Clocks & Sleep, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 14 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Clocks & Sleep is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that investigates a wide range of sleep related topics and is published quarterly online by MDPI.
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11 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Temporal Considerations in Brain Metastases Radiation Therapy: The Intersection of Chronobiology and Patient Profiles
by Nicolas G. Nelson, Sara E. Burke, Louis Cappelli, Lauren E. Matlack, Alexandria P. Smith, Noelle Francois, Joseph F. Lombardo, Yash B. Shah, Kuang-Yi Wen, Ayesha A. Shafi and Nicole L. Simone
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 200-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010014 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
The circadian system, a vital temporal regulator influencing physiological processes, has implications for cancer development and treatment response. Our study assessed circadian timing’s impact on whole-brain radiotherapy outcomes in brain metastases for personalized cancer therapy insights. The aim of the study was to [...] Read more.
The circadian system, a vital temporal regulator influencing physiological processes, has implications for cancer development and treatment response. Our study assessed circadian timing’s impact on whole-brain radiotherapy outcomes in brain metastases for personalized cancer therapy insights. The aim of the study was to evaluate circadian influence on radiation treatment timing and its correlation with clinical outcomes and to identify patient populations benefiting from interventions synchronizing circadian rhythms, considering subgroup differences and potential disparities. An IRB-approved retrospective analysis of 237 patients undergoing whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (2017–2021), receiving over 80% of treatments in the morning or afternoon, was performed. Survival analyses utilized Kaplan–Meier curves. This was a single-institution study involving patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy. Demographic, disease, and socioeconomic parameters from electronic medical records were collected. Morning treatment (n = 158) showed a trend toward improved overall survival vs. afternoon (n = 79); the median survival was 158 vs. 79 days (p = 0.20, HR = 0.84, CI95% 0.84–0.91). Subgroup benefits for morning treatment in females (p = 0.04) and trends in controlled primary disease (p = 0.11) and breast cancer metastases (p = 0.08) were observed. Black patients exhibited diminished circadian influence. The present study emphasized chronobiological factors’ relevance in brain metastases radiation therapy. Morning treatment correlated with improved survival, particularly in specific subgroups. Potential circadian influence disparities were identified, laying a foundation for personalized cancer therapy and interventions synchronizing circadian rhythms for enhanced treatment efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleeping for Health: Mechanistic Insights)
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17 pages, 2669 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy of a Multimodal Bedroom-Based ‘Smart’ Alarm System on Mitigating the Effects of Sleep Inertia
by Carolina Campanella, Kunjoon Byun, Araliya Senerat, Linhao Li, Rongpeng Zhang, Sara Aristizabal, Paige Porter and Brent Bauer
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 183-199; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010013 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Previous work has demonstrated the modest impact of environmental interventions that manipulate lighting, sound, or temperature on sleep inertia symptoms. The current study sought to expand on previous work and measure the impact of a multimodal intervention that collectively manipulated light, sound, and [...] Read more.
Previous work has demonstrated the modest impact of environmental interventions that manipulate lighting, sound, or temperature on sleep inertia symptoms. The current study sought to expand on previous work and measure the impact of a multimodal intervention that collectively manipulated light, sound, and ambient temperature on sleep inertia. Participants slept in the lab for four nights and were awoken each morning by either a traditional alarm clock or the multimodal intervention. Feelings of sleep inertia were measured each morning through Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) assessments and ratings of sleepiness and mood at five time-points. While there was little overall impact of the intervention, the participant’s chronotype and the length of the lighting exposure on intervention mornings both influenced sleep inertia symptoms. Moderate evening types who received a shorter lighting exposure (≤15 min) demonstrated more lapses relative to the control condition, whereas intermediate types exhibited a better response speed and fewer lapses. Conversely, moderate evening types who experienced a longer light exposure (>15 min) during the intervention exhibited fewer false alarms over time. The results suggest that the length of the environmental intervention may play a role in mitigating feelings of sleep inertia, particularly for groups who might exhibit stronger feelings of sleep inertia, including evening types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Impact of Light & other Zeitgebers)
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13 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Disruption of Circadian Sleep/Wake Rhythms in Infants May Herald Future Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Teruhisa Miike, Kentaro Oniki, Makiko Toyoura, Shiro Tonooka, Seiki Tajima, Jun Kinoshita, Junji Saruwatari and Yukuo Konishi
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 170-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010012 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
We investigated whether the abnormal rhythms in infants are related to the future development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a questionnaire from September to October 2016. The parents of 160 children with ASD (male, n = 123; female, n = 37) were [...] Read more.
We investigated whether the abnormal rhythms in infants are related to the future development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a questionnaire from September to October 2016. The parents of 160 children with ASD (male, n = 123; female, n = 37) were recruited from two hospitals in K and H cities, and as a control group, 145 children (male, n = 75; female, n = 70) were recruited from four nursery schools in T city. The associations between ASD and bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends in infancy (<1 years of age), at 1–3 years, and at 3–5 years of ages were studied using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. In particular, at <3 years of age, the following factors were associated with an increased prevalence of ASD in the future: (1) short sleep periods (<8 h); (2) taking a long time to fall asleep (>60 min); (3) sleep beginning after 22:00; (4) a wake-up time after 08:00; and (5) frequent (>3 times) and long-term awakening periods (>60 min). The misalignment and/or shift of the circadian rhythm in infants may be one of the precursors and/or risk factors for the future development of ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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14 pages, 2298 KiB  
Article
Association of Meal Timing with Sleep Quality and Anxiety According to Chronotype: A Study of University Students
by Cristina Souza da Silva Luz, Ana Elizabeth Teixeira Pimentel da Fonseca, Jefferson Souza Santos, John Fontenele Araujo, Leandro Lourenção Duarte and Claudia Roberta de Castro Moreno
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 156-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010011 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1776
Abstract
There are several determinants of mental health symptoms, ranging from individual characteristics to social factors. Consistent with patterns in the general population, students with evening characteristics tend to exhibit more anxiety symptoms and poorer sleep quality compared to morning students. Meal timing also [...] Read more.
There are several determinants of mental health symptoms, ranging from individual characteristics to social factors. Consistent with patterns in the general population, students with evening characteristics tend to exhibit more anxiety symptoms and poorer sleep quality compared to morning students. Meal timing also appears to affect sleep and may be associated with mental health symptoms. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the timing of the main and last meals of the day with sleep quality and anxiety levels, according to the chronotype of university students. This study was conducted in colleges in São Paulo, Brazil, and involved application of a questionnaire to 162 university students. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic information meal and study times, and included scales assessing eveningness and morningness, sleep quality, and anxiety. Students demonstrating a phase delay in both chronotype and dinner timing exhibited higher levels of anxiety compared to morning-type students. Although no associations were observed between meal timing and sleep quality, sleeping later was associated with poorer sleep quality. The study suggests that evening students and those who eat late at night are more prone to presenting mental health symptoms. More studies are needed to further investigate this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Society)
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27 pages, 4395 KiB  
Article
A Protocol for Evaluating Digital Technology for Monitoring Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Older People and People Living with Dementia in the Community
by Ciro della Monica, Kiran K. G. Ravindran, Giuseppe Atzori, Damion J. Lambert, Thalia Rodriguez, Sara Mahvash-Mohammadi, Ullrich Bartsch, Anne C. Skeldon, Kevin Wells, Adam Hampshire, Ramin Nilforooshan, Hana Hassanin, The UK Dementia Research Institute Care Research & Technology Research Group, Victoria L. Revell and Derk-Jan Dijk
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 129-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010010 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance are predictors of poor physical and mental health, including dementia. Long-term digital technology-enabled monitoring of sleep and circadian rhythms in the community has great potential for early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. [...] Read more.
Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbance are predictors of poor physical and mental health, including dementia. Long-term digital technology-enabled monitoring of sleep and circadian rhythms in the community has great potential for early diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression, and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. Before novel digital technology-based monitoring can be implemented at scale, its performance and acceptability need to be evaluated and compared to gold-standard methodology in relevant populations. Here, we describe our protocol for the evaluation of novel sleep and circadian technology which we have applied in cognitively intact older adults and are currently using in people living with dementia (PLWD). In this protocol, we test a range of technologies simultaneously at home (7–14 days) and subsequently in a clinical research facility in which gold standard methodology for assessing sleep and circadian physiology is implemented. We emphasize the importance of assessing both nocturnal and diurnal sleep (naps), valid markers of circadian physiology, and that evaluation of technology is best achieved in protocols in which sleep is mildly disturbed and in populations that are relevant to the intended use-case. We provide details on the design, implementation, challenges, and advantages of this protocol, along with examples of datasets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Basic Research & Neuroimaging)
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15 pages, 6617 KiB  
Article
Power Analysis for Human Melatonin Suppression Experiments
by Manuel Spitschan, Parisa Vidafar, Sean W. Cain, Andrew J. K. Phillips and Ben C. Lambert
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 114-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010009 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
In humans, the nocturnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland is suppressed by ocular exposure to light. In the laboratory, melatonin suppression is a biomarker for this neuroendocrine pathway. Recent work has found that individuals differ substantially in their melatonin-suppressive response to [...] Read more.
In humans, the nocturnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland is suppressed by ocular exposure to light. In the laboratory, melatonin suppression is a biomarker for this neuroendocrine pathway. Recent work has found that individuals differ substantially in their melatonin-suppressive response to light, with the most sensitive individuals being up to 60 times more sensitive than the least sensitive individuals. Planning experiments with melatonin suppression as an outcome needs to incorporate these individual differences, particularly in common resource-limited scenarios where running within-subjects studies at multiple light levels is costly and resource-intensive and may not be feasible with respect to participant compliance. Here, we present a novel framework for virtual laboratory melatonin suppression experiments, incorporating a Bayesian statistical model. We provide a Shiny web app for power analyses that allows users to modify various experimental parameters (sample size, individual-level heterogeneity, statistical significance threshold, light levels), and simulate a systematic shift in sensitivity (e.g., due to a pharmacological or other intervention). Our framework helps experimenters to design compelling and robust studies, offering novel insights into the underlying biological variability in melatonin suppression relevant for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproducibility in Sleep and Circadian Science)
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17 pages, 1068 KiB  
Article
Can the Brain’s Thermostatic Mechanism Generate Sleep-Wake and NREM-REM Sleep Cycles? A Nested Doll Model of Sleep-Regulating Processes
by Arcady A. Putilov
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 97-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010008 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Evidence is gradually accumulating in support of the hypothesis that a process of thermostatic brain cooling and warming underlies sleep cycles, i.e., the alternations between non-rapid-eye-movement and rapid-eye-movement sleep throughout the sleep phase of the sleep-wake cycle. A mathematical thermostat model predicts an [...] Read more.
Evidence is gradually accumulating in support of the hypothesis that a process of thermostatic brain cooling and warming underlies sleep cycles, i.e., the alternations between non-rapid-eye-movement and rapid-eye-movement sleep throughout the sleep phase of the sleep-wake cycle. A mathematical thermostat model predicts an exponential shape of fluctuations in temperature above and below the desired temperature setpoint. If the thermostatic process underlies sleep cycles, can this model explain the mechanisms governing the sleep cyclicities in humans? The proposed nested doll model incorporates Process s generating sleep cycles into Process S generating sleep-wake cycles of the two-process model of sleep-wake regulation. Process s produces ultradian fluctuations around the setpoint, while Process S turns this setpoint up and down in accord with the durations of the preceding wake phase and the following sleep phase of the sleep-wake cycle, respectively. Predictions of the model were obtained in an in silico study and confirmed by simulations of oscillations of spectral electroencephalographic indexes of sleep regulation obtained from night sleep and multiple napping attempts. Only simple—inverse exponential and exponential—functions from the thermostatic model were used for predictions and simulations of rather complex and varying shapes of sleep cycles during an all-night sleep episode. To further test the proposed model, experiments on mammal species with monophasic sleep are required. If supported, this model can provide a valuable framework for understanding the involvement of sleep-wake regulatory processes in the mechanism of thermostatic brain cooling/warming. Full article
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12 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Education Level on Individual Lifestyle Behaviors among Dietetics Students and Professionals
by Joanna Popiolek-Kalisz, Cansu Cakici, Karolina Szczygiel and Agata Przytula
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 85-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010007 - 10 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Lifestyle and habits are acquired in the family environment and then shaped by the potential influence of the environment and received education. In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between sleep and dietary behaviors in various health professionals, [...] Read more.
Lifestyle and habits are acquired in the family environment and then shaped by the potential influence of the environment and received education. In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between sleep and dietary behaviors in various health professionals, including medical and dietetics professionals and students, as well as their self-perceived knowledge and attitudes. Despite the importance of this topic, there is a lack of research on the assessment of individual behaviors in dietetics students and professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of education level on individual behaviors regarding nutrition, sleep, and physical activity in dietetics students and professionals. 71 dietetics students and professionals were enrolled in this study. Their overall knowledge, sleep, and nutritional behavior were assessed with a validated Questionnaire of Eating Behaviors at the beginning of their dietetics university education and then prospectively after a year. It was also compared to dieticians who already graduated. The analysis showed that the educational level did not correlate with sleep length or the physical activity level. However, the educational level was correlated with dietary knowledge and properly self-assessed by the participants. Significant differences were observed in both the prospective and comparative analyses. The educational level and knowledge were not correlated with eating behaviors. The self-assessment of nutritional behaviors also did not correlate with the objective assessment. Sleep length did not correlate with BMI, but it was inversely correlated with overall and healthy diet scores and knowledge levels. On the other hand, physical activity levels were positively correlated with healthy diet scores. Dietary education results in better nutritional knowledge; however, it does not significantly impact individual nutritional behaviors among dietetics students and professionals. Moreover, the inverse relationship between sleep length and nutritional knowledge and behaviors, as well as the positive relationship between physical activity level and dietary behaviors, shows that nutritional aspects of lifestyle are probably prioritized among dietetic students and professionals, with an acknowledgment of the role of physical activity and a neglect of sleep hygiene importance. Dietetics students should be advised to use their theoretical knowledge not only to guide their patients but also to implement it in their own lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleeping for Health: Mechanistic Insights)
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13 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Insomnia and Migraine: A Missed Call?
by Angelo Torrente, Lavinia Vassallo, Paolo Alonge, Laura Pilati, Andrea Gagliardo, Davide Ventimiglia, Antonino Lupica, Vincenzo Di Stefano, Cecilia Camarda and Filippo Brighina
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 72-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010006 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
Migraine is one of the most prevalent and disabling neurological conditions, presenting episodes of throbbing headache that limit activities of daily living. Several factors may influence migraine frequency, such as lifestyle or alcohol consumption. Among the most recognised ones, sleep plays a biunivocal [...] Read more.
Migraine is one of the most prevalent and disabling neurological conditions, presenting episodes of throbbing headache that limit activities of daily living. Several factors may influence migraine frequency, such as lifestyle or alcohol consumption. Among the most recognised ones, sleep plays a biunivocal role, since poor sleep quality may worsen migraine frequency, and a high migraine frequency may affect sleep quality. In this paper, the authors evaluate the relationship between migraine and insomnia by exploring a cohort of patients affected by episodic or chronic migraine. To do so, a phone interview was performed, asking patients about their migraine frequency and mean pain intensity, in addition to the questions of the Insomnia Severity Index. The last one explores several symptoms impairing sleep that focus on insomnia. Patients complaining of insomnia showed an increased migraine frequency, and a weak but significant correlation was found between headache days per month and insomnia scores. Such results were particularly evident in patients affected by chronic migraine. Such results suggest how insomnia, in the presented data, seems to be associated with migraine frequency but not with pain intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleeping for Health: Mechanistic Insights)
16 pages, 666 KiB  
Article
Bright Light Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescent Outpatients: A Preliminary Study
by Rachel Ballard, John T. Parkhurst, Lisa K. Gadek, Kelsey M. Julian, Amy Yang, Lauren N. Pasetes, Namni Goel and Dorothy K. Sit
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 56-71; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010005 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Background: Bright light therapy (BLT) has not been well-studied in adolescents with major depressive disorder, particularly in outpatient settings. Methods: We conducted an 8-week clinical trial of BLT in adolescents recruited from a primary care practice with moderate to severe major depression. Acceptability [...] Read more.
Background: Bright light therapy (BLT) has not been well-studied in adolescents with major depressive disorder, particularly in outpatient settings. Methods: We conducted an 8-week clinical trial of BLT in adolescents recruited from a primary care practice with moderate to severe major depression. Acceptability and feasibility were defined by daily use of the light box and integration into daily routines. To assess treatment effects, we utilized the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) and actigraphic sleep variables. Results: Of the nine enrolled adolescents, the rate of daily use of the light therapy box was 100% at week 2, 78% at week 4 (n = 7), and 67% at weeks 6 and 8 (n = 6). Participants were better able to integrate midday BLT compared to morning BLT into their day-to-day routines. Mean depression scores improved during the 2-week placebo lead-in (dim red light—DRL) and continued to show significant improvement through 6 weeks of BLT. Sleep efficiency increased significantly (p = 0.046), and sleep onset latency showed a trend toward a significant decrease (p = 0.075) in the BLT phase compared to the DRL phase. Conclusion: Bright light treatment that was self-administered at home was feasible, acceptable, and effective for adolescent outpatients with depression. Findings support the development of larger, well-powered, controlled clinical trials of BLT in coordination with primary care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Impact of Light & other Zeitgebers)
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16 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Sleep Efficiency and Sleep Onset Latency in One Saskatchewan First Nation
by Chandima P. Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, Shelley Kirychuk, Mark Fenton, Vivian R. Ramsden, Jeremy Seeseequasis, Warren Seesequasis, Robert Skomro, Donna C. Rennie, Kathleen McMullin, Brooke P. Russell, Niels Koehncke, Sylvia Abonyi, Malcolm King and James A. Dosman
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 40-55; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010004 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Background: Sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency are two measures that can be used to assess sleep quality. Factors that are related to sleep quality include age, sex, sociodemographic factors, and physical and mental health status. This study examines factors related to sleep [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency are two measures that can be used to assess sleep quality. Factors that are related to sleep quality include age, sex, sociodemographic factors, and physical and mental health status. This study examines factors related to sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency in one First Nation in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods: A baseline survey of the First Nations Sleep Health project was completed between 2018 and 2019 in collaboration with two Cree First Nations. One-night actigraphy evaluations were completed within one of the two First Nations. Objective actigraphy evaluations included sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency. A total of 167 individuals participated, and of these, 156 observations were available for analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using logistic and linear regression models. Results: More females (61%) than males participated in the actigraphy study, with the mean age being higher for females (39.6 years) than males (35.0 years). The mean sleep efficiency was 83.38%, and the mean sleep onset latency was 20.74 (SD = 27.25) minutes. Age, chronic pain, ever having high blood pressure, and smoking inside the house were associated with an increased risk of poor sleep efficiency in the multiple logistic regression model. Age, chronic pain, ever having anxiety, heart-related illness, and smoking inside the house were associated with longer sleep onset latency in the multiple linear regression model. Conclusions: Sleep efficiency and sleep onset latency were associated with physical and environmental factors in this First Nation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Basic Research & Neuroimaging)
16 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Match and Mismatch between Lived Experiences of Daytime Sleepiness and Diagnostic Instruments: A Qualitative Study amongst Patients with Sleep Disorders
by Vaida T. R. Verhoef, Karin C. H. J. Smolders, Lysanne Remmelswaal, Geert Peeters, Sebastiaan Overeem and Yvonne A. W. de Kort
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 24-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010003 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom of sleep disorders. Despite its prevalence, it remains difficult to define, detect, and address. The difficulties surrounding sleepiness have been linked to an ambiguous conceptualization, a large variety of scales and measures, and the overlap with [...] Read more.
Excessive daytime sleepiness is a common symptom of sleep disorders. Despite its prevalence, it remains difficult to define, detect, and address. The difficulties surrounding sleepiness have been linked to an ambiguous conceptualization, a large variety of scales and measures, and the overlap with other constructs, such as fatigue. The present study aims to investigate patients’ descriptions of sleepiness-related daytime complaints and their phenomenology. We performed semi-directed interviews with patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (N = 15) or narcolepsy (N = 5). The interviewers took care of utilizing the participants’ terminology when describing daytime complaints related to their sleep disorder. Various aspects of the daytime complaints were investigated, such as their description and temporality. The transcribed content was thematically analyzed using an eclectic coding system, yielding five themes. The participants used different interchangeable descriptors (tired, sleepy, fatigued, exhausted) to express their daytime complaints. They enriched their description with indexes of magnitude (ranging from ‘not especially’ to ‘most gigantic, extreme’), oppositions to other states (using antipodes like energy, alertness, wakefulness, or rest), and indications of fluctuations over the day. Interestingly, the participants often used metaphors to express their experiences and their struggles. The lived experiences of the patients were found to not always align with common self-reported monitoring tools of sleepiness and to relate only in part with current conceptions. In practice, it is important to probe daytime complaints, such as daytime sleepiness, with a broader consideration, for example, by exploring antipodes, consequences, and time-of-day fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Disorders)
13 pages, 221 KiB  
Article
Thematic Daily Sleep Routine Analysis of Adults Not in Employment Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Rachael M. Kelly, John H. McDermott and Andrew N. Coogan
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 11-23; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010002 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Background: Day-to-day variations in sleep timing have been associated with poorer glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the factors that influence this sleep timing variability are poorly understood. Methods: Daily routines of sleep in a sample of seventeen adults with type [...] Read more.
Background: Day-to-day variations in sleep timing have been associated with poorer glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the factors that influence this sleep timing variability are poorly understood. Methods: Daily routines of sleep in a sample of seventeen adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were either retired or not currently working were examined qualitatively through the application of semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis of the resulting transcripts. Results: Four themes were identified: “Consistent Sleeping Patterns”, “Fluctuating Sleep Timing”, “Night-Time Disruptions” and “Lasting Effort Needed with Type Two Diabetes Mellitus”. The subthemes reflected that many participants had consistent sleep schedules across the seven-day week, but that a desire to maintain a sense of normality, household routines, television schedules and socializing were associated with different sleep timing on weekends. Active disease monitoring and timed medication taking were not identified as important factors in shaping sleep timing. Nocturia, stress and rumination were identified as important factors linked to disrupted sleep. Sleep was not reported as an issue discussed during routine clinical care. Conclusion: Sleep timing in participants appears to be driven by interacting psychosocial and physiological factors, although active disease management does not emerge as a major influence on sleep schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Society)
10 pages, 1475 KiB  
Review
Primer on Reproducible Research in R: Enhancing Transparency and Scientific Rigor
by Mushfiqul Anwar Siraji and Munia Rahman
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Achieving research reproducibility is a precarious aspect of scientific practice. However, many studies across disciplines fail to be fully reproduced due to inadequate dissemination methods. Traditional publication practices often fail to provide a comprehensive description of the research context and procedures, hindering reproducibility. [...] Read more.
Achieving research reproducibility is a precarious aspect of scientific practice. However, many studies across disciplines fail to be fully reproduced due to inadequate dissemination methods. Traditional publication practices often fail to provide a comprehensive description of the research context and procedures, hindering reproducibility. To address these challenges, this article presents a tutorial on reproducible research using the R programming language. The tutorial aims to equip researchers, including those with limited coding knowledge, with the necessary skills to enhance reproducibility in their work. It covers three essential components: version control using Git, dynamic document creation using rmarkdown, and managing R package dependencies with renv. The tutorial also provides insights into sharing reproducible research and offers specific considerations for the field of sleep and chronobiology research. By following the tutorial, researchers can adopt practices that enhance the transparency, rigor, and replicability of their work, contributing to a culture of reproducible research and advancing scientific knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproducibility in Sleep and Circadian Science)
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