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Proceedings, 2019, ICNFP 2018

The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics (ICNFP 2018)

Crete, Greece | 4–12 July 2018

Volume Editors:
Yakir Aharonov, Tel Aviv University, Israel
David Blaschke, University of Wroclaw, Poland
Larissa Bravina, University of Oslo, Norway
Sonia Kabana, University of Nantes, France
Victoria Volkova, Institute for Nuclear Research-RAS, Russia

Number of Papers: 12
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics aims to promote the scientific exchange and development of novel ideas in science, with a particular emphasis on interdisciplinarity. The [...] Read more.
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11 pages, 1259 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effective Field Theory Treatment of Monopole Production by Drell–Yan and Photon Fusion for Various Spins
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013001 - 14 May 2019
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
A resolution over the existence of magnetic charges has eluded the high energy physics community for centuries, and their search has gained momentum as recent models predict these may be observable at current colliders. They appear in field theories in two forms: the [...] Read more.
A resolution over the existence of magnetic charges has eluded the high energy physics community for centuries, and their search has gained momentum as recent models predict these may be observable at current colliders. They appear in field theories in two forms: the widely studied but heavily suppressed monopole with structure (soliton) and the not-so-well-covered point-like monopole. The latter was first proposed by Dirac as the source of a singular magnetic field and in effect symmetrises Maxwell’s equations. Following this line of research, work by S. Baines et al. analysed these sources as matter fields that carry spins 0, 1 2 , or 1, in an effective field theory that is perturbative for monopoles produced at threshold where the coupling strength g ( β ) is suppressed. All three cases are currently under investigation by the MoEDAL collaboration at CERN, and the theoretical expressions for kinematic distributions proposed in this work serve as guides to these searches. The cross section distributions in each case are derived from a U(1) invariant gauge theory. It is not assumed that, like the electron, the monopole’s magnetic moment is generated through spin interactions at minimal coupling, as it may be quite large. Instead, the analytical expressions in the spin 1 2 and 1 cases are kept completely general through the inclusion of a phenomenological parameter κ , related to the gyromagnetic ratio g R = 1 + κ . In fact, the inclusion of this parameter gives the effective theory validity in the high energy limit if the magnetic coupling scales with the particle’s velocity β = v c . Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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11 pages, 281 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Predicting Alignment in a Two Higgs Doublet Model
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013002 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
We show that a non-abelian global S U ( 2 ) R R-symmetry acting on the quartic part of the two Higgs Doublet Model leads, at tree-level, to an automatic alignment without decoupling. An example of phenomenologically viable model with this feature is [...] Read more.
We show that a non-abelian global S U ( 2 ) R R-symmetry acting on the quartic part of the two Higgs Doublet Model leads, at tree-level, to an automatic alignment without decoupling. An example of phenomenologically viable model with this feature is the the low energy effective field theory of the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Model in the limit where the adjoint scalars are decoupled. We discuss here how the S U ( 2 ) R can be identified with the R-symmetry of the N = 2 supersymmetry in the gauge and Higgs sectors. We also review how the radiative corrections lead to a very small misalignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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10 pages, 469 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Spatial and Dynamical Anisotropies on Flow and Femtoscopy Radii in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at LHC Energies
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013003 - 20 May 2019
Viewed by 1147
Abstract
We study the influence of spatial and dynamical anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions on the differential elliptic and triangular flows of charged hadrons and, simultaneously, on the second- and third-order oscillations of the femtoscopic radii. Calculations of Pb + Pb collisions at [...] Read more.
We study the influence of spatial and dynamical anisotropies in relativistic heavy-ion collisions on the differential elliptic and triangular flows of charged hadrons and, simultaneously, on the second- and third-order oscillations of the femtoscopic radii. Calculations of Pb + Pb collisions at s = 2.76 TeV were done within the HYDrodynamics with JETs (HYDJET++) event generator, which allows one to investigate the role of each of the anisotropy kinds separately. It is found that the bare geometric anisotropy provides either the wrong sign of elliptic and triangular flows or out-of-phase oscillations of R2out and R2side, respectively. Dynamical anisotropy is able to describe qualitatively both characteristics correctly. For the correct quantitative description of the data, one has to employ both spatial and dynamical anisotropies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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11 pages, 559 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Production of Magnetic Monopoles via Photon Fusion: Implementation in MadGraph
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013004 - 29 May 2019
Viewed by 1257
Abstract
If the Dirac magnetic monopoles exist, they can be probed in the collider experiments. Earlier, only the Drell–Yan production mechanism of magnetic monopoles was used to look for magnetic monopoles. However, the photon fusion production mechanism of magnetic monopoles is the dominant production [...] Read more.
If the Dirac magnetic monopoles exist, they can be probed in the collider experiments. Earlier, only the Drell–Yan production mechanism of magnetic monopoles was used to look for magnetic monopoles. However, the photon fusion production mechanism of magnetic monopoles is the dominant production mechanism at the LHC energy. I will discuss the photon fusion production of spin 0, 1/2, and 1 monopoles using the MadGraph event generator. I will also show the kinematic distributions of magnetic monopoles having those three spins. The comparison between the Drell–Yan process and the photon fusion process will also be done. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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9 pages, 313 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Quark Number Susceptibilities and Equation of State in QCD at Finite μB
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013005 - 03 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
One of the main goals of the cold baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is to explore the phases of strongly interacting matter at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential μ B . The equation of state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at [...] Read more.
One of the main goals of the cold baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is to explore the phases of strongly interacting matter at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential μ B . The equation of state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at μ B > 0 is an essential input for the CBM experiment, as well as for the beam energy scan in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider(RHIC) experiment. Unfortunately, it is highly nontrivial to calculate the equation of state directly from QCD: numerical Monte Carlo studies on lattice are not useful at finite μ B . Using the method of Taylor expansion in chemical potential, we estimate the equation of state, namely the baryon number density and its contribution to the pressure, for two-flavor QCD at moderate μ B . We also study the quark number susceptibilities. We examine the technicalities associated with summing the Taylor series, and explore a Pade resummation. An examination of the Taylor series can be used to get an estimate of the location of the critical point in μ B , T plane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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14 pages, 5670 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
ALICE Highlights
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013006 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 975
Abstract
Deconfined strongly interacting QCD matter is produced in the laboratory at the highest energy densities in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. A selection of recent results from ALICE is presented, spanning observables from the soft sector (bulk particle production and correlations), the hard [...] Read more.
Deconfined strongly interacting QCD matter is produced in the laboratory at the highest energy densities in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. A selection of recent results from ALICE is presented, spanning observables from the soft sector (bulk particle production and correlations), the hard probes (charmed hadrons and jets) and signatures of possible collective effects in pp and p–Pb collisions with high multiplicity. Finally, the perspectives after the detectors upgrades, taking place in the period 2019–2020, are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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8 pages, 1066 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Parity Doubling in QCD Thermodynamics
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013007 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Motivated by the recent lattice study by FASTSUM collaboration, effective masses of the baryon parity-doublers are shown for various pion masses. A general trend of the nucleon and delta parity-doublers is consistent with the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) observation, whereas the hyperon masses [...] Read more.
Motivated by the recent lattice study by FASTSUM collaboration, effective masses of the baryon parity-doublers are shown for various pion masses. A general trend of the nucleon and delta parity-doublers is consistent with the lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) observation, whereas the hyperon masses exhibit a qualitatively different behavior, traced back to the lattice set-up with the heavy pion comparable to the kaon. As an application to hot QCD, we demonstrate the fluctuations and correlations involving baryon number in hot hadronic matter with modified masses of negative-parity baryons, in the context of the hadron resonance gas. Confronting the baryon number susceptibility, baryon–charge and baryon–strangeness correlations as well as their ratios with the lattice QCD data for the physical pion mass, we find that the strong downward mass shift in the hyperons can accidentally reproduce some correlation ratios, however it also tends to overshoot the individual fluctuations and correlations of lattice simulations. Another application of nucleon parity doubling is the physics of neutron stars. Under beta equilibrium and charge neutrality, hadronic matter with unbroken chiral symmetry can be favored in the core of the neutron stars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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8 pages, 313 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Different Angle on Quantum Uncertainty (Measure Angle)
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013008 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
The uncertainty associated with probing the quantum state is expressed as the effective abundance (measure) of possibilities for its collapse. New kinds of uncertainty limits entailed by the quantum description of the physical system arise in this manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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11 pages, 5698 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Characterization System for the Monitoring of ELI-NP Gamma Beam
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013009 - 08 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics) facility, currently under construction near Bucharest (Romania), is the pillar of the project ELI dedicated to the generation of high-brilliance gamma beams and high-power laser pulses that will be used for frontier research in nuclear physics. To [...] Read more.
The ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics) facility, currently under construction near Bucharest (Romania), is the pillar of the project ELI dedicated to the generation of high-brilliance gamma beams and high-power laser pulses that will be used for frontier research in nuclear physics. To develop an experimental program at the frontiers of the present-day knowledge, two pieces of equipment will be deployed at ELI-NP: a high power laser system consisting of two 10 PW lasers and a high brilliance gamma beam system. The ELI-NP Gamma beam system will deliver an intense gamma beam with unprecedented specifications in terms of photon flux, brilliance and energy bandwidth in an energy range from 0.2 to 20 MeV. Such a gamma beam requires special devices and techniques to measure and monitor the beam parameters during the commissioning and the operational phase. To accomplish this task, the Gamma Beam Characterization System, equipped with four elements, was developed: a Compton spectrometer (CSPEC), to measure and monitor the photon energy spectrum; a nuclear resonant scattering system (NRSS), for absolute beam energy calibration and inter-calibration of the other detectors; a beam profile imager (GPI) to be used for alignment and diagnostics purposes; and finally a sampling calorimeter (GCAL), for a fast combined measurement of the beam average energy and intensity. The combination of the measurements performed by GCAL and CSPEC allows fully characterizing the gamma beam energy distribution and intensity with a precision at the level of few per mill, enough to demonstrate the fulfillment of the required parameters. This article presents an overview of the gamma beam characterization system with focus on these two detectors, which were designed, assembled and are currently under test at INFN-Firenze. The layout and the working principle of the four devices is described, as well as some of the main results of detector tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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12 pages, 445 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Searches for Magnetic Monopoles: A Review
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013010 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
This report briefly reviews selected searches for magnetic monopoles. The theoretical motivation behind their existence is highlighted. The focus is on the results of the searches and the bounds set in cosmic and collider detectors, especially in the current experiments operating at the [...] Read more.
This report briefly reviews selected searches for magnetic monopoles. The theoretical motivation behind their existence is highlighted. The focus is on the results of the searches and the bounds set in cosmic and collider detectors, especially in the current experiments operating at the Large Hadron Collider: ATLAS and MoEDAL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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9 pages, 374 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Supermassive Black Holes and Dark Halo from the Bose-Condensed Dark Matter
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013011 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 723
Abstract
Most of the galaxies harbor supermassive Black Holes (SMBH) in their center. Some of them are observed in very high redshifts. We explore the possibility that SMBH form from the coherent waves of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which are supposed to form the dark [...] Read more.
Most of the galaxies harbor supermassive Black Holes (SMBH) in their center. Some of them are observed in very high redshifts. We explore the possibility that SMBH form from the coherent waves of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which are supposed to form the dark matter. We first study the isotropic and anisotropic collapses of BEC. We find the BEC wave can easily collapse to form SMBH but the realistic amount of angular momentum completely prevents the collapse. We further explore the Axion case with attractive interaction and find the moderate mass ratio between the SMBH and the dark halo around it. We also obtain the mass distribution function of BH within a single galaxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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9 pages, 666 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
n + 7Be Cross-Sections of Astrophysical Interest at the CERN n_TOF Facility
Proceedings 2019, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2019013012 - 31 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
One of the possible explanations of the so-called Cosmological Lithium Problem (CLIP), i.e., the large overestimate of the primordial 7 Li abundance by the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis theory (BBN), is related to an incorrect underestimation of the 7 Be destruction rate by [...] Read more.
One of the possible explanations of the so-called Cosmological Lithium Problem (CLIP), i.e., the large overestimate of the primordial 7 Li abundance by the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis theory (BBN), is related to an incorrect underestimation of the 7 Be destruction rate by neutron-induced reactions. To verify this possibility, the n + 7 Be reactions have been investigated at n_TOF (CERN) in a wide neutron energy range, taking advantage of the new high-flux experimental area (EAR2) and specifically developed experimental setups. The 7 Be(n, α ) 4 He cross section, measured for the first time from thermal to 10 keV neutron energy, was found consistent with previous estimates. A 10% increase of the 7 Be destruction rate was instead determined on the basis of the 7 Be(n, p) 7 Li cross section measured at n_TOF from thermal to 300 keV neutron energy, a value clearly insufficient to provide a solution to the Cosmological Lithium Problem. Combined together, the two measurements finally rule out neutron-induced reactions on 7 Be as a possible explanation of the CLIP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 7th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics)
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