Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III

A special issue of Clocks & Sleep (ISSN 2624-5175). This special issue belongs to the section "Human Basic Research & Neuroimaging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 10891

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep and circadian rhythms are fundamental requirements for maintaining biological homeostasis. There is a growing body of evidence showing that lack of sleep and the disruption of circadian rhythms are associated with various health problems, such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mood disorders.

In modern society, we live surrounded by various factors that disrupt our sleep and circadian rhythms, such as the widespread use of artificial lighting and electronic devices, the increasing 24-hour shift work, and the internationalization of business. Moreover, the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed our lives in many ways. Alterations of our daily routines, combined with reduced daylight exposure, are likely to disrupt our sleep and circadian rhythms.

The aim of this Special issue is to promote awareness in the scientific community about the role of sleep and circadian rhythms in health. We invite submissions of original articles and reviews addressing how sleep and circadian rhythms impact our physical and mental health. We also encourage submissions aimed at developing treatments and diagnostics for somatic and mental disorders from the perspective of sleep and circadian rhythms.

Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The role of sleep and circadian rhythms in mental and physical health;
  • Health implications of disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms;
  • Chronobiological treatments for sleep disorders and mental disorders.

Dr. Hiroshi Kadotani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Clocks & Sleep is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chronobiology
  • circadian rhythms
  • sleep
  • sleep disturbance
  • mental health
  • epidemiology
  • light therapy
  • wake therapy
  • sleep EEG

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 633 KiB  
Communication
Associations between Sleep Hygiene and Mental Complaints in a French Healthcare Worker Population during the COVID-19 Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis to Personalize Sleep Health Interventions
by Julien Coelho, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi and Pierre Philip
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(2), 246-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6020017 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Healthcare workers often have irregular work schedules and experience significant stress, which can lead to poor sleep quality and frequent mental health issues, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of poor [...] Read more.
Healthcare workers often have irregular work schedules and experience significant stress, which can lead to poor sleep quality and frequent mental health issues, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental health complaints among healthcare workers and examine their associations. We investigated participants’ typical sleep–wake patterns on workdays and free days as indicators of sleep hygiene. Sleep efficiency and social jetlag were calculated as the ratio of mean sleep duration to time spent in bed, while sleep rebound was defined as the difference in mean sleep duration between workdays and free days. Social jetlag was determined as the difference in mid-sleep timing between workdays and free days, with mid-sleep defined as the midpoint between bedtime and wake-up time. Insomnia severity was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4). Fatigue was measured using a single item inspired by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). A total of 1562 participants (80.5% women, mean age 40.0 years) were included in the study. The results revealed that 25.9% of participants slept less than 6 h, 24.3% had a sleep efficiency of less than 85%, 27.3% experienced a sleep rebound of more than 2 h, and 11.5% reported a social jetlag exceeding 2 h. Additionally, 33.9% of participants reported insomnia, 45.1% reported excessive daytime sleepiness, 13.1% reported fatigue, 16.5% reported symptoms of depression, and 35.7% reported symptoms of anxiety. After adjustment, mean sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with most mental health complaints. Sleep rebound and social jetlag were associated with significant insomnia but not with anxiety or depression symptoms. Our findings underscore the high prevalence of poor sleep hygiene and mental health complaints among healthcare workers, exacerbated by the COVID-19 crisis. We advocate for the promotion of sleep health through behavioral sleep strategies to safeguard the well-being of healthcare professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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13 pages, 2120 KiB  
Article
Disruption of Circadian Sleep/Wake Rhythms in Infants May Herald Future Development of Autism Spectrum Disorder
by Teruhisa Miike, Kentaro Oniki, Makiko Toyoura, Shiro Tonooka, Seiki Tajima, Jun Kinoshita, Junji Saruwatari and Yukuo Konishi
Clocks & Sleep 2024, 6(1), 170-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep6010012 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
We investigated whether the abnormal rhythms in infants are related to the future development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a questionnaire from September to October 2016. The parents of 160 children with ASD (male, n = 123; female, n = 37) were [...] Read more.
We investigated whether the abnormal rhythms in infants are related to the future development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), using a questionnaire from September to October 2016. The parents of 160 children with ASD (male, n = 123; female, n = 37) were recruited from two hospitals in K and H cities, and as a control group, 145 children (male, n = 75; female, n = 70) were recruited from four nursery schools in T city. The associations between ASD and bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends in infancy (<1 years of age), at 1–3 years, and at 3–5 years of ages were studied using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. In particular, at <3 years of age, the following factors were associated with an increased prevalence of ASD in the future: (1) short sleep periods (<8 h); (2) taking a long time to fall asleep (>60 min); (3) sleep beginning after 22:00; (4) a wake-up time after 08:00; and (5) frequent (>3 times) and long-term awakening periods (>60 min). The misalignment and/or shift of the circadian rhythm in infants may be one of the precursors and/or risk factors for the future development of ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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17 pages, 3893 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of a Portable Electromyography and Electrocardiography Device to Measure Sleep Bruxism in a Sleep Apnea Population: A Comparative Study
by Rosana Cid-Verdejo, Adelaida A. Domínguez Gordillo, Eleuterio A. Sánchez-Romero, Ignacio Ardizone García and Francisco J. Martínez Orozco
Clocks & Sleep 2023, 5(4), 717-733; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep5040047 - 20 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Background: The gold standard for diagnosing sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is polysomnography (PSG). However, a final hypermotor muscle activity often occurs after apnea episodes, which can confuse the diagnosis of SB when using portable electromyography (EMG) devices. This study [...] Read more.
Background: The gold standard for diagnosing sleep bruxism (SB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is polysomnography (PSG). However, a final hypermotor muscle activity often occurs after apnea episodes, which can confuse the diagnosis of SB when using portable electromyography (EMG) devices. This study aimed to compare the number of SB episodes obtained from PSG with manual analysis by a sleep expert, and from a manual and automatic analysis of an EMG and electrocardiography (EKG) device, in a population with suspected OSA. Methods: Twenty-two subjects underwent a polysomnographic study with simultaneous recording with the EMG-EKG device. SB episodes and SB index measured with both tools and analyzed manually and automatically were compared. Masticatory muscle activity was scored according to published criteria. Patients were segmented by severity of OSA (mild, moderate, severe) following the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. ANOVA and the Bland–Altman plot were used to quantify the agreement between both methods. The concordance was calculated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: On average, the total events of SB per night in the PSG study were (8.41 ± 0.85), lower than the one obtained with EMG-EKG manual (14.64 ± 0.76) and automatic (22.68 ± 16.02) analysis. The mean number of SB episodes decreases from the non-OSA group to the OSA group with both PSG (5.93 ± 8.64) and EMG-EKG analyses (automatic = 22.47 ± 18.07, manual = 13.93 ± 11.08). However, this decrease was minor in proportion compared to the automatic EMG-EKG analysis mode (from 23.14 to 22.47). The ICC based on the number of SB episodes in the segmented sample by severity degree of OSA along the three tools shows a moderate correlation in the non-OSA (0.61) and mild OSA (0.53) groups. However, it is poorly correlated in the moderate (0.24) and severe (0.23) OSA groups: the EMG-EKG automatic analysis measures 14.27 units more than PSG. The results of the manual EMG-EKG analysis improved this correlation but are not good enough. Conclusions: The results obtained in the PSG manual analysis and those obtained by the EMG-EKG device with automatic and manual analysis for the diagnosis of SB are acceptable but only in patients without OSA or with mild OSA. In patients with moderate or severe OSA, SB diagnosis with portable electromyography devices can be confused due to apneas, and further study is needed to investigate this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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10 pages, 452 KiB  
Communication
Association of Sleep Reactivity and Anxiety Sensitivity with Insomnia-Related Depression and Anxiety among City Government Employees in Japan
by Isa Okajima, Hiroshi Kadotani and on behalf of the NinJa Sleep Study Group
Clocks & Sleep 2023, 5(2), 167-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep5020015 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2409
Abstract
It has recently been noted that a reduction in sleep reactivity, characterized as the trait-like degree to which exposure to stress interferes with sleep, and anxiety sensitivity are associated with reduced insomnia severity. This study aimed to examine whether sleep reactivity and anxiety [...] Read more.
It has recently been noted that a reduction in sleep reactivity, characterized as the trait-like degree to which exposure to stress interferes with sleep, and anxiety sensitivity are associated with reduced insomnia severity. This study aimed to examine whether sleep reactivity and anxiety sensitivity are associated with insomnia-related depression and anxiety among city government employees in Japan. This cross-sectional study included 1810 city government employees of Koka City, Japan (mean age (standard deviation): 45.33 (12.20) years) who completely answered the scales for sleep reactivity, anxiety sensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Stepwise multiple regression analysis adjusted for demographic data showed that anxiety sensitivity (β = 0.39) was significantly linked to anxiety, and sleep reactivity (β = 0.36) was significantly linked to depression in individuals with insomnia. Additionally, the results of a logistic regression analysis adjusted for demographic data showed that anxiety sensitivity and sleep reactivity were relevant factors for anxious insomnia (OR = 12.69) and depressive insomnia (OR = 8.73), respectively. Whereas both sleep reactivity (OR = 14.67) and anxiety sensitivity (OR = 6.14) were associated with combined insomnia. These findings indicate that sleep reactivity is strongly associated with depressive symptoms, and anxiety sensitivity is strongly associated with anxiety symptoms in individuals with insomnia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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Review

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16 pages, 802 KiB  
Review
Relationship between the Biological Clock and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Jonathan Giebfried and Axel Lorentz
Clocks & Sleep 2023, 5(2), 260-275; https://doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep5020021 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3279
Abstract
The biological clock is a molecular oscillator that generates a 24-hour rhythm in accordance with the earth’s rotation. Physiological functions and pathophysiological processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are closely linked to the molecular clock. This review summarizes 14 studies in humans [...] Read more.
The biological clock is a molecular oscillator that generates a 24-hour rhythm in accordance with the earth’s rotation. Physiological functions and pathophysiological processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are closely linked to the molecular clock. This review summarizes 14 studies in humans and mice on the interactions between the biological clock and IBD. It provides evidence that IBD negatively affect core clock gene expression, metabolism and immune functions. On the other hand, disruption of the clock promotes inflammation. Overexpression of clock genes can lead to inhibition of inflammatory processes, while silencing of clock genes can lead to irreversible disease activity. In both human and mouse studies, IBD and circadian rhythms have been shown to influence each other. Further research is needed to understand the exact mechanisms and to develop potential rhythm-related therapies to improve IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms in Health III)
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