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Batteries, Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 13 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle. A new approach is described to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery's lifetime. Ripple currents occurring during driving were evaluated, and lithium-ion cells were cycled, superimposing the corresponding ripple currents. The cell parameters were characterized regularly. The dataset resulting from the aging study is suitable for developing and validating aging models and methods for battery diagnosis. View this paper
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11 pages, 510 KiB  
Review
Concept Review of a Cloud-Based Smart Battery Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Feasibility, Logistics, and Functionality
by Manh-Kien Tran, Satyam Panchal, Tran Dinh Khang, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser and Michael Fowler
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020019 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 120 | Viewed by 15636
Abstract
Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB [...] Read more.
Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB systems, battery management systems (BMSs) are required. The current design and functionality of BMSs suffer from a few critical drawbacks including low computational capability and limited data storage. Recently, there has been some effort in researching and developing smart BMSs utilizing the cloud platform. A cloud-based BMS would be able to solve the problems of computational capability and data storage in the current BMSs. It would also lead to more accurate and reliable battery algorithms and allow the development of other complex BMS functions. This study reviews the concept and design of cloud-based smart BMSs and provides some perspectives on their functionality and usability as well as their benefits for future battery applications. The potential division between the local and cloud functions of smart BMSs is also discussed. Cloud-based smart BMSs are expected to improve the reliability and overall performance of LIB systems, contributing to the mass adoption of renewable energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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18 pages, 4431 KiB  
Article
A New Charging Algorithm for Li-Ion Battery Packs Based on Artificial Neural Networks
by João P. D. Faria, Ricardo L. Velho, Maria R. A. Calado, José A. N. Pombo, João B. L. Fermeiro and Sílvio J. P. S. Mariano
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020018 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6342
Abstract
This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the [...] Read more.
This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the real-time conditions of the Li-ion batteries. To test and validate the proposed approach, a low-cost battery management system (BMS) was developed, supporting up to 168 cells in series and n cells in parallel. When compared with the multistage charging algorithm, the proposed charging algorithm revealed a shorter charging time (7.85%) and a smaller temperature increase (32.95%). Thus, the results show that the proposed algorithm based on AI is able to effectively charge and balance batteries and can be regarded as a subject of interest for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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11 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
Effect of Internal AC Heating on the Temperature Homogeneity of Different Size Battery Cells
by Howard Richards and Christopher Vagg
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020017 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
Rapidly warming up batteries is an important challenge both for conventional lithium-ion batteries, which operate best over 15 °C, and for most solid-state batteries, which currently require operating temperatures over 60 °C. Internal heating using an alternating current (AC) has been proposed as [...] Read more.
Rapidly warming up batteries is an important challenge both for conventional lithium-ion batteries, which operate best over 15 °C, and for most solid-state batteries, which currently require operating temperatures over 60 °C. Internal heating using an alternating current (AC) has been proposed as a possible solution in automotive applications, with faster heating rates possible than conventional external heating methods. This paper investigates the performance of internal AC heating on cells of different sizes, for both cylindrical and pouch formats. A novel experimental arrangement is used in which two cells are tested in series while connected with opposing polarity to create a zero-voltage string, allowing the use of less expensive testing equipment. The results show that larger cells exhibit a considerably greater distribution of surface temperature than smaller format cells during internal heating. This is likely due to the more extreme spatial variation in current density in the current collectors, causing an uneven distribution of internal heat generation. This highlights a significant difference compared to external heating methods, which are not affected by this, and has important implications for temperature measurement and battery management if this type of internal heating is to be used, since temperature sensors must be placed in hot spots or supplemented by validated models to ensure all parts of the battery stay within safe temperature limits. Full article
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20 pages, 9428 KiB  
Article
Radial Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries—An Uncertainty Study of the Pipe Method
by Markus Koller, Johanna Unterkofler, Gregor Glanz, Daniel Lager, Alexander Bergmann and Hartmut Popp
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020016 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4143
Abstract
A typical method for measuring the radial thermal conductivity of cylindrical objects is the pipe method. This method introduces a heating wire in combination with standard thermocouples and optical Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors into the core of a cell. This experimental method [...] Read more.
A typical method for measuring the radial thermal conductivity of cylindrical objects is the pipe method. This method introduces a heating wire in combination with standard thermocouples and optical Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors into the core of a cell. This experimental method can lead to high uncertainties due to the slightly varying setup for each measurement and the non-homogenous structure of the cell. Due to the lack of equipment on the market, researchers have to resort to such experimental methods. To verify the measurement uncertainties and to show the possible range of results, an additional method is introduced. In this second method the cell is disassembled, and the thermal conductivity of each cell component is calculated based on measurements with the laser flash method and differential scanning calorimetry. Those results are used to numerically calculate thermal conductivity and to parameterize a finite element model. With this model, the uncertainties and problems inherent in the pipe method for cylindrical cells were shown. The surprising result was that uncertainties of up to 25% arise, just from incorrect assumption about the sensor position. Furthermore, the change in radial thermal conductivity at different states of charge (SOC) was measured with fully functional cells using the pipe method. Full article
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14 pages, 4089 KiB  
Article
Combined Thermal Runaway Investigation of Coin Cells with an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter and a Tian-Calvet Calorimeter
by Wenjiao Zhao, Magnus Rohde, Ijaz Ul Mohsin, Carlos Ziebert, Yong Du and Hans J. Seifert
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020015 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
Commercial coin cells with LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 positive electrode material were investigated using an accelerating rate calorimeter and a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. After cycling and charging to the selected states of charge (SOCs), the cells were studied under thermal [...] Read more.
Commercial coin cells with LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 positive electrode material were investigated using an accelerating rate calorimeter and a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. After cycling and charging to the selected states of charge (SOCs), the cells were studied under thermal abuse conditions using the heat-wait-seek (HWS) method with the heating step of 5 K and a threshold for self-heating detection of 0.02 K/min. The onset temperature and the rate of the temperature rise, i.e., the self-heating rate for thermal runaway events, were determined. The morphology of the positive electrode, negative electrode and the separator of fresh and tested cells were compared and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the microstructure and the chemical compositions of the individual components were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. In the Tian-Calvet calorimeter, the coin cells with the selected SOCs and the individual components (positive electrode, negative electrode and separator) were heated up with a constant heating rate of 0.1 °C/min (ramp heating mode). Simultaneously, the heat flow signals were recorded to analyze the heat generation. The combination of the three different methods—the HWS method using the ES-ARC, ramp heating mode on both cells and the individual components using the Tian-Calvet calorimeter—together with a post-mortem analysis, give us a complete picture of the processes leading to thermal runaway. Full article
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18 pages, 7579 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Lithiation Depth Profiling in Silicon Containing Anodes Investigated by Ion Beam Analysis
by Sören Möller, Hyunsang Joo, Marcin Rasinski, Markus Mann, Egbert Figgemeier and Martin Finsterbusch
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020014 - 8 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4029
Abstract
The localisation and quantitative analysis of lithium (Li) in battery materials, components, and full cells are scientifically highly relevant, yet challenging tasks. The methodical developments of MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) presented here open up new possibilities for simultaneous elemental quantification and localisation [...] Read more.
The localisation and quantitative analysis of lithium (Li) in battery materials, components, and full cells are scientifically highly relevant, yet challenging tasks. The methodical developments of MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) presented here open up new possibilities for simultaneous elemental quantification and localisation of light and heavy elements in Li and other batteries. It describes the technical prerequisites and limitations of using IBA to analyse and solve current challenges with the example of Li-ion and solid-state battery-related research and development. Here, nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can provide spatial resolutions down to 70 nm and 1% accuracy. To demonstrate the new insights to be gained by IBA, SiOx-containing graphite anodes are lithiated to six states-of-charge (SoC) between 0–50%. The quantitative Li depth profiling of the anodes shows a linear increase of the Li concentration with SoC and a match of injected and detected Li-ions. This unambiguously proofs the electrochemical activity of Si. Already at 50% SoC, we derive C/Li = 5.4 (< LiC6) when neglecting Si, proving a relevant uptake of Li by the 8 atom % Si (C/Si ≈ 9) in the anode with Li/Si ≤ 1.8 in this case. Extrapolations to full lithiation show a maximum of Li/Si = 1.04 ± 0.05. The analysis reveals all element concentrations are constant over the anode thickness of 44 µm, except for a ~6-µm-thick separator-side surface layer. Here, the Li and Si concentrations are a factor 1.23 higher compared to the bulk for all SoC, indicating preferential Li binding to SiOx. These insights are so far not accessible with conventional analysis methods and are a first important step towards in-depth knowledge of quantitative Li distributions on the component level and a further application of IBA in the battery community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Characterization of Lithium Battery Materials)
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19 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications
by Ryan Hughes and Christopher Vagg
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020013 - 5 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3265
Abstract
This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid State Batteries)
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15 pages, 36162 KiB  
Article
Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogels with Functionalization-Mediated Disordered Stacking for Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Jaehyeung Park, Jaswinder Sharma, Charl J. Jafta, Lilin He, Harry M. Meyer III, Jianlin Li, Jong K. Keum, Ngoc A. Nguyen and Georgios Polizos
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020012 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3484
Abstract
Surface modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Ethylene diamine (EDA) and α-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to functionalize the surface of the graphene oxide layers. The oxygen reduction and surface modification occurred in-situ during the hydrothermal self-assembly process. [...] Read more.
Surface modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Ethylene diamine (EDA) and α-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to functionalize the surface of the graphene oxide layers. The oxygen reduction and surface modification occurred in-situ during the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The chemical functionality and structure of the resulting ethylene diamine modified (rGO-EDA) and cyclodextrin modified (rGO-CD) aerogels as well as of the pristine unmodified rGO aerogel were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, and SANS techniques. The overall surface composition showed a significant decrease in the oxygen content for all synthesized aerogels. The surface modified aerogels were characterized by a disordered stacking of the assembled rGO layers. The surface functionalities resulted in a broad distribution of the interlayer spacing and introduced structural heterogeneities. Such disordered structures can enable a better adsorption mechanism of the sodium ions. Coin cells based on the synthesized aerogels and sodium metal were assembled and tested at several charge and discharge rates. The correlation between the surface functionality of the rGO, the induced structural heterogeneities due to the disordered stacking, and the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries were investigated. Operando XRD measurements were carried out during the battery cycling to investigate the adsorption or intercalation nature of the sodiation mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sodium-Ion Battery: Latest Advances and Prospects)
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16 pages, 5384 KiB  
Article
The Impact of an Overlaid Ripple Current on Battery Aging: The Development of the SiCWell Dataset
by Erik Goldammer, Marius Gentejohann, Michael Schlüter, Daniel Weber, Wolfgang Wondrak, Sibylle Dieckerhoff, Clemens Gühmann and Julia Kowal
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020011 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7281
Abstract
Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The [...] Read more.
Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The ripple current generated by the main inverter is demonstrated with a measurement obtained from an electric vehicle. A simulation model is presented which is based on an artificial reference DC bus, according to ISO 21498-2, and uses driving cycles in order to obtain current profiles relevant for battery cycling. A prototype of a battery cycling tester capable of high frequency and precise ripple current generation was developed and is used to cycle cells with superimposed ripple currents within an aging study. To investigate the impact of the frequency and the amplitude of the currents on the battery’s lifetime, these ripple parameters are varied between different test series. Cell parameters such as impedance and capacity are regularly characterized and the aging of the cells is compared to standard DC cycled reference cells. The aging study includes a total of 60 automotive-sized pouch cells. The evaluation of ripple currents and their impact on the battery can improve the state-of-health diagnosis and remaining-useful life prognosis. For the development and validation of such methods, the cycled cells are monitored with a measurement system that regularly measures current and voltage with a sampling rate of 2 MHz. The resulting dataset is suitable for the design of future ripple current aging studies as well as for the development and validation of aging models and methods for battery diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Batteries and Electric Vehicles)
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12 pages, 2168 KiB  
Article
Raman Diagnostics of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Using Multi-Wavelength Excitation
by Marcel Heber, Kathrin Hofmann and Christian Hess
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020010 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6126
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries have been commonly employed as power sources in portable devices and are of great interest for large-scale energy storage. To further enhance the fundamental understanding of the electrode structure, we report on the use of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries have been commonly employed as power sources in portable devices and are of great interest for large-scale energy storage. To further enhance the fundamental understanding of the electrode structure, we report on the use of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of layered cathode materials for Li-ion batteries (LiCoO2, LiNixCo1−xO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2). Varying the laser excitation from the UV to the visible (257, 385, 515, 633 nm) reveals wavelength-dependent changes in the vibrational profile and overtone/combination bands, originating from resonance effects in LiCoO2. In mixed oxides, the influence of resonance effects on the vibrational profile is preserved but mitigated by the presence of Ni and/or Mn, highlighting the influence of resonance Raman spectroscopy on electronic structure changes. The use of UV laser excitation (257, 385 nm) is shown to lead to a higher scattering efficiency towards Ni in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 compared to visible wavelengths, while deep UV excitation at 257 nm allows for the sensitive detection of surface species and/or precursor species reminiscent of the synthesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, including phase/impurity identification and quantification, as well as electronic structure analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development and Characterization of Lithium Battery Materials)
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4 pages, 153 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Batteries in 2021
by Batteries Editorial Office
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020009 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1837
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
19 pages, 6317 KiB  
Article
Development of a Matlab/Simulink Model for Monitoring Cell State-of-Health and State-of-Charge via Impedance of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
by Jonghyeon Kim and Julia Kowal
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020008 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 10213
Abstract
Lithium-ion battery cells not only show different behaviors depending on degradation and charging states, but also overcharge and overdischarge of cells shorten battery life and cause safety problems, thus studies aiming to provide an accurate state of a cell are required. Measurements of [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion battery cells not only show different behaviors depending on degradation and charging states, but also overcharge and overdischarge of cells shorten battery life and cause safety problems, thus studies aiming to provide an accurate state of a cell are required. Measurements of battery cell impedance are used for cell SoH and SoC estimation techniques, but it generally takes a long time for a cell in each state to be prepared and cell voltage response is measured when charging and discharging under each condition. This study introduces an electrical equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion cells developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Cell SoC, SoH, temperature, and C-rate are considered for more accurate cell impedance prediction, and the simulation results are verified with the measurement results. The developed model is suitable for use in cell SoC and SoH monitoring studies by successfully outputting cell impedance through real-time prediction of cell voltage during discharge. Full article
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17 pages, 2296 KiB  
Article
Multiple Scenario Analysis of Battery Energy Storage System Investment: Measuring Economic and Circular Viability
by Benedikte Wrålsen and Bernhard Faessler
Batteries 2022, 8(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8020007 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4826
Abstract
Circular business models for batteries have been revealed in earlier research to achieve economic viability while reducing total resource consumption of raw materials. The objective of this study is to measure the economic performance of the preferred business model by creating different scenarios [...] Read more.
Circular business models for batteries have been revealed in earlier research to achieve economic viability while reducing total resource consumption of raw materials. The objective of this study is to measure the economic performance of the preferred business model by creating different scenarios comparing second life (spent) and new battery investment for seven different European regions and four energy management strategies. Findings reveal levels of economic ability for a total of 34 scenarios simulated, including direct savings per kWh, a total change in energy costs per year, battery charge/discharge cycles, and comparative breakeven analyses. Regional effects are also measured based on day-ahead electricity prices and solar irradiation. The minimum payback time is 7 years before battery system investment costs are covered. The most viable energy management strategies also had the highest number of charge/discharge cycles, which decreases battery lifetime. Investment in a second life battery compared to a new battery reduced the payback time by 0.5 to 2 years due to lower investment costs. However, the estimated lifetime range (3 to 10 years) is lower compared to a new battery (5 to 15 years), which questions the circular business model viability for the scenarios studied. Energy management strategies should be combined and customized to increase economic benefits. Full article
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