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1639 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Detection and Velocimetry of Floating Wood for Flood Disaster Risk Management Using Electromagnetic Imaging
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14264 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Wood travelling in rivers is a major hazard to lives and infrastructures, because tons of wood material can travel nearing the speed of the flood flow. If post-event mapping, detection and numerical simulation have made important progress, detecting in-flow driftwood in all weather [...] Read more.
Wood travelling in rivers is a major hazard to lives and infrastructures, because tons of wood material can travel nearing the speed of the flood flow. If post-event mapping, detection and numerical simulation have made important progress, detecting in-flow driftwood in all weather and at all times still presents several challenges. The present work aims to expand the capacity to detect in-flow wood by adapting the ground-penetrating radar electromagnetic method. The laboratory test was carried out over a water circulation flume using an 800 MHz nominal frequency antenna sampling at 100 Hz and a video camera set on top of the flume to measure the average velocity of the wood logs. A set of single wood logs of 20 cm in length travelled underneath the antenna. The GPR results have demonstrated that the method had the potential to detect moving wood, and that it could “see” underneath the water to the shallow flume floor. The experiments resulted in the ability to count wood travelling underneath the antenna, and the instantaneous velocity was obtained with velocities ranging from 0.307 to 0.352 m/s, which was slightly higher than the average velocity measured from video imaging. This difference is explained by the in-flow acceleration of the wood after its introduction into the flume. Full article
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1813 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Salt Units of the Kribi-Campo Sub-Basin Revisited, Using Offshore 2D Seismic and Boreholes Data: Depositional Context and Petroleum Implications
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14295 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 539
Abstract
This work re-examines the salt unit through the Kribi-Campo sub-basin on the southeast part of the Cameroon Atlantic Margin. The results obtained from borehole data analysis show the occurrence of an evaporitic unit, localized in the Kribi area. The well to seismic-tie analysis [...] Read more.
This work re-examines the salt unit through the Kribi-Campo sub-basin on the southeast part of the Cameroon Atlantic Margin. The results obtained from borehole data analysis show the occurrence of an evaporitic unit, localized in the Kribi area. The well to seismic-tie analysis reveals that this unit is observed beneath the Top Albian Unconformity and between the Flooding and Maximum Flooding Surfaces. Two characteristics of the salt dome and salt strips are described. Their depositional context seems to be related to a significant sea-level drop induced by a margin uplift during the Aptian. Concerning the petroleum implications, the target units constitute the good potential of stratigraphic traps in the study area, due to the observation of flatspot indicators. Full article
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4 pages, 450 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Review of the Prediction Methods for Landslide Runout
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14604 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Shallow landslides, which are generally triggered by extreme precipitation events, are increasingly becoming common in the world. Societies have had difficulty in keeping up with the exponentially rising rate of shallow landslides in recent years. Despite the considerable progress made in engineering studies, [...] Read more.
Shallow landslides, which are generally triggered by extreme precipitation events, are increasingly becoming common in the world. Societies have had difficulty in keeping up with the exponentially rising rate of shallow landslides in recent years. Despite the considerable progress made in engineering studies, shallow landslides continue to cause considerable damage in different areas of the planet. Therefore, runout analyses are becoming more and more popular ways of building resilience to the negative effects of shallow landslides. Runout analyses are such crucial parts of shallow landslide studies that researchers have been keen to contribute to the existing knowledge on the subject. Earlier research suggested that runout analyses can be studied with empirical–statistical and numerical methods. Although there exist numerous landslide runout studies related to empirical–statistical and numerical solutions, we had not encountered a comparison of empirical–statistical and numerical methods’ advantages and disadvantages in the literature. This research presents an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of the runout analysis methods. Full article
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1082 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Turtle Origins: Chinlechelys tenertesta and Convergence in Modern Cladistic Analysis
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14068 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 669
Abstract
The phylogenetic relationships of turtles (Testudines) challenge cladistics by demonstrating the inherent weaknesses of this non-Darwinian method of phylogenic reconstruction. Recent cladistic analyses have identified sauropterygians as the closest relatives of turtles and even at least one sauropterygian, Pappochelys, as a turtle. [...] Read more.
The phylogenetic relationships of turtles (Testudines) challenge cladistics by demonstrating the inherent weaknesses of this non-Darwinian method of phylogenic reconstruction. Recent cladistic analyses have identified sauropterygians as the closest relatives of turtles and even at least one sauropterygian, Pappochelys, as a turtle. These findings are largely based on the convergence of several characteristics associated with environmental adaptation, including the relative lengths of phalanges, dense gastralia placement (assumed proto-plastron), and a well-defined intertrochanteric fossa. A lack of failure testing to identify such convergence is important in the analysis of unusual taxa because it can force a taxon into the in-group as a methodological artifact, as with the cladistic placement of Eunotosaurus within Testudines. Eunotosaurus was not placed in a wider vertebrate phylogeny, which led to its identification as a basal member of Caseidae. The characteristics shared by caseids and Testudines, including their relative head-to-body size, posterior jaw articulation, and reduced number of dorsal ribs and vertebrae, contributed to this mistake. Late Triassic Chinlechelys provides a useful window into these varied cladistic problems due to anatomical convergence. It demonstrates an intermediate step between a carapace with neighboring ribs and a carapace fused with ribs. This earlier state lacked the organizing role of the ribs in the carapace and had multiple rows of costals (dorsal osteoderms) arranged at an angle to the ribs, which is a condition only known in some pareiasaurs. This fits with an evo-devo model of gradual change creating a new structure (a carapace), which was followed by adaptive radiation filling the new niches opened by that structure. Full article
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1455 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Petrophysical Characteristics of Hydrothermally Altered Volcaniclastic-Rich Sedimentary Sequence on the Naturaliste Plateau, Offshore Southwestern Australia (IODP Site U1513)
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13955 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Drilling at Site U1513 recovered the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic-rich sedimentary sequence on the Naturaliste Plateau and Mentelle Basin, offshore southwestern Australia. The sequence exhibits distinct lithologic characteristics, which are attributed to volcanism and subsidence that occurred during the breakup between Greater India and [...] Read more.
Drilling at Site U1513 recovered the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic-rich sedimentary sequence on the Naturaliste Plateau and Mentelle Basin, offshore southwestern Australia. The sequence exhibits distinct lithologic characteristics, which are attributed to volcanism and subsidence that occurred during the breakup between Greater India and Australia–Antarctica. It consists of sandstones, siltstones, and silty claystones with abundant volcanic clasts, lithics, and hydrothermal alteration. This study characterizes petrophysical properties of the sequence and correlate them with lithologic and mineralogical features. The properties show noticeable variations. Our results confirm that the petrophysical characteristics are associated with grain size, volcanic matter, organic content, as well as hydrothermal alteration minerals. Full article
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4014 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Documentation of Landslide Occurrence and Significance in Mbonjo, Limbe Town, South-West Cameroon
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14267 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Recent landslides in Mbonjo, located between 3°55″–4°13″ N and 9°12″–9°23″ E in the coastal town of Limbe, were mapped using an unmanned aerial vehicle, field mapping and remote sensing techniques, and documented in this paper. This town is susceptible to natural hazards and [...] Read more.
Recent landslides in Mbonjo, located between 3°55″–4°13″ N and 9°12″–9°23″ E in the coastal town of Limbe, were mapped using an unmanned aerial vehicle, field mapping and remote sensing techniques, and documented in this paper. This town is susceptible to natural hazards and in July 2018 and 2020, a swarm of landslides occurred in Mbonjo towards the outskirts of Limbe, killing five people and injuring ten others, obstructing the road and destroying important properties. These landslides were studied for a better understanding of the occurrence of such natural phenomena and for human threat diminution. From the field studies, the slides were small to medium scale, characterized by low slope gradients (15–25°), and short depletion zones (20–25 m) and length (~31.1 m). These slides covered an area of 603.5–2000.75 m2 and the volume of ground debris was bracketed as between 626.81 and 8757.60 m3. Slope steepness and human activities such as excavation of the slopes were the main conditioning factors, whereas intense rainfall was the main trigger of Mbonjo landslides. It is urgent to take concrete measures to tackle this serious threat to human life in the study area. Full article
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1338 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Forecasting Tsunami Hazards Using Ocean Bottom Sensor Data and Classification Predictive Modeling
by
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14266 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 458
Abstract
This study compares the results of analyzing tsunami simulations that are based on two approaches of characterizing earthquake slips, i.e., uniform (simplistic) and heterogeneous (complex) distributions. The aim of this study is to compare how heterogeneous and uniform distributed data affect the classification [...] Read more.
This study compares the results of analyzing tsunami simulations that are based on two approaches of characterizing earthquake slips, i.e., uniform (simplistic) and heterogeneous (complex) distributions. The aim of this study is to compare how heterogeneous and uniform distributed data affect the classification of maximum near-shore tsunami amplitudes. Due to the lack of historical earthquake and tsunami data to train the forecasting model, 4000 stochastic tsunami simulations are employed. The focused location is Iwanuma, Japan, where an ocean bottom sensors (OBS) S-net network has been deployed. Multiple linear regression combined with the Akaike information criterion (AIC) is applied to the simulated off-shore wave amplitude data to fit the model. The estimated tsunami amplitude is classified into four levels of warning classes. The performance of the models is quantified by the accuracy of the confusion matrices and is compared with the base model, which only uses earthquake information. The forecasting accuracy can be improved by 30% when the wave amplitude data are used as additional information. The heterogeneous slip-based model reaches a higher accuracy than the uniform-slip based model. The results of this study are particularly valuable for setting up an OBS-based system for monitoring the physical phenomena of tsunamis, and choosing heterogeneous as a preferable slip distribution when tsunami events are simulated. Full article
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41290 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Giant Slide within the Upper Cretaceous Limestones as an Indicator for Fault Activity Dating and Basin Evolution
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13957 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The studied section, up to 10 m thick with 17 different carbonate beds, showed the interaction between a giant slide and the pre-existing normal faults during the upper Cretaceous time. There are three major points of consideration in the studied section: (1). The [...] Read more.
The studied section, up to 10 m thick with 17 different carbonate beds, showed the interaction between a giant slide and the pre-existing normal faults during the upper Cretaceous time. There are three major points of consideration in the studied section: (1). The presence of two slump horizons, up to 1 m thick each, within the stratigraphic column, related to the basin floor instability, due to normal listric faults activity. (2). The presence of many normal, with listric geometry, faults, with an ESE–WNW direction, and mostly west-dipping. These faults acted during the sedimentation processes and produced the basin floor inclination for the slumping when still the sediments were unconsolidated. This tectonic activity seems to terminate in the upper part of the stratigraphic column. (3). After the development of the slumps and the normal faults’ activity, which produced a displacement of up to 30 cm, a new event was characterized in the region. The completely studied block probably rotated to the west and thus the instability of the sediments produced a giant slide, up to 7 m thick and with movement up to 0.9 m, cutting the pre-existing normal faults. The knowledge of the regional evolution, with extensional tectonics during the Jurassic to early Miocene periods, which was inverted to a compressional regime during the middle Miocene, as well as the presence of a major normal fault along the studied section with an NNW–SSE direction, suggested that the studied section was situated on the hanging wall of the above fault during the extensional regime. Full article
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2609 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Influence of Antarctic Sea Ice Distribution on the Southern Ocean Overturning Circulation for the Past 20,000 Years
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14145 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Changes in Southern Ocean physics are dynamically linked to westerly winds, ocean currents, and the distribution of Antarctic sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere. As a result, it is critical to comprehend the response of Southern Ocean physics to the distribution of Antarctic [...] Read more.
Changes in Southern Ocean physics are dynamically linked to westerly winds, ocean currents, and the distribution of Antarctic sea ice in the Southern Hemisphere. As a result, it is critical to comprehend the response of Southern Ocean physics to the distribution of Antarctic sea ice on a basin scale. This modeling study employs a fully coupled Earth system model to investigate the effect of Antarctic Sea ice distribution on Southern Ocean dynamics during the past 20,000 years. The findings show that the formation and melting of sea ice have an effect on the distribution of surface buoyancy flux over the Southern Ocean. The simulated sea ice edge (grid points in the ice model have a sea ice concentration above 5%) in the Southern Ocean almost demarcates the borderline between the lower and upper meridional overturning cells. The seemingly permanent Antarctic sea ice edge (grid points in the ice model with a sea ice concentration greater than 80%) coincides with the shift of buoyancy flux from positive (buoyancy gain) to negative (buoyancy loss). Furthermore, the negative surface buoyancy flux zone has shifted polewards for the past 20,000 years, with the exception of approximately 14.1 thousand years. Our findings show that Antarctic sea ice feedback affects the surface buoyancy flux, affecting the overturning circulation in the Southern Ocean. Full article
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4285 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Seismo-Stratigraphic Analysis of the Relict Deposits of the Cilento Continental Shelf (Southern Italy)
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14296 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The relict (palimpsest and lowstand) deposits of the Cilento continental shelf were analyzed based on the geological interpretation of Sub-Bottom Chirp sections, calibrated with core data. A progradational unit, which is overlying the acoustic basement, is interpreted as the beach deposits of the [...] Read more.
The relict (palimpsest and lowstand) deposits of the Cilento continental shelf were analyzed based on the geological interpretation of Sub-Bottom Chirp sections, calibrated with core data. A progradational unit, which is overlying the acoustic basement, is interpreted as the beach deposits of the isotopic stages 4 and 5. This unit is overlain by a seismo-stratigraphic unit, which is composed of coarse-grained organogenic sands and interpreted as relict sands. This unit consists of sandy ridges, occurring at water depths ranging between 130 and 140 m, and was interpreted as an example of submerged beach deposits, genetically related to the marine isotopic stage 2 (Last Glacial Maximum; starting date 29 ky B.P.). Full article
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2132 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Machine Learning Model Relating Xrain and Rain Gauge
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13828 - 08 Dec 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
In the last decade, rainfall radars have been deployed at volcanoes such as Mt. Merapi in Indonesia and can even cover a whole country such as in Japan, where the X-Rain (eXtended Radar Information network) product has been available for local research. However, [...] Read more.
In the last decade, rainfall radars have been deployed at volcanoes such as Mt. Merapi in Indonesia and can even cover a whole country such as in Japan, where the X-Rain (eXtended Radar Information network) product has been available for local research. However, the linkage between rain gauge data and spatial radar data (over a 250 m × 250 m grid) still presents discrepancies, and these challenges are particularly acute in regions of high local-topographic variations such as at Mount Unzen in Japan. As the volcano is located in the Shimabara peninsula, it is surrounded by the sea, with a topography locally rising to 1483 m. To improve the forecast and to better understand the triggering mechanisms of lahars (volcanic debris-flows) at Mount Unzen, quantifying the spatial distribution of rainfalls is essential, and first, it is important to understand how data taken locally by rain gages relate to spatial radar data. Because empirical models have not been able to show any clear correlation, the present contribution has been developing a neural network with two hidden layers that takes into account the rainfall per hour, the temperature and the wind speed and direction. The model takes a logistic activation function, and the loss function is optimized using the Mean Squared Errors and the Mean Absolute Error. The choice of the activation function and the optimizer is the result of running several combinations of optimization functions with different activation functions. Once the best fit was chosen, the sigmoid with a SGD (Stochastic Gradient Descent) optimizer was chosen, and when training the model for 120 cycles, Shimabara station and the Xrain data showed an error of <4 mm rainfall, while at the Unzen summit, even after 300 cycles, the validation error remained at 8 mm while the training loss was <4 mm. This shows that location specific functions might be necessary for each location, not only taking into account the weather data but also the local topographic variability and the topographic position on slopes. Full article
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7299 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Inventory and Enhancement of Geological Heritage in the Ouzoud Syncline (M’Goun UNESCO Geopark, Central High Atlas, Morocco): First Step for Promoting Geotourism and Sustainable Development
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13878 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
The Ouzoud syncline, in central Morocco, is one of the kingdom’s wealthiest areas of natural and cultural heritage. This syncline has significant potential for geotourism development; it contains the Ouzoud waterfalls, one of the most coveted tourist attractions, which are part of the [...] Read more.
The Ouzoud syncline, in central Morocco, is one of the kingdom’s wealthiest areas of natural and cultural heritage. This syncline has significant potential for geotourism development; it contains the Ouzoud waterfalls, one of the most coveted tourist attractions, which are part of the geosites listed in the M’Goun UNESCO geopark. The abundance of resurgences, waterfalls, travertine, caves, magmatic rocks, exceptional geomorphological forms, and fascinating panoramic views make this territory a suitable tourist destination for excursions, hiking, and climbing, and a good support for understanding the geological history of the central High Atlas (CHA) of Morocco and paleoclimate changes. The dense and diversified vegetation cover offers a habitat for various animals (magot monkeys, bats, birds), which attracts more nature-loving tourists. This exceptional geo-biodiversity and cultural wealth (traditional mills and the Zaouïa of Tanaghmelt) that may constitute a lever for local socio-economic development remains unknown to the public and not well exploited by managers. Hence, this study attempted to assess and make an inventory of interest sites to provide a database that helps decision-makers in territorial planning and geoheritage conservation and promotion. Thus, about 20 highly attractive geosites were inventoried, eight of which (the most important ones) were selected for evaluation using the Reynard et al. (2016) methodology. This approach considers the scientific value, the additional values, and the use and management values of sites. Such promotion can popularize the geosciences and create income-generating activities, which will improve the economic situation of the local population Full article
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195 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Four Principal Megabiases in the Known Fossil Record: Taphonomy, Rock Preservation, Fossil Discovery and Fossil Study
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13956 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The Known Fossil Record represents museum collections and the published literature, and it is subject to multiple large-scale megabiases grouped into four major categories: (1) taphonomy; (2) rock preservation; (3) fossil discovery; and (4) fossil study. Taphonomic megabiases are largescale patterns in the [...] Read more.
The Known Fossil Record represents museum collections and the published literature, and it is subject to multiple large-scale megabiases grouped into four major categories: (1) taphonomy; (2) rock preservation; (3) fossil discovery; and (4) fossil study. Taphonomic megabiases are largescale patterns in the quality of the fossil record that affect paleobiologic analysis at provincial to global levels and at timescales usually exceeding ten million years. Taphonomic megabiases are intrinsic (form and behavior) and extrinsic (biotic and abiotic controls on preservation). Other megabiases are the preservation and exposure of rock strata, kyreonomy (discovery) and concipionomy (study). Kyreonomy megabiases include location of fossil sites, mineral evaluation, mineral extraction and colonialism. Concipionomy megabiases include the Taxophile Effect, language and development and distribution of technology. Full article
3524 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Sentinel-1 Polarization Comparison for Flood Segmentation Using Deep Learning
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14069 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 648
Abstract
Flood is one of the most damaging natural hazards, and timely detection of it is very important to save human lives and assess the level of damage. The occurrence of floods in cloudy weather conditions makes the use of radar-based sensors for real-time [...] Read more.
Flood is one of the most damaging natural hazards, and timely detection of it is very important to save human lives and assess the level of damage. The occurrence of floods in cloudy weather conditions makes the use of radar-based sensors for real-time flood mapping inevitable. In the present study, the ETCI 2021 flood event detection competition dataset, organized by the NASA Advanced Concepts and Implementation Team in collaboration with the IEEE GRSS Geoscience Informatics Technical Committee, has been used. Moreover, we have utilized the U-Net and X-Net architecture as a segmentation model to map flooded regions. This study aimed to identify the optimum polarization of the Sentinel-1 satellite for flood detection. By examining and comparing the obtained results, it was observed that the VV polarization offered better results in both models. Furthermore, U-Net had a better performance than X-Net in both polarizations. Full article
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16947 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geodiversity Elements of a Young Fissure System as an Immediate Precursory Event of the Youngest Fissure-Fed Eruption within the Arxan UNESCO Global Geopark, Inner Mongolia, NE China
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13807 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The Arxan–Chaihe volcanic field (ACVF) is a Pliocene to recent intracontinental monogenetic volcanic field. Within the ACVF, at least 47 vents are preserved in a ~2000 km2 area, forming two major NE-SW trending structural elements. The youngest eruptions took place about 2000 [...] Read more.
The Arxan–Chaihe volcanic field (ACVF) is a Pliocene to recent intracontinental monogenetic volcanic field. Within the ACVF, at least 47 vents are preserved in a ~2000 km2 area, forming two major NE-SW trending structural elements. The youngest eruptions took place about 2000 B.P., forming two distinct complex scoriaceous and lava spatter cone systems emitting low-viscosity lava that invaded the paleo-Halaha River tributary, forming pahoehoe flow fields. This lava field forms the backbone of the geoheritage values of the Arxan UNESCO Global Geopark. The lava flow fields were believed to be almost exclusively sourced from a single vent complex around the Yanshan–Gaoshan region. However, a recent study revealed that the flow field is a result of complex eruptions with an early phase from the nearby Dahei Gou vent complex. Here, we provide evidence, based on Sentinel satellite imagery, ALOS-PALSAR-derived digital terrain model analysis, and direct field observations, that an even earlier fissure-fed eruption created another complex. This can be seen as a smaller lava flow field on the western side of the main flow field. The Dichi Lake is an iconic geosite of the geopark. It is a maar crater formed by a single explosion through an earlier lava field that erupted from a network of fissures ~2.5 km long following an NE-SW trend. The Dichi Lake geosite provides an ideal example demonstrating the effect of fissures opening in water-saturated lowlands resulting in phreatomagmatic eruptions. Moreover, our findings suggest that the youngest eruption in this region had at least three phases, probably not more than a few decades apart, along a 15 km long fissure network propagated from the SW to NE. We propose Dichi Lake as the centre of a geoheritage precinct, providing a hub of knowledge dissemination, highlighting fissure eruptions as a key type of volcanic hazard to be taken seriously in the management of the geopark. Full article
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1183 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Geosite of Travertine Waterfall of El Ksiba (Morocco): A Heritage to Enhance and Preserve
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13865 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 387
Abstract
The travertines of El Ksiba form cliffs with an extension of about 8 km and a variable height that can reach about thirty meters. They are developed on lacustrine limestones and conglomerates of early Quaternary age. The results reveal the high scientific (≅0.88) [...] Read more.
The travertines of El Ksiba form cliffs with an extension of about 8 km and a variable height that can reach about thirty meters. They are developed on lacustrine limestones and conglomerates of early Quaternary age. The results reveal the high scientific (≅0.88) and aesthetic (≅0.88) values related to the strong representativeness of the regional geological phenomena. The assessment also shows the high economic (≅0.75) and cultural value (≅0.81). In this work, we presented the strategies of valorization and protection of this heritage in the framework of rural socio-economic development through activities related to geo-tourism and geo-education. Full article
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1848 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geology in the Spanish Education System: The Incredible Shrinking Curriculum
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14140 - 09 Mar 2023
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The Spanish education system is undergoing a profound transformation due to the implementation of a new education law. In this work, we will make a comparison between the old and new educational laws about content related to Geology in primary education. Moreover, the [...] Read more.
The Spanish education system is undergoing a profound transformation due to the implementation of a new education law. In this work, we will make a comparison between the old and new educational laws about content related to Geology in primary education. Moreover, the Spanish curriculum will be compared to the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS), since this is the reference curriculum used by the largest American research institutions (NASA, USGS, NPS, Universities, ...). This study will analyze the specific curriculum that will be implemented in the Canary Islands (Spain). In this sense, we will pay special attention to the treatment of the volcanic phenomenon and the use of Canarian geological resources. The Geology of the 21st century is characterized by its interdisciplinarity, where subjects such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, ethics or engineering play a fundamental role. Is this taken into account in new education laws? Finally, we will offer a series of didactical tips to give students and teachers of primary education a broader, more engaging and motivating vision of geology that awakens their curiosity around Earth sciences. Full article
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4750 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Micromorphs: Response of the Ammonite Fauna during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the Es-Saffeh Mountains (Tiaret, Western Algeria)
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13808 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
The paleontological analysis of the fauna of ammonites collected in the marl–limestone series of the Pliensbachian and The Toarcian of the Es-Saffeh Mountains (Tiaret, western Algeria) brings new data to the Oceanic Anoxic Event of the lower Toarcian (T-OAE). During this time interval, [...] Read more.
The paleontological analysis of the fauna of ammonites collected in the marl–limestone series of the Pliensbachian and The Toarcian of the Es-Saffeh Mountains (Tiaret, western Algeria) brings new data to the Oceanic Anoxic Event of the lower Toarcian (T-OAE). During this time interval, hypoxia is characterized by a significant disturbance of the global carbon cycle marked by a negative excursion of the isotope δ13C, δ18O and an increase in organic carbon content (TOC). Benthic life almost completely disappears, and microfauna (foraminifera) is absent. It should, however, be pointed out that the few specimens of a small size (swarf forms) collected in the marly levels and the well-identified specimens (ammonites) were attributed to the microshell forms. Full article
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3244 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimating Source Apportionment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Surface Soil Based on a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) Model around Cerrito Blanco in San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13746 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soils has caused global concern. Quantitative apportionment of heavy metal sources in the surface soil is a complex task. This study indicated a receptor model to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations of various sources for the [...] Read more.
In recent decades, heavy metal contamination in soils has caused global concern. Quantitative apportionment of heavy metal sources in the surface soil is a complex task. This study indicated a receptor model to evaluate the heavy metal concentrations of various sources for the soil and the related contamination impacts. In this study, the surface soil at the Cerrito Blanco in San Luis Potosi, Mexico was chosen as the case study location to reveal the potential pollution sources of heavy metals. The research suggested the combined use of the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model for the quantitative assessment of contamination sources as well as the spatial distribution techniques for the estimation of the pollution sources. This approach forms the basis for later soil contamination control and treatment. Throughout the study region, a total of thirty-nine samples of surface soil were collected. However, the mean concentration levels of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in the soils were lower than the permissible standards. It was observed that As and Cd were higher than their permissible standard values by around 5.43 and 1.19 times, respectively. The PMF findings demonstrate that the three main diverse sources of heavy metals in this study area’s soils were natural, past mining activities, and industrialisation, as well as groundwater. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface soils were considerably influenced by natural sources, which were generally the main contributing factor. The spatial distribution of soil contamination for heavy metals was also mapped using the geographic information system (GIS) technique. Full article
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1332 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Valuing Geodiversity in Patagonia Verde: A Fundamental Pillar for Developing a Future Geopark
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13750 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 405
Abstract
A total of 91 geological sites of scientific, touristic, and educational interest were inventoried, following a survey under the project “Development of geotourism products in the tourist destination Patagonia Verde”. This project was developed between 2017 and 2019 to promote the values of [...] Read more.
A total of 91 geological sites of scientific, touristic, and educational interest were inventoried, following a survey under the project “Development of geotourism products in the tourist destination Patagonia Verde”. This project was developed between 2017 and 2019 to promote the values of geodiversity of the Patagonia Verde (southern Chile) territory and its sustainable use in tourism. A quantitative assessment of the sites supported the identification of management categories and the proposal of different action plans for the sustainable management of the identified geoheritage resources. Most of the sites can be used in education and geotourism initiatives and support establishing and consolidating the Patagonia Verde Geopark project. Full article
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5431 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Coastal Retreat and Slope Movements on Rocky Coastal Cliffs: A Distributed Natural Hazard in the Safi Region, Morocco
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13962 - 12 Jan 2023
Viewed by 386
Abstract
The coastal area of Safi between Cap Beddouza and Jorf Lihoudi is dominated by different forms of marine cliffs forming the coastline, with rock formations ranging from Jurassic to Quaternary. The main coastal geological risk is the instabilities of these cliffs due to [...] Read more.
The coastal area of Safi between Cap Beddouza and Jorf Lihoudi is dominated by different forms of marine cliffs forming the coastline, with rock formations ranging from Jurassic to Quaternary. The main coastal geological risk is the instabilities of these cliffs due to the falls and collapses of the blocks, as well as landslides. The aim of this paper is to give detailed information on the rate of the cliff summit recession for the last 66 years, obtained by applying the DSAS model, in parallel with the identification of unstable elements, including their different parameters such as size, abundance, activity in time and their effect on the recession of the cliff top, which is fundamental information for the evolution the models of sea cliffs. These phenomena constitute a significant economical, social, and environmental risk. Full article
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1893 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geosites as Educational Key-Elements for Sustainability: The UNESCO Global Geoparks Model
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13749 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 357
Abstract
Geosites, meaning the places of geological interest, have gained notoriety nowadays, positioning themselves as one of the most important resources in educational strategies for earth and environmental sciences. The possibility of observing the results of the different geological processes, morphologies, or minerals in [...] Read more.
Geosites, meaning the places of geological interest, have gained notoriety nowadays, positioning themselves as one of the most important resources in educational strategies for earth and environmental sciences. The possibility of observing the results of the different geological processes, morphologies, or minerals in situ helps us to understand how our planet works and how we, as a society, have taken advantage of its elements to progress in all areas of daily life. Their particularity and, above all, its variability, make them unique places that range from outcrops to mining complexes or spectacular viewpoints, where we can learn about the message that the landscape conveys. For this reason, geosites are an outstanding opportunity to not only learn about geosciences, but also about their history, traditions, and everything related to the territory in which they are located. The UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) are an international example of how to craft a sustainable development strategy focused on the educational potential of geosites. Complementing them with interpretation centers, information panels, QR codes, and specialized guides, these territories have come to be considered as benchmarks within the so-called sustainable tourism, transforming the land into authentic open-air educational museums. Following a personal style and defending the appellation of origin, the UGGps create an exceptional model based on educational foundations that aims to bring the territory closer to the greatest number of people possible. Full article
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1865 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Hazard Assessment of Typhoon on the Southeast Coast of China Using Grid Fixed-Point Method
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14263 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Typhoon hazard assessment is the basis of loss estimation and disaster prevention and mitigation. This study investigates the use of the grid fixed-point method to assess typhoon hazards. We conducted experiments on the southeast coast of China based on site data. In this [...] Read more.
Typhoon hazard assessment is the basis of loss estimation and disaster prevention and mitigation. This study investigates the use of the grid fixed-point method to assess typhoon hazards. We conducted experiments on the southeast coast of China based on site data. In this paper, we first divided this study area into 0.25° × 0.25° grids by using the grid fixed-point method, and performed wind field simulation using each grid center point as the study point that was based on typhoon track data from 1960–2019. Next, we performed 50 and 100-year wind speed estimation of the return period by constructing the 60-year wind speed extreme value sequence of the grid center point and using the extreme value distribution function. At last, we implemented the discussion regarding spatial distribution characteristics of typhoon disasters. Our results show that the wind speed changes greatly and that there is a certain gradient change in the near coastal areas. Moreover, we can see that wind speeds began to weaken rapidly near inland, reaching a plateau in inland. Furthermore, the island has a higher wind speed compared with other areas. We can conclude that the proposed methods have a high potential for assessing typhoon hazards from station data. Full article
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2185 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
C-Factor Estimate for Soil Loss Equations Using Transformation Function (Near, Gaussian and Symmetric Linear) and Remote Sensing Data
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13747 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
This study proposes a methodology to calculate the C-factor using remote sensing data: NDVI from LANDSAT image and MAPBIOMAS Land Use (LU) classification of Atibaia river watershed, Brazil, to improve the estimation of risk of soil loss using equations such as USLE and [...] Read more.
This study proposes a methodology to calculate the C-factor using remote sensing data: NDVI from LANDSAT image and MAPBIOMAS Land Use (LU) classification of Atibaia river watershed, Brazil, to improve the estimation of risk of soil loss using equations such as USLE and RUSLE. The methodology was as follows: first the NDVI was calculated, then the resulting image was rescaled to the range 0 to 1, applying the Near, Gaussian and Symmetric Linear transformation functions, with value below threshold 1, value above threshold 0 and scale 1 in the Rescale by function tool. Among the three models presented, the Symmetric Linear model showed the best results for the distribution of C-factor values between the LU classes, while in the Gaussian model, the same value, 0.70, was recorded for the Pasture and Rocky Outcrop classes, and the average of the values was low: 0.22 (Near) and 0.31 (Gaussian). Full article
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1114 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Line-of-Sight Glacier Velocity Estimation of Transboundary Glaciers in the Eastern Himalayas Using High-Resolution TerraSAR-X Data
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13951 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Glacier velocity is one of the critical parameters for understanding the current health status of a glacier. According to the momentum law, mass is inversely proportional to velocity. A higher velocity may indicate a lower mass. Fifteen transboundary glaciers from the eastern Himalayas [...] Read more.
Glacier velocity is one of the critical parameters for understanding the current health status of a glacier. According to the momentum law, mass is inversely proportional to velocity. A higher velocity may indicate a lower mass. Fifteen transboundary glaciers from the eastern Himalayas in the vicinity of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and China are chosen for the estimation of glacier velocity. These glaciers are Changshang, Rathong, South Lhonak, South Simvo, Talung, Tongshiong, Yalung, Zemu, Glacier 2, Glacier 3, Kaer, Ktr Gr 193, Middle Lhonak, North Lhonak, and Ktr Gr 171 (Lhonak Nepal), covering a total area of 440.92 km2. A remote sensing and GIS-based approach is considered for the study. High-resolution synthetic aperture radar data from TerraSAR-X were acquired from the German Aerospace Center (DLR) by the European Space Agency for the study area in the years 2020–2021. Satellite data were pre-processed using radiometric calibration and multi-look for speckle noise reduction. These datasets were co-registered using the SRTM Digital Elevation Model. Offset tracking was applied to estimate the glacier velocity. The maximum velocity in all glaciers ranged from 14.31 to 84.26 ma−1. The average velocity ranged from 1.78 to 7.09 ma−1. The glacier with the highest average velocity was the South Lhonak glacier. This glacier has been melting rapidly in the last few decades. Near the snout of this glacier lies a glacial lake made up of a moraine dam. For quality assessment, the latest field-based results of 2018 and the observed results of 2021 were compared. It was noticed that there is a variation of approximately 10%. Full article
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2674 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tajogaite 2021 Eruption (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain): An Exceptional Volcanic Heritage to Develop Geotourism
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13748 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
In the Canary Islands, sixteen historical eruptions have been documented in Lanzarote, Tenerife, El Hierro, and La Palma. The latest eruption, the Tajogaite eruption, occurred in 2021 in La Palma and the richness and diversity of the natural and cultural heritage associated with [...] Read more.
In the Canary Islands, sixteen historical eruptions have been documented in Lanzarote, Tenerife, El Hierro, and La Palma. The latest eruption, the Tajogaite eruption, occurred in 2021 in La Palma and the richness and diversity of the natural and cultural heritage associated with this eruption can be a valuable resource for attracting visitors and tourists. The main aim of this work is to select sites of geotourist interest (SGIs) in order to create geo-itineraries. The methodology used is based on fieldwork and drone flight videos and photos taken during and after the eruption. Sixteen SGIs have been selected and studied. Eleven sites represent the geo-heritage of the Tajogaite eruption and seven sites are related to the surrounding natural and rural landscapes. In the near future, geo-itineraries (for in-person and virtual visits) will be created for visitors to La Palma and for the interested online audience. Full article
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1446 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cascading Effects of Major Natural Hazards in Greece
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13958 - 09 Jan 2023
Viewed by 601
Abstract
When a disaster occurs, society at risk is not only threatened by the consequences of this event. Stable and trigger factors generate a natural hazard, which in turn induces changes in some trigger factors, and thereby, these changes can induce another natural hazard. [...] Read more.
When a disaster occurs, society at risk is not only threatened by the consequences of this event. Stable and trigger factors generate a natural hazard, which in turn induces changes in some trigger factors, and thereby, these changes can induce another natural hazard. Furthermore, natural hazards are characterized by interactions, which consist of various types, such as triggering (cascading) interrelations. The purpose of this research is to identify, through a review process, the cascading effects of major natural hazards that occurred in Greece and had a significant impact on society. Full article
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8 pages, 1808 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessment of Drought in Agricultural Areas by Combining Meteorological and Remote Sensing Data
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13960 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Droughts during the growing season are projected to increase in frequency and severity in Iran. Thus, area-wide monitoring of agricultural drought in this region is becoming more and more important. Changes in precipitation patterns are caused by extreme weather events such as drought [...] Read more.
Droughts during the growing season are projected to increase in frequency and severity in Iran. Thus, area-wide monitoring of agricultural drought in this region is becoming more and more important. Changes in precipitation patterns are caused by extreme weather events such as drought which strongly affect agricultural production. In this study, two data sources are used in drought assessment. First, by calculating the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in the periods of 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and one year in the western agricultural areas of Isfahan province in the time series from 2016 to 2019, precipitation data were used to analyze and evaluate meteorological drought’s spatial and temporal dynamics. Furthermore, the average loss of rainfall was calculated using TRMM satellite monthly rainfall data and the average NDVI monthly with Landsat 8 satellite images using remote sensing data. Then, the Composite Drought Index (CDI) is produced to assess agricultural drought in the 2017–2018–2019 time series. The correlation between the CDI and SPI varies between 0.19 and 0.81 in different months in the time series. The correlation between temperature and CDI in different months varies from 0.22 to 0.75 and between evaporation and CDI from 0.25 to 0.70 in the time series. Full article
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2699 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Volcanologists for a Day: An Experience with Canarian Students
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14070 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Geology, as a basic science within the natural sciences, is one of the key areas of knowledge for students in both primary and secondary education. However, when teaching the areas related to geology, many doubts arise both for teachers and students. In the [...] Read more.
Geology, as a basic science within the natural sciences, is one of the key areas of knowledge for students in both primary and secondary education. However, when teaching the areas related to geology, many doubts arise both for teachers and students. In the case of students from the Canary Islands, who live literally on volcanic islands, geology becomes even more important and its teaching becomes mandatory. Geological concepts and processes form part of their environment, their heritage, and they are also relevant in terms of the exploitation of natural resources and ecosystems around them. During the 2021–2022 academic year, and within the educational project “Ciencia a lo Grande” (“Science in a Big Way”), several practical workshops on volcanoes have been developed in 9 primary schools in Tenerife, with the target audience being students and teachers, who also received specific training to continue the activities on their own in the following years. The workshops were very successful, and the results were very positive, partly due to the interest around all the information surrounding the last eruption that took place in the Canary Islands archipelago, as well as the Tajogaite volcano in the neighboring island of La Palma. For this reason, there was great motivation with regards to the interactions between teachers and students. The workshops have been focused on the activation of perception and awareness of our environment, highlighting the volcanic structures that each school has around it and their morphological characteristics, differentiating them from other prominent volcanoes in the Canary Islands and all around the world. Full article
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2281 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Relationship between Precipitation Just above the Lava Dome and Displacement of the Dome Using X-Band MP Radar at Unzen Fugendake
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14265 - 20 Mar 2023
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Since its last eruption in 1990–1995, the Unzen volcano (Shimabara Peninsula, Japan) has been quiescent. At its summit, a complex dacitic dome spreads toward the East, in the direction of the Mizunashigawa valley. In a precarious equilibrium, sliding over previously erupted material, the [...] Read more.
Since its last eruption in 1990–1995, the Unzen volcano (Shimabara Peninsula, Japan) has been quiescent. At its summit, a complex dacitic dome spreads toward the East, in the direction of the Mizunashigawa valley. In a precarious equilibrium, sliding over previously erupted material, the dome has been generating rockfalls, and as the surrounding gullies have been eroding headward, the stability of the dome is further reduced. Even if the volcano is in a dormant stage, its monitoring is therefore essential for disaster risk management. Therefore, the present contribution aims to (1) quantify the minute dome movement as a whole as well as (2) when divided by lobe in order to understand deformation, and (3) calculate the link between rainfalls and the dome movement. The method relies on the Unzen GBSAR system (ground-based synthetic aperture radar system) and on 48-hour rainfalls from MP radar rain gauge stations at Unzen volcano. As a result, the authors have identified that: (1) there is a time delay between rainfall events and dome movements, and that peak rainfall alone is not sufficient to trigger dome movement; (2) the lower part of the dome rises and falls more rapidly than the upper part of the dome when rainfall is less than 100 mm/48 h; and (3) the upper and lower parts of the dome move up and down at the same level when rainfall exceeds 100 mm/48 h. In turn, when rainfall exceeds 250 mm/48 h, the upper part of the dome also displays a further downward movement, so that the entire dome might be moving down, similar to an accordion. Full article
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1790 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Assessing the Dynamics of the Moulay Bousselham Lagoon: An Integrated DPSIR Approach to Understand Drivers, Impacts, and Human Response
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14553 - 05 May 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Currently, the Moulay Bousselham lagoon faces a pressing issue of sediment buildup, particularly in the inlet zone, which has led to the formation of sandy areas known as “sandpits” and poses the threat of inlet closure. This environmental challenge has significant implications for [...] Read more.
Currently, the Moulay Bousselham lagoon faces a pressing issue of sediment buildup, particularly in the inlet zone, which has led to the formation of sandy areas known as “sandpits” and poses the threat of inlet closure. This environmental challenge has significant implications for the lagoon’s ecological well-being and the local economy. In response to this issue, decision-makers have initiated a comprehensive study to identify viable hydrodynamic solutions that can effectively mitigate sediment deposition and improve the lagoon’s overall conditions. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the complex interplay between socio-economic factors and their impacts on the lagoon environment. To accomplish this, a DPSIR (Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) framework is adopted. This framework facilitates the analysis of causal relationships among various elements, such as economic sectors, human activities (driving forces), resulting emissions and waste (pressures), the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the lagoon (states), and the ecological, societal, and economic consequences (impacts). By understanding these connections, appropriate policy responses can be formulated, including prioritization, target setting, and the development of relevant indicators. In addition to the comprehensive assessment of the lagoon’s socio-economic and environmental dynamics, this study also proposes management strategies that balance the current state of the lagoon with the long-term ecological sustainability and the well-being of the local population. By considering the unique challenges faced by the Moulay Bousselham lagoon and exploring feasible solutions, this research aims to guide decision-making processes and contribute to the preservation and effective management of this valuable coastal ecosystem. Full article
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3548 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ecohydrological Analysis in Watersheds of Mountain Areas of São Paulo State Coastal, Brazil
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13864 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 319
Abstract
In the Brazilian state of São Paulo, the coastal municipalities have watersheds in mountains with active relief evolution (Serra do Mar). The coastal regions are more vulnerable to flooding and landslides. A large number of people live on the slopes of Serra do [...] Read more.
In the Brazilian state of São Paulo, the coastal municipalities have watersheds in mountains with active relief evolution (Serra do Mar). The coastal regions are more vulnerable to flooding and landslides. A large number of people live on the slopes of Serra do Mar; these places are more vulnerable to landslides, which cause biodiversity loss and damage to human and natural environments. This study seeks to present an ecohydrological analysis to categorize coastal watersheds into clusters, considering the spatial characteristics of NDVI, DTM, soil depth, climate, and Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), and identify areas’ susceptibility to landslides in the coastal watersheds of the State of São Paulo. The results show that vegetation cannot prevent landslides from happening on its own. The higher altitude regions, where the tropical forest is still present, are those most prone to landslides, designated as cluster 2. Full article
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6270 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Geodiversity and Its Implication for Geoconservation of the Youngest Eruptive Sites of Western Samoa
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13751 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
The last volcanic eruption in Western Samoa, which occurred between 1905 and 1911, produced a complex scoria and lava spatter cone and an extensive lava field that destroyed Sale’aula village, near the Pacific coast. This eruption, referred to as the Matavanu eruption, also [...] Read more.
The last volcanic eruption in Western Samoa, which occurred between 1905 and 1911, produced a complex scoria and lava spatter cone and an extensive lava field that destroyed Sale’aula village, near the Pacific coast. This eruption, referred to as the Matavanu eruption, also produced pahoehoe-type lava flows with superbly preserved surface textures, tumuli, and some littoral explosion craters in its distal lava field. The unique nature of the location meant that it was selected as one of the first of the 100 IUGS Geological Heritage Sites, in October 2022. The region has been under an investigation that aims to document the geoheritage elements of the location, estimate its geodiversity, and explore the potential to develop a geopark together with local communities. All this work intends to provide a firm knowledge base to identify effective geoconservation strategies. While the youngest eruptive products after over 100 years of revegetation are restricted to a coastal zone, previous research has demonstrated that other young volcanic eruptions also took place in northern Savai’i in 1760 and 1902. In this study, we provide further data based on a systematic evaluation of SENTINEL satellite imagery, in combination with an ALOS-PALSAR and SRTM 30-m resolution digital terrain model-based calculation of morphometric elements, to demonstrate that the young volcanic landscape in northern Savai’i has great volcanic geodiversity and the entire region should be considered for specific geoconservation strategies. The young volcanic landforms of scoria cones in the high-altitude regions of the island, along with extensive and commonly tube-fed lava flows which have invaded the northern region of Savai’i, pose a volcanic hazard to the region. Hence, volcanic geoheritage can be the core element to enforce strong community volcanic hazard resilience. The newly proposed Samoa Geopark Project is the perfect avenue to achieve this. Full article
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2764 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Ionospheric Effects of Natural Hazards in Geophysics: From Single Examples to Statistical Studies Applied to M5.5+ Earthquakes
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13826 - 07 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
Geophysical natural hazards, such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions, can have catastrophic effects on the population depending on the location and quality of construction. From the geophysical point of view, several aspects are still debated in the preparation phase of such events. In [...] Read more.
Geophysical natural hazards, such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions, can have catastrophic effects on the population depending on the location and quality of construction. From the geophysical point of view, several aspects are still debated in the preparation phase of such events. In particular, several theories propose that prior to an earthquake or volcano eruption, the releases of gas, fluids or charged particles from the lithosphere (e.g., from the fault for the earthquake) could create some effects on the atmosphere and ionosphere. In this work, several single examples will be shown of possible candidates of pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances recorded by the China National Space Administration (in partnership with the Italian Space Agency), China Seismo Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) and European Space Agency Swarm constellation. The examples show anomalous ionospheric status in terms of magnetic disturbances or increase of electron density before earthquakes, such as Mw = 7.1 Ridgecrest (US) 2019, or during the large recent volcano eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’Apai on 15 January 2022. In these cases, some couplings between the lithosphere and ionosphere are proposed. Finally, verifying if such pre-event ionospheric disturbances are by “chance” or are really linked to the incoming event is a crucial point. For this purpose, we perform worldwide statistical studies, not only supporting the recurrence of such phenomena for about 15% of M5.5+ shallow earthquakes but also showing a link between the magnitude of the upcoming seismic events and the pre-earthquake anticipation time. Furthermore, we also show the influence of the location (sea or land) on the frequency of the ionospheric electromagnetic disturbance. Full article
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2448 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Porous–Permeable Zones in Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs: A Case Study from Amara Oilfield, Iraq
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13965 - 02 Feb 2023
Viewed by 408
Abstract
The nature of carbonate rock’s heterogeneity under subsurface conditions is still under debate due to significant variations in mineral composition and changes in rock texture during/after diagenesis. However, several studies have utilized facies analysis and conventional sets of logs to develop a detailed [...] Read more.
The nature of carbonate rock’s heterogeneity under subsurface conditions is still under debate due to significant variations in mineral composition and changes in rock texture during/after diagenesis. However, several studies have utilized facies analysis and conventional sets of logs to develop a detailed description of reservoir rocks. This paper presents the design of a precise model for cretaceous carbonate reservoir characterization through micro and macro porous media and permeable zones and integrates lithological variation with more than 1800 measurements of porosity/permeability values along two bore wells in Amara Oilfield. This paper presents a detailed description of lithological and reservoir characterization in the Am1 and Am3 borewells form west to east, respectively. In the west, plugged samples were obtained from Mishrif formations, while in the east, the samples were obtained from the Khasib, Mishrif, and Yamama formations. The porosity and permeability distribution in the subsurface settings was divided into three porous–permeable zones in Am1 and Am3. Am1 in the west shows a greater porous–permeable zone than Am3 in the east of Amara Oilfield. The permeability and porosity in Am1 measured up to 591 md and 29.6%, while in Am3, values up to 352 md and 24.2% were recorded, respectively. Therefore, the porous–permeable subsurface distributions and their petrophysical mapping for different kinds of reservoirs reveal that the porosity and permeability measurements decreased from west to east; however, there were a few fluctuations corresponding to increases and decreases in the porosity and permeability values that were mostly controlled by the involvement of diagenetic fluids, which were resulted from the heterogeneity of carbonate rocks. Full article
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4861 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Estimation of the Surface Area Covered by Snow and the Resulting Runoff Using Landsat Satellite Images
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-13961 - 10 Jan 2023
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Snow is one of the most important sources of water in most parts of the world, supplying approximately a third of the water needed for agricultural activities, drinking, and underground water sources. The runoff caused by melted snow can be destructive, and the [...] Read more.
Snow is one of the most important sources of water in most parts of the world, supplying approximately a third of the water needed for agricultural activities, drinking, and underground water sources. The runoff caused by melted snow can be destructive, and the high volume of snow can lead to an avalanche; therefore, it is important to estimate it. The area of the snow research is around Goose Lake in California, USA, where the ground snow measuring station is (Latitude: 41.92999, Longitude: −120.4168117). The snow can be measured and calculated using the daily satellite imagery of the Landsat for a period of five years (2017–2022) for approximately four months (December–March) (total of approximately 40 images). The information from ground snow measuring stations was used to evaluate the final results. The accuracy assessment shows 76% accuracy. Full article
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1697 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Association of Antarctic Sea Ice with the Subantarctic Mode and Antarctic Intermediate Waters during the Last Deglaciation
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14816 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The Southern Ocean waters exchange freshwater, nutrients, carbon, heat, and salt to the Equator and influence the global carbon budget. Therefore, it is essential to understand the variations in Southern Ocean circulation during the last deglacial period to comprehend its changes with climate [...] Read more.
The Southern Ocean waters exchange freshwater, nutrients, carbon, heat, and salt to the Equator and influence the global carbon budget. Therefore, it is essential to understand the variations in Southern Ocean circulation during the last deglacial period to comprehend its changes with climate change. To understand the spread of the Southern Ocean Antarctic Intermediate and Subantarctic Mode Waters during the last deglaciation (from about 19 to 11 thousand years before the present (kyr BP)), this modeling study employs a synchronously coupled general circulation model. The results show that the Southern Hemisphere’s low-level winds overlap with the zone of maximum mixed layer depth, signifying the influence of westerlies in the Southern Ocean waters. The results also indicate that the Southern Ocean Antarctic Intermediate and Subantarctic Mode Waters are fresher, warmer, and about 2.4 times deeper during the early Holocene compared to Heinrich-1. The model simulated the Antarctic sea ice edge (grid points in the ice model have a sea ice concentration above ten percent) overlapping with the poleward edge of the Antarctic Intermediate Waters, and the Southern Ocean mixed layers. Additionally, the simulated quasi-permanent Antarctic sea ice edge (grid points in the ice model have a sea ice concentration above eighty percent) and the surface distribution of Antarctic Intermediate and Subantarctic Mode Waters shifted poleward by about 5° and 10°, respectively, during the early Holocene compared to the Heinrich-1. Therefore, this study highlights a close linkage between the Southern Ocean Antarctic Intermediate and Subantarctic Mode Waters with the Antarctic sea ice distribution throughout the last deglacial period. Full article
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11805 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Petrographic Analysis of the Sandstones and Mudstones in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Implications for Groundwater Potential
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14818 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 308
Abstract
Aquifers’ storability potential in Alice, comprising rocks of the Beaufort Group in the Karoo Supergroup, is examined based on the mineralogical and diagenetic implications of sandstones and mudstones. This investigation is focused on SEM + EDX analysis, petrographic study, porosity, and density determination. [...] Read more.
Aquifers’ storability potential in Alice, comprising rocks of the Beaufort Group in the Karoo Supergroup, is examined based on the mineralogical and diagenetic implications of sandstones and mudstones. This investigation is focused on SEM + EDX analysis, petrographic study, porosity, and density determination. The SEM + EDX and petrographic studies show that the rocks are fractured and porous and contain minerals like quartz, feldspar, lithics, mica, kaolinite, calcite, and illite. The primary diagenetic processes that affect the groundwater storage of the rocks are cementation via authigenic minerals, mineral replacement, the dissolution of minerals, and recrystallization. The existence of fractured and dissolution pores improves the groundwater storage capacity. Ten rock samples were selected for density and porosity measurements. The porosity result shows that mudstone has the highest porosity value of 2.56%, while sandstone has the lowest porosity value of 0.85%. This is due to mudstone having numerous pore spaces compared to sandstone. The density of mudstone ranges from 2.5763 to 2.6978 g/cm3, while the density of sandstone ranges from 2.5908 to 2.6820 g/cm3. The secondary porosity is the main porosity for the reservoir rocks. The pores and fractures observed in the rocks act as channels for groundwater, which influence the aquifers’ storability in the study area. The techniques used in this research help us to efficiently understand the factors that control aquifers’ storability to assist with groundwater exploration. Full article
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5233 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Hydrodynamic Conditions in the Oualidia Lagoon (Atlantic Coast of Morocco)
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14815 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The present study is based on the combination of field measurements with Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) data and numerical modeling approaches to assess the historical and actual variations of ocean parameters in the Oualidia lagoon in Morocco, including tides, waves, currents and winds. [...] Read more.
The present study is based on the combination of field measurements with Copernicus Marine Service (CMS) data and numerical modeling approaches to assess the historical and actual variations of ocean parameters in the Oualidia lagoon in Morocco, including tides, waves, currents and winds. The lagoon of Oualidia is a site of ornithological importance; it has been classified as a site of biological and ecological interest (S.I.B.E), through the Master Plan of Protected Areas, and as a RAMSAR site since 2005. This lagoon has undergone significant anthropogenic modifications in recent years, which included the creation of a sediment trap in 2011 and a dike opening upstream in 2005. The objective of this research is to evaluate the hydrodynamic conditions of this lagoon and its open sea area (offshore) using field measurements, numerical modeling and ocean data collected from Marine Copernicus Service platform. As a result, the analysis of wind data for the year 2021 shows that the prevailing winds are generally northwest, from north to northeast, with a very strong predominance of north to northeast winds. The harmonic analysis of tides for the same period showed that the lagoon is dominated by an M2 tide component with an amplitude reaching 0.9649 m. In addition, the results of the analysis of waves in front of the lagoon of Oualidia revealed a predominance of waves of height ranging between 1 and 2.5 m, representing nearly 60% of the model outputs. Waves with a height of from 3 to 4 m represent 10% of the results, while large winter waves (>4 m) represent only 3%. In addition, the analysis of current data (in situ/modeled) indicates that the current velocities decrease from the downstream to upstream area, in relation to the variations in and the period of tides that affect the variability of tidal currents inside of the lagoon. Full article
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5356 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Delineation of Groundwater Potential Zones Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: The Case of Balkh Province, Northern Afghanistan
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14817 - 21 Jul 2023
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Abstract
Without proper data and standard methods, assessing and determining groundwater resources in mountains and flat dry plains is difficult for a region. In this study, a GIS-based groundwater resource assessment is deemed a viable option, so the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used [...] Read more.
Without proper data and standard methods, assessing and determining groundwater resources in mountains and flat dry plains is difficult for a region. In this study, a GIS-based groundwater resource assessment is deemed a viable option, so the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to designate groundwater potential zones in the Balkh Province of northern Afghanistan. Several influential factors were provided for this purpose, including lithology, distance from the river, slope, drainage density, (LU/LC), lineament density, and rainfall. The groundwater potential zone map was grouped into four groundwater potential zones. They are very low (10.87%), low (35.13%), moderate (30.76%), and high (30.76%). The use of water level data was used to validate the results. The overall accuracy (71%) was found accordingly. Full article
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4959 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
From the Hydroclimatic Disaster to the Forced (Re)construction: Case Study of the Akatani Watershed in Japan
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14820 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 249
Abstract
On 5–6 July 2017 (J17), an unusual series of rainfalls induced a concentration of precipitations in Northern Kyushu, Japan, reaching 516 mm in 24 h in Asakura City, a first in its history since the beginning of observation in 1976. This triggered unprecedented [...] Read more.
On 5–6 July 2017 (J17), an unusual series of rainfalls induced a concentration of precipitations in Northern Kyushu, Japan, reaching 516 mm in 24 h in Asakura City, a first in its history since the beginning of observation in 1976. This triggered unprecedented hydro-meteorological hazards (landslides, debris flows, and floods) in forested mountainous areas, such as in the Akatani watershed, where the estimated discharge reached 520 m3/s at its outflow. It induced numerous deaths, structural damages, destruction of river channels, and deposition of sediment in flood plains. If smaller-scale hazards have usually driven authorities to build protection systems in the watershed, the J17 crisis called for a full remodeling of it, interrupting waterways and reshaping slope shapes and structures. Considering the means deployed by the central government for this reconstruction, the J17 event triggered a full “re-construction” of rivers, modifying the hydrosystem’s functioning at the watershed scale. Thus, our objective is to show that after the relative stability of Akatani watershed’s hydrosystem over 75 y, the exceptionality of the J17 crisis forced us to rethink the watershed’s organization, using this event as the reference for post-disaster reconstruction. The research relies on field surveys in 2019 and 2022, interviews of officials, and GIS analysis based on historical aerial photograph interpretation and geospatial data. It revealed that (a) the geometry of post-disaster channels was completely redesigned to match a new reference and (b) sediment control structures were multiplied to restructure slopes, breaking the slope angles into subwatersheds. The Akatani watershed case then illustrates the full range of structural measures developed by Japanese engineering to reduce hydrological risks. Full article
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453 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
There Was No Mesozoic Marine Revolution
Proceedings 2023, 87(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/IECG2022-14819 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 873
Abstract
The phrase “Mesozoic marine revolution” refers to the Mesozoic origin of durophagous predators and the co-evolutionary response of their prey as well as an increase in infaunalization. However, using “revolution” for a process that takes many tens of millions of years is semantically [...] Read more.
The phrase “Mesozoic marine revolution” refers to the Mesozoic origin of durophagous predators and the co-evolutionary response of their prey as well as an increase in infaunalization. However, using “revolution” for a process that takes many tens of millions of years is semantically improper hyperbole. Durophagous predators and their prey began to co-evolve by the Devonian, continued into the late Cenozoic and encompassed many distinct and convergent evolutionary events. Infaunalization has a similar prolonged and complex history. Identifying a single “revolution” confounds understanding of the multiple events and evolutionary convergences that took place, so “Mesozoic marine revolution” should be abandoned. Full article
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