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Adv. Respir. Med., Volume 91, Issue 1 (February 2023) – 9 articles

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10 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Inspiratory–Expiratory Muscle Training Improved Respiratory Muscle Strength in Dialysis Patients: A Pilot Randomised Trial
by Nicola Lamberti, Giovanni Piva, Yuri Battaglia, Michele Franchi, Matteo Pizzolato, Antonio Argentoni, Giorgio Gandolfi, Giulia Gozzi, Margherita Lembo, Pietro Lavisci, Alda Storari, Natascia Rinaldo, Fabio Manfredini and Annalisa Cogo
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 93-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010009 - 10 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2171
Abstract
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) exposes patients to progressive physical deconditioning involving the respiratory muscles. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of low-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) learned at the hospital and performed at home. [...] Read more.
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) exposes patients to progressive physical deconditioning involving the respiratory muscles. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of low-intensity respiratory muscle training (RMT) learned at the hospital and performed at home. A group of ESKD patients (n = 22) were randomized into RMT or usual care (control group, CON) in a 1:1 ratio. The respiratory training was performed at home with an inspiratory–expiratory system for a total of 5 min of breathing exercises in a precise rhythm (8 breaths per minute) interspersed with 1 min of rest, two times per day on nondialysis days for a total of 4 weeks, with the air resistance progressively increasing. Outcome measures were carried out every 4 weeks for 3 consecutive months, with the training executed from the 5th to the 8th week. Primary outcomes were maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP, MEP), while secondary outcomes were lung capacity (FEV1, FVC, MVV). Nineteen patients without baseline between-group differences completed the trial (T: n = 10; Age: 63 ± 10; Males: n = 12). Both MIP and MEP significantly improved at the end of training in the T group only, with a significant difference of MEP of 23 cmH2O in favor of the RMT group (p = 0.008). No significant variations were obtained for FVC, FEV1 or MVV in either group, but there was a greater decreasing trend over time for the CON group, particularly for FVC (t = −2.00; p = 0.046). Low-fatiguing home-based RMT, with a simple device involving both inspiratory and expiratory muscles, may significantly increase respiratory muscle strength. Full article
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19 pages, 2283 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Drug Interactions in Hospitalized Patients with Respiratory Disorders in Greece
by Marios Spanakis, Petros Ioannou, Sotiris Tzalis, Flora Chouzouri, Evridiki Patelarou, Diamantis P. Kofteridis, Katerina M. Antoniou, Sophia E. Schiza, Athina Patelarou and Nikos Tzanakis
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 74-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010008 - 05 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2797
Abstract
Background: Patients with respiratory disorders often have additional diseases and are usually treated with more than one medication to manage their respiratory conditions as well as additional comorbidities. Thus, they are frequently exposed to polypharmacy (≥5 drugs), which raises the risk for [...] Read more.
Background: Patients with respiratory disorders often have additional diseases and are usually treated with more than one medication to manage their respiratory conditions as well as additional comorbidities. Thus, they are frequently exposed to polypharmacy (≥5 drugs), which raises the risk for drug–drug interactions (DDIs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this work, we present the results regarding the prevalence of DDIs in hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders in Greece. Methods: A 6-month descriptive single-center retrospective observational study enrolled 102 patients with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Clinical characteristics and medication regimens were recorded upon admission, hospitalization, and discharge. The prevalence of DDIs and their clinical significance was recorded and analyzed. Results: Unspecified acute lower respiratory tract infection (25%), exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12%) and pneumonia (8%) were the most frequent reasons for admission. Cardiovascular disorders (46%), co-existing respiratory disorders (32%), and diabetes (25%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. Polypharmacy was noted in 61% of patients upon admission, 98% during hospitalization, and 63% upon discharge. Associated DDIs were estimated to be 55% upon admission, 96% throughout hospitalization, and 63% on discharge. Pharmacodynamic (PD) DDIs were the most prevalent cases (81%) and referred mostly to potential risk for QT-prolongation (31.4% of PD-DDIs) or modulation of coagulation process as expressed through the international normalized ratio (INR) (29.0% of DDIs). Pharmacokinetic (PK) DDIs (19% of DDIs) were due to inhibition of Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism that could lead to elevated systemic drug concentrations. Clinically significant DDIs characterized as “serious-use alternative” related to 7% of cases while 59% of DDIs referred to combinations that could be characterized as “use with caution—monitor”. Clinically significant DDIs mostly referred to medication regimens upon admission and discharge and were associated with outpatient prescriptions. Conclusions: Hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders often experience multimorbidity and polypharmacy that raise the risk of DDIs. Clinicians should be conscious especially if any occurring arrhythmias, INR modulations, and prolonged or increased drug action is associated with DDIs. Full article
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8 pages, 832 KiB  
Article
Asthma and Fixed Airways Obstruction: Real Life Aspects
by Enrico Buonamico, Andrea Portacci, Silvano Dragonieri, Vitaliano Nicola Quaranta, Fabrizio Diaferia, Elena Capozza, Luigi Macchia and Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 66-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010007 - 04 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1676
Abstract
We aimed to evaluate asthmatic patients with fixed airways obstruction (FAO) and to verify the impact of follow-up in an asthma-dedicated outpatient clinic on symptoms control and spirometry compared to asthmatics without FAO. We enrolled 20 asthmatic FAO+ patients and 20 FAO− asthmatics [...] Read more.
We aimed to evaluate asthmatic patients with fixed airways obstruction (FAO) and to verify the impact of follow-up in an asthma-dedicated outpatient clinic on symptoms control and spirometry compared to asthmatics without FAO. We enrolled 20 asthmatic FAO+ patients and 20 FAO− asthmatics at baseline (T0) and at a one-year follow-up visit (T1). FAO+ and FAO− groups were compared for anamnesis, FEV1, asthma control test (ACT) and their ΔT0–T1. FAO+ and FAO− groups did not differ for age, BMI, pack-years, allergy, T0 blood eosinophils, comorbidities or GINA therapy step at T0 and T1, whereas, in the FAO+ group, we found more patients with a delay >5 years between symptoms onset and correct asthma diagnosis (p < 0.05). ACT at T0 and ΔT0–T1, FEV1 at ΔT0–T1 and number of exacerbations at T0 and ΔT0–T1 did not differ between groups. Despite a widespread perception of FAO, per se, as a severity factor for asthma, we found similar severity profiles and amelioration after one year of treatment in the FAO+ and FAO− groups. The only factor linked to FAO development in our population was a delay in asthma diagnosis from respiratory symptoms onset, which may have led to airway remodeling. Physicians should characterize patients with FAO for avoiding misdiagnosis between asthma and other respiratory diseases and for establishing the appropriate therapy. Full article
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17 pages, 940 KiB  
Article
Deciphering Microbiota of Acute Upper Respiratory Infections: A Comparative Analysis of PCR and mNGS Methods for Lower Respiratory Trafficking Potential
by Sadia Almas, Rob E. Carpenter, Anuradha Singh, Chase Rowan, Vaibhav K. Tamrakar and Rahul Sharma
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 49-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010006 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Although it is clinically important for acute respiratory tract (co)infections to have a rapid and accurate diagnosis, it is critical that respiratory medicine understands the advantages of current laboratory methods. In this study, we tested nasopharyngeal samples (n = 29) with a [...] Read more.
Although it is clinically important for acute respiratory tract (co)infections to have a rapid and accurate diagnosis, it is critical that respiratory medicine understands the advantages of current laboratory methods. In this study, we tested nasopharyngeal samples (n = 29) with a commercially available PCR assay and compared the results with those of a hybridization-capture-based mNGS workflow. Detection criteria for positive PCR samples was Ct < 35 and for mNGS samples it was >40% target coverage, median depth of 1X and RPKM > 10. A high degree of concordance (98.33% PPA and 100% NPA) was recorded. However, mNGS yielded positively 29 additional microorganisms (23 bacteria, 4 viruses, and 2 fungi) beyond PCR. We then characterized the microorganisms of each method into three phenotypic categories using the IDbyDNA Explify® Platform (Illumina® Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) for consideration of infectivity and trafficking potential to the lower respiratory region. The findings are significant for providing a comprehensive yet clinically relevant microbiology profile of acute upper respiratory infection, especially important in immunocompromised or immunocompetent with comorbidity respiratory cases or where traditional syndromic approaches fail to identify pathogenicity. Accordingly, this technology can be used to supplement current syndrome-based tests, and data can quickly and effectively be phenotypically characterized for trafficking potential, clinical (co)infection, and comorbid consideration—with promise to reduce morbidity and mortality. Full article
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23 pages, 2558 KiB  
Review
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Yihang Zhang and Jiazhen Wang
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 26-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010005 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4783
Abstract
The respiratory system is a well-organized multicellular organ, and disruption of cellular homeostasis or abnormal tissue repair caused by genetic deficiency and exposure to risk factors lead to life-threatening pulmonary disease including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although there is no clear etiology as [...] Read more.
The respiratory system is a well-organized multicellular organ, and disruption of cellular homeostasis or abnormal tissue repair caused by genetic deficiency and exposure to risk factors lead to life-threatening pulmonary disease including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although there is no clear etiology as the name reflected, its pathological progress is closely related to uncoordinated cellular and molecular signals. Here, we review the advances in our understanding of the role of lung tissue cells in IPF pathology including epithelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. These advances summarize the role of various cell components and signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which is helpful to further study the pathological mechanism of the disease, provide new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment, and is expected to improve the survival rate and quality of life of patients. Full article
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8 pages, 572 KiB  
Article
Favipiravir in the Treatment of Outpatient COVID-19: A Multicenter, Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
by Atefeh Vaezi, Mehrzad Salmasi, Forogh Soltaninejad, Mehrdad Salahi, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard and Babak Amra
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 18-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010004 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
Background: Finding effective outpatient treatments to prevent COVID-19 progression and hospitalization is necessary and is helpful in managing limited hospital resources. Repurposing previously existing treatments is highly desirable. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Favipiravir in the prevention of hospitalization in [...] Read more.
Background: Finding effective outpatient treatments to prevent COVID-19 progression and hospitalization is necessary and is helpful in managing limited hospital resources. Repurposing previously existing treatments is highly desirable. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Favipiravir in the prevention of hospitalization in symptomatic COVID-19 patients who were not eligible for hospitalization. Methods: This study was a triple-blind randomized controlled trial conducted between 5 December 2020 and 31 March 2021 in three outpatient centers in Isfahan, Iran. Patients in the intervention group received Favipiravir 1600 mg daily for five days, and the control group received a placebo. Our primary outcome was the proportion of hospitalized participants from day 0 to day 28. The outcome was assessed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 through phone calls. Results: Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to Favipiravir and placebo groups. There was no significant difference between groups considering baseline characteristics. During the study period, 10.5% of patients in the Favipiravir group and 5.1% of patients in the placebo group were hospitalized, but there was no significant difference between them (p-value = 0.3). No adverse event was reported in the treatment group. Conclusions: Our study shows that Favipiravir did not reduce the hospitalization rate of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients in outpatient settings. Full article
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7 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Suspected Lung Cancer with Suspicious Liver Lesions: Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Same-Day Bronchoscopy and Liver Biopsy in the Hands of a Pulmonologist
by Sina Ahmadzai, Jesper Koefod Petersen, Katrine Fjaellegaard, Paul Frost Clementsen and Uffe Bodtger
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 11-17; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010003 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2265
Abstract
Background: Bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) are standard procedures for the diagnosis and staging of patients suspected of lung cancer. If the patient simultaneously presents with suspicious liver lesions, it is tradition to refer the patient to a radiologist for ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver [...] Read more.
Background: Bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) are standard procedures for the diagnosis and staging of patients suspected of lung cancer. If the patient simultaneously presents with suspicious liver lesions, it is tradition to refer the patient to a radiologist for ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the results and complications when the pulmonologist performs all three procedures in the same setting. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who during 2018–2020 underwent invasive workup of suspected lung cancer and liver metastases with percutaneous liver lesion biopsy with or without same-day endoscopy (bronchoscopy and EBUS). We compared diagnostic yield and safety of liver lesion biopsy stratified by same-day endoscopy or not. Results: In total, 89 patients were included, of whom 28 patients (31%) underwent same-day endoscopy. All liver lesion biopsies were fine-needle aspiration biopsies performed by experienced pulmonologists. No complications were reported, and overall diagnostic yield was 88%. The diagnostic yield was significantly lower in the same-day endoscopy group (71% vs. 95%), and undergoing endoscopy was significantly associated with having fewer liver lesions, higher prevalence of lung cancer, and lower overall prevalence of a malignant diagnosis. Conclusion: Liver biopsy in the same session as endoscopy during lung cancer workup was feasible and safe. Confounding by indication was present in our study. Full article
2 pages, 173 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Advances in Respiratory Medicine in 2022
by Advances in Respiratory Medicine Editorial Office
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 9-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010002 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
8 pages, 261 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of Slow-Capillary Endobronchial Ultrasound Needle Aspiration in Determining PD-L1 Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
by Lina Zuccatosta, Federico Mei, Michele Sediari, Alessandro Di Marco Berardino, Martina Bonifazi, Francesca Barbisan, Gaia Goteri, Stefano Gasparini and Francesca Gonnelli
Adv. Respir. Med. 2023, 91(1), 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3390/arm91010001 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
Introduction: The role of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is well established. EBUS-TBNA can be performed using different aspiration techniques. The most common aspiration technique is known as “suction”. One alternative to the suction technique is the slow-pull capillary [...] Read more.
Introduction: The role of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is well established. EBUS-TBNA can be performed using different aspiration techniques. The most common aspiration technique is known as “suction”. One alternative to the suction technique is the slow-pull capillary aspiration. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have assessed the diagnostic yield of slow-pull capillary EBUS-TBNA in PD-L1 amplification assessment in NSCLC. Herein, we conducted a single-centre retrospective study to establish the diagnostic yield of slow-pull capillary EBUS-TBNA in terms of PD-L1 in patients with NSCLC and hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathies subsequent to NSCLC. Materials and Methods: Patients with hilar and/or mediastinal lymph node (LN) NSCLC metastasis, diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA between January 2021 and April 2022 at Pulmonology Unit of “Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona” (Ancona, Italy) were enrolled. We evaluated patient characteristics, including demographic information, CT scan/ FDG-PET features and final histological diagnoses, including PD-L1 assessment. Results: A total of 174 patients underwent EBUS-TBNA for diagnosis of hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathies between January 2021 and April 2022 in the Interventional Pulmonology Unit of the “Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona”. Slow-pull capillary aspiration was adopted in 60 patients (34.5%), and in 30/60 patients (50.0%) NSCLC was diagnosed. EBUS-TBNA with slow-pull capillary aspiration provided adequate sampling for molecular biology and PD-L1 testing in 96.7% of patients (29/30); in 15/29 (51.7%) samples with more than 1000 viable cells/HPF were identified, whereas in 14/29 (48.3%) samples contained 101–1000 viable cells/HPF. Conclusion: These retrospective study shows that slow-pull capillary aspiration carries an excellent diagnostic accuracy, almost equal to that one reported in literature, supporting its use in EBUS-TBNA for PD-L1 testing in NSCLC. Full article
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