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Batteries, Volume 8, Issue 1 (January 2022) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Silicon-based and lithium metal anodes are regarded as the candidates of next-generation electrode materials for Li-ion and metallic lithium batteries. However, the unstable interfacial reactions between the anode and electrolyte continuously consume lithium ions, resulting in serious capacity degradation. Severe anode volume change also leads to structural decay during extended cycles. To tackle the aforementioned drawbacks, lithium silicates were adopted to serve as the stabilizer in anodes. This review introduces the properties and mechanisms of lithium silicates in anodes, showing their application potential in high-energy-density batteries. View this paper.
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18 pages, 5790 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of Na0.67MnO2 Cathode for Na-Ion Batteries Prepared with Novel Tetrabutylammonium Alginate Binder
by Gints Kucinskis, Beate Kruze, Prasad Korde, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Arturs Viksna, Julija Hodakovska and Gunars Bajars
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010006 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3895
Abstract
Both the binder and solid–electrolyte interface play an important role in improving the cycling stability of electrodes for Na-ion batteries. In this study, a novel tetrabutylammonium (TBA) alginate binder is used to prepare a Na0.67MnO2 electrode for sodium-ion batteries with [...] Read more.
Both the binder and solid–electrolyte interface play an important role in improving the cycling stability of electrodes for Na-ion batteries. In this study, a novel tetrabutylammonium (TBA) alginate binder is used to prepare a Na0.67MnO2 electrode for sodium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical performance. The ageing of the electrodes is characterized. TBA alginate-based electrodes are compared to polyvinylidene fluoride- (PVDF) and Na alginate-based electrodes and show favorable electrochemical performance, with gravimetric capacity values of up to 164 mAh/g, which is 6% higher than measured for the electrode prepared with PVDF binder. TBA alginate-based electrodes also display good rate capability and improved cyclability. The solid–electrolyte interface of TBA alginate-based electrodes is similar to that of PVDF-based electrodes. As the only salt of alginic acid soluble in non-aqueous solvents, TBA alginate emerges as a good alternative to PVDF binder in battery applications where the water-based processing of electrode slurries is not feasible, such as the demonstrated case with Na0.67MnO2. Full article
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12 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Direct Double Coating of Carbon and Nitrogen on Fluoride-Doped Li4Ti5O12 as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Lukman Noerochim, Alvalo Toto Wibowo, Widyastuti, Achmad Subhan, Bambang Prihandoko and Wahyu Caesarendra
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010005 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2862
Abstract
Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this [...] Read more.
Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 was successfully synthesized with a direct double coating of carbon and nitrogen using a solid-state method followed by the pyrolysis process of polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the addition of fluoride is successfully doped to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12 without any impurities being detected. The carbon and nitrogen coating are distributed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12 particles, as shown in the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows a thin layer of carbon coating on the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 has the highest specific discharge capacity of 165.38 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and capacity fading of 93.51% after 150 cycles compared to other samples, indicating improved electrochemical performance. This is attributed to the synergy between the appropriate amount of carbon and nitrogen coating, which induced a high mobility of electrons and larger crystallite size due to the insertion of fluoride to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12, enhancing lithium-ion transfer during the insertion/extraction process. Full article
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17 pages, 5756 KiB  
Article
A Fast Approach to Obtain Layered Transition-Metal Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries
by Shofirul Sholikhatun Nisa, Mintarsih Rahmawati, Cornelius Satria Yudha, Hanida Nilasary, Hartoto Nursukatmo, Haryo Satriya Oktaviano, Soraya Ulfa Muzayanha and Agus Purwanto
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010004 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6770
Abstract
Li-ion batteries as a support for future transportation have the advantages of high storage capacity, a long life cycle, and the fact that they are less dangerous than current battery materials. Li-ion battery components, especially the cathode, are the intercalation places for lithium, [...] Read more.
Li-ion batteries as a support for future transportation have the advantages of high storage capacity, a long life cycle, and the fact that they are less dangerous than current battery materials. Li-ion battery components, especially the cathode, are the intercalation places for lithium, which plays an important role in battery performance. This study aims to obtain the LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC) cathode material using a simple flash coprecipitation method. As precipitation agents and pH regulators, oxalic acid and ammonia are widely available and inexpensive. The composition of the NMC mole ratio was varied, with values of 333, 424, 442, 523, 532, 622, and 811. As a comprehensive study of NMC, lithium transition-metal oxide (LMO, LCO, and LNO) is also provided. The crystal structure, functional groups, morphology, elemental composition and material behavior of the particles were all investigated during the heating process. The galvanostatic charge–discharge analysis was tested with cylindrical cells and using mesocarbon microbeads/graphite as the anode. Cells were tested at 2.7–4.25 V at 0.5 C. Based on the analysis results, NMC with a mole ratio of 622 showed the best characteristicd and electrochemical performance. After 100 cycles, the discharged capacity reaches 153.60 mAh/g with 70.9% capacity retention. Full article
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15 pages, 4118 KiB  
Article
LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 Composite Solid-State Electrolyte for Safe Energy Storage Application
by Samuel Adjepong Danquah, Jacob Strimaitis, Clifford F. Denize, Sangram K. Pradhan and Messaoud Bahoura
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010003 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4243
Abstract
All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are gaining traction in the arena of energy storage due to their promising results in producing high energy density and long cycle life coupled with their capability of being safe. The key challenges facing ASSBs are low conductivity and slow [...] Read more.
All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are gaining traction in the arena of energy storage due to their promising results in producing high energy density and long cycle life coupled with their capability of being safe. The key challenges facing ASSBs are low conductivity and slow charge transfer kinetics at the interface between the electrode and the solid electrolyte. Garnet solid-state electrolyte has shown promising results in improving the ion conductivity but still suffers from poor capacity retention and rate performance due to the interfacial resistance between the electrodes. To improve the interfacial resistance, we prepared a composite consisting of Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) garnet material as the ceramic, polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the polymer, and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as the salt. These compounds are mixed in a stoichiometric ratio and developed into a very thin disc-shaped solid electrolyte. The LLCZN provides a lithium-ion transport path to enhance the lithium-ion conduction during charging and discharging cycles, while the LiPF6 contributes more lithium ions via the transport path. The PEO matrix in the composite material aids in bonding the compounds together and creating a large contact area, thereby reducing the issue of large interfacial resistance. FESEM images show the porous nature of the electrolyte which promotes the movement of lithium ions through the electrolyte. The fabricated LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 solid-state electrolyte shows outstanding electrochemical stability that remains at 130 mAh g−1 up to 150 charging and discharging cycles at 0.05 mA cm−2 current. All the specific capacities were calculated based on the mass of the cathode material (LiCoO2). In addition, the coin cell retains 85% discharge capacity up to 150 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98% and energy efficiency of 90% during the entire cycling process. Full article
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17 pages, 4552 KiB  
Review
Lithium Silicates in Anode Materials for Li-Ion and Li Metal Batteries
by Yu-Sheng Su, Kuang-Che Hsiao, Pedaballi Sireesha and Jen-Yen Huang
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010002 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9680
Abstract
The structural and interfacial stability of silicon-based and lithium metal anode materials is essential to their battery performance. Scientists are looking for a better inactive material to buffer strong volume change and suppress unwanted surface reactions of these anodes during cycling. Lithium silicates [...] Read more.
The structural and interfacial stability of silicon-based and lithium metal anode materials is essential to their battery performance. Scientists are looking for a better inactive material to buffer strong volume change and suppress unwanted surface reactions of these anodes during cycling. Lithium silicates formed in situ during the formation cycle of silicon monoxide anode not only manage anode swelling but also avoid undesired interfacial interactions, contributing to the successful commercialization of silicon monoxide anode materials. Additionally, lithium silicates have been further utilized in the design of advanced silicon and lithium metal anodes, and the results have shown significant promise in the past few years. In this review article, we summarize the structures, electrochemical properties, and formation conditions of lithium silicates. Their applications in advanced silicon and lithium metal anode materials are also introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries: Feature Papers 2021)
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9 pages, 7959 KiB  
Article
Symmetric Aqueous Batteries of Titanium Hexacyanoferrate in Na+, K+, and Mg2+ Media
by Min Li, Alessandro Bina, Mariam Maisuradze and Marco Giorgetti
Batteries 2022, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3833
Abstract
Symmetric batteries, in which the same active material is used for the positive and the negative electrode, simplifying the manufacture process and reducing the fabrication cost, have attracted extensive interest for large-scale stationary energy storage. In this paper, we propose a symmetric battery [...] Read more.
Symmetric batteries, in which the same active material is used for the positive and the negative electrode, simplifying the manufacture process and reducing the fabrication cost, have attracted extensive interest for large-scale stationary energy storage. In this paper, we propose a symmetric battery based on titanium hexacyanoferrate (TiHCF) with two well-separated redox peaks of Fe3+/Fe2+ and Ti4+/Ti3+ and tested it in aqueous Na-ion/ K-ion/Mg-ion electrolytes. The result shows that all the symmetric batteries exhibit a voltage plateau centered at around 0.6 V, with discharge capacity around 30 mAhg−1 at C/5. Compared to a Mg-ion electrolyte, the TiHCF symmetric batteries in Na-ion and K-ion electrolytes have better stability. The calculated diffusion coefficient of Na+, K+, and Mg2+ are in the same order of magnitude, which indicates that the three-dimensional ionic channels and interstices in the lattice of TiHCF are large enough for an efficient Na+, K+ and Mg2+ insertion and extraction. Full article
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