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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2023) – 65 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Otitis externa in dogs is the inflammation of the external ear canal and may be acute or chronic, persistent or recurrent. Several bacterial species are involved in otitis externa and often Malassezia yeasts are simultaneously present. Otitis externa is often a severe problem in veterinary medicine because of the resistance of the involved pathogens to conventional drugs. Essential oils (EOs) could be promising products with which to treat these inflammations. EOs from Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, and Thymus vulgaris seem to be active in terms of  the main bacterial species and M. pachydermatis cultured from the ears of dogs with otitis; moreover, a mixture of these three components seems to improve the antibacterial properties. View this paper
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25 pages, 5579 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Disease and Injury on Faecal Cortisol Metabolites, as an Indicator of Stress in Wild Hospitalised Koalas, Endangered Australian Marsupials
by Flavia Santamaria, Rolf Schlagloth, Ludovica Valenza, Rupert Palme, Deidre de Villiers and Joerg Henning
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010065 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2693
Abstract
Loss of habitat, urbanisation, climate change and its consequences are anthropogenic pressures that may cause stress in koalas. Non-invasive monitoring of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) can be utilised to evaluate the impact of stressors. The aim was to determine if the tetrahydrocorticosterone (50c) [...] Read more.
Loss of habitat, urbanisation, climate change and its consequences are anthropogenic pressures that may cause stress in koalas. Non-invasive monitoring of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) can be utilised to evaluate the impact of stressors. The aim was to determine if the tetrahydrocorticosterone (50c) and cortisol enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) could be effective in measuring FCM values in wild, stressed koalas. This research included 146 koalas from the Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH) and 88 from a study conducted by Endeavour Veterinary Ecology (EVE), Queensland, Australia. Faecal samples of diseased, injured and control koalas were analysed. The effect of hospitalisation on FCM values was also investigated. Diseased and injured koalas had significantly higher FCM values than clinically healthy control animals as measured by the 50c EIA. FCM values with the cortisol EIA differed significantly between control and diseased koalas, but not between control and injured ones. Moreover, only the 50c EIA detected higher absolute values in males compared to females, and also found that females showed a more elevated response to stress manifested by injury and disease compared to males. The 50c EIA detected stress during hospitalisation better than the cortisol EIA. The cortisol EIA was also found unreliable in detecting stress in rehabilitated koalas treated with synthetic glucocorticoids as it cross-reacts with these steroids providing artificially high values. Full article
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9 pages, 1197 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Measurement of the Daily Total Locomotor Behavior in Calves Reared in an Intensive Management System for the Possible Application in Precision Livestock Farming
by Claudia Giannetto, Raul Delmar Cerutti, Maria Cristina Scaglione, Francesca Arfuso, Melissa Pennisi, Elisabetta Giudice, Giuseppe Piccione and Alessandro Zumbo
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010064 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Housing confinement, adaptation to different light/dark conditions, and social deprivation could modify the amount of total locomotor behavior of calves recommended for their psychophysical health. Total locomotor behavior was recorded by means of an activity data logger every 5 min for 6 consecutive [...] Read more.
Housing confinement, adaptation to different light/dark conditions, and social deprivation could modify the amount of total locomotor behavior of calves recommended for their psychophysical health. Total locomotor behavior was recorded by means of an activity data logger every 5 min for 6 consecutive days. To do that eight clinically healthy 30-day-old Holstein calves living in calf boxes under natural photoperiod and environmental conditions were enrolled. ANOVA (analysis of variance) showed a statistical effect of the day of monitoring and animal. In the temporal distribution of the resting–activity frequency, it was observed that the calves presented periods of total locomotor behavior with the existence of two peaks, one between 06:00–07:00 and another between 17:00–18:00, which corresponds to time of food intake. In all animals, a diurnal daily rhythm of total locomotor behavior was observed during time of monitoring. Intrasubject and intersubject variabilities were statistically different in mesor, amplitude, and robustness of rhythm. In conclusion, the total locomotor behavior showed a diurnal daily rhythmicity in 30-day-old calves. The characteristics of rhythm were different from individual to individual and from day to day. The recorded intersubject variability must be taken in consideration during the monitoring of farm animals and justifies the application of the device to each animal, as precision livestock farming suggests. Full article
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11 pages, 824 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology and Genetic Characteristics of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in the Hunan and Hebei Provinces of China
by Wang Zhai, Siyu Yu, Pengxuan Zhang, Yuan Lin, Shenghu Ge, Taojie Zhang, Kun Zhang, Shicheng He, Qiaoyun Hu, Xiaomin Tang, Zhi Peng and Changjian Wang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010063 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant threat to the pig industry in China. However, the epidemiological characteristics of PRRSV after the outbreak of African swine fever in China were not thoroughly investigated. In the present study, the serological and [...] Read more.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant threat to the pig industry in China. However, the epidemiological characteristics of PRRSV after the outbreak of African swine fever in China were not thoroughly investigated. In the present study, the serological and epidemiological investigations of PRRSV in pigs from the Hunan and Hebei provinces of China were assessed. The results showed that 73.12% (95% CI 71.74–74.49) of pigs were positive for PRRSV-special antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Out of 5799 samples, 482 (8.31%, 95% CI 7.60–9.02) samples were positive for PRRSV nucleic acids. The positive rates of PRRSV in healthy pigs from farms and slaughterhouses were 2.27% (47/2072) and 7.70% (217/2818), which were lower than that in diseased pigs (23.98%, 218/909). Furthermore, the full-length OFR5 gene sequences of 43 PRRSV strains were sequenced and analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 43 isolates were classified into three lineages, namely lineage 1 (n = 24), lineage 8 (n = 15), and lineage 3 (n = 4). Lineage 1 could be further divided into sublineage 1.5 (n = 2) and sublineage 1.8 (n = 22), and lineage 8 was classified into sublineage 8.1 (n = 3) and sublineage 8.7 (n = 12). Collectively, our findings revealed the severe prevalence of PRRSV in the Hunan and Hebei provinces, where sublineage 1.8 and sublineage 8.7 predominated. The present study provides the update information of the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of PRRSV in the investigated regions, which will be beneficial for PRRS control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Control of Swine Infectious Diseases)
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20 pages, 379 KiB  
Review
Current Perspectives on the Challenges of Implementing Assistance Dogs in Human Mental Health Care
by Sandra Foltin and Lisa Maria Glenk
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010062 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4679
Abstract
The prevalence of mental health disorders, driven by current global crises, is notably high. During the past decades, the popularity of dogs assisting humans with a wide spectrum of mental health disorders has significantly increased. Notwithstanding these dogs’ doubtless value, research on their [...] Read more.
The prevalence of mental health disorders, driven by current global crises, is notably high. During the past decades, the popularity of dogs assisting humans with a wide spectrum of mental health disorders has significantly increased. Notwithstanding these dogs’ doubtless value, research on their legal status, certification processes, training and management practices, as well as their welfare status, has been scarce. This scoping review highlights that in contrast to other assistance dogs such as guide dogs, there exists no consistent terminology to mark dogs that assist humans with impaired mental health. Legal authorities monitoring the accreditation process, training and tracking of mental health supporting dogs are broadly lacking, with only few exceptions. This review emphasizes the need to address several topics in the promotion of progress in legal and welfare issues related to assistance dogs as well as emotional support dogs for humans with a mental health disorder. The current body of knowledge was assessed in three different areas of focus: (1) the legal dimension including definitions and certification processes; (2) the dimension of performed tasks; and (3) the dog welfare dimension including aspects of the relationship with the handler and risks associated with children recipients. Considering the challenges associated with a mental health diagnosis, collaborations of dog provider organizations and health care professionals would be desirable to continuously assess the efficiency of the human-dog dyad regarding their overall compatibility, general satisfaction and mutual well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medical Education: Challenges and Perspectives)
16 pages, 2747 KiB  
Article
Complications in Laparoscopic Access in Standing Horses Using Cannula and Trocar Units Developed for Human Medicine
by Francisco José Vázquez, Arantza Vitoria, Javier Gómez-Arrue, Sara Fuente, Laura Barrachina, Ignacio de Blas and Antonio Romero
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010061 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
First cannulation is a critical manoeuvre in equine laparoscopy. This retrospective study aimed at the comparison of the frequency and type of complications detected when using different human laparoscopy devices for laparoscopic access in standing horses, and the influence of body condition in [...] Read more.
First cannulation is a critical manoeuvre in equine laparoscopy. This retrospective study aimed at the comparison of the frequency and type of complications detected when using different human laparoscopy devices for laparoscopic access in standing horses, and the influence of body condition in such complications. Forty-four procedures were included, and retrieved data comprised cannula insertion technique, body condition, and type and frequency of complications. Laparoscopic access techniques were classified into five groups: P: pneumoperitoneum created using Veress needle prior to cannulation; T: sharp trocar; D: direct access via surgical incision; V: Visiport optical trocar and H: optical helical cannula (OHC). In groups T, D, V and H, access was achieved without prior induction of pneumoperitoneum. Complications were registered in 13/44 procedures, of which retroperitoneal insufflation was the most common (6/13). Statistically significant association was found between the complication incidence and the type of access, with group D showing the highest complication frequency (80%) and group H the lowest frequency (0%). The majority of complications (9/13) were observed in overweight horses. We conclude that devices designed for human patients can be used for laparoscopic access in standing horses, with the use of OHC minimizing the appearance of complications, especially in overweight horses with OW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complications of Surgery in the Equine Patient)
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8 pages, 2862 KiB  
Case Report
Treatment of a Recurrent Pyometra by Surgical Uterine Drainage in a Main Coon Cat
by Gianluca Martini, Roberta Bucci, Salvatore Parrillo, Augusto Carluccio and Maria Carmela Pisu
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010060 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Pyometra is a uterine disease typical of the luteal phase of the estrus cycle. For selected patients, such as breeding subjects, ovariohysterectomy is not a valid resolutive option. Medical treatments involving cloprostenol and aglepristone have been developed for the cats, but they can [...] Read more.
Pyometra is a uterine disease typical of the luteal phase of the estrus cycle. For selected patients, such as breeding subjects, ovariohysterectomy is not a valid resolutive option. Medical treatments involving cloprostenol and aglepristone have been developed for the cats, but they can be ineffective in rare cases. Transcervical drainage and flushing have been described for the dogs, as well as for large wild cats. However, to the author’s knowledge, there are no report of uterine drainage in cats. The present case describes an alternative treatment of pyometra in a 3-year-old Main Coon previously treated with aglepristone. The patient underwent a laparotomy: the uterus was exposed, and a sterile urinary catheter was inserted into each horn, through the wall of the uterus, to allow the drainage of pathological collection and a subsequent lavage with lukewarm sterile saline. Medical treatment with aglepristone and marbofloxacin was associated. After treatment, no recurrence was reported, and the cat had an uneventful pregnancy. Although it is a unique case report, the results presented are promising, as the technique appears to have provided healing and preserved fertility. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy in the long-term prevention of recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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6 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
Molecular Investigation of Theileria and Babesia Species in Domestic Mammals from Sardinia, Italy
by Valentina Chisu, Elisa Serra, Cipriano Foxi, Giovanna Chessa and Giovanna Masala
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010059 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Piroplasmoses are tick-borne diseases caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of veterinary and public health significance. This study focuses on the molecular identification and characterization of species belonging to the Theileria/Babesia genera in 152 blood samples, collected from 80 horses and 72 cattle from several [...] Read more.
Piroplasmoses are tick-borne diseases caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of veterinary and public health significance. This study focuses on the molecular identification and characterization of species belonging to the Theileria/Babesia genera in 152 blood samples, collected from 80 horses and 72 cattle from several farms in Sardinia, by targeting the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR results highlighted that 72% of the samples were positive for Theileria/Babesia spp., with a rate of infection of 68% and 75% for the horses and cattle, respectively. Sequencing and the BLASTn analysis showed that the 18S rRNA generated in this study has 99–100% homology with the B. bigemina, T. orientalis/sergenti/buffeli, T. equi and T. annulata strains isolated from different hosts worldwide. These findings improve the knowledge on Babesia and Theileria infections in domestic mammals and confirm the significant prevalence of piroplasmosis among subclinical and carrier animals throughout the island. Furthermore, the presence of T. annulata, reported for the first time in the study area, expands the repertoire of pathogens already detected in Sardinia. Our results gather updates on the diversity and distribution of piroplasms in Sardinia and suggest the need to develop procedures to improve animal and public health safety. Full article
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14 pages, 1672 KiB  
Article
Characterization of a Novel Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) from Genogroup 6 Identified in Sea Trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Vänern, Sweden
by B. David Persson, Jacob Günther Schmidt, Mikhayil Hakhverdyan, Mikael Leijon, Niels Jørgen Olesen and Charlotte Axén
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010058 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
In November 2016, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was isolated from a broodstock female of landlocked sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Lake Vänern in Sweden. VP2 gene sequencing placed the IPNV isolate in genogroup 6, for which pathogenicity is largely unknown. [...] Read more.
In November 2016, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was isolated from a broodstock female of landlocked sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Lake Vänern in Sweden. VP2 gene sequencing placed the IPNV isolate in genogroup 6, for which pathogenicity is largely unknown. Lake Vänern hosts landlocked sea trout and salmon populations that are endangered, and thus the introduction of new pathogens poses a major threat. In this study we characterized the novel isolate by conducting an infection trial on three salmonid species present in Lake Vänern, whole genome sequencing of the isolate, and prevalence studies in the wild sea trout and salmon in Lake Vänern. During the infection trial, the pathogenicity of the Swedish isolate was compared to that of a pathogenic genogroup 5 isolate. Dead or moribund fish were collected, pooled, and analyzed by cell culture to identify infected individuals. In the trial, the Swedish isolate was detected in fewer sample pools in all three species compared to the genogroup 5 isolate. In addition, the prevalence studies showed a low prevalence (0.2–0.5%) of the virus in the feral salmonids in Lake Vänern. Together the data suggest that the novel Swedish IPNV genogroup 6 isolate is only mildly pathogenic to salmonids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Diseases and Immunity)
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20 pages, 1186 KiB  
Review
MicroRNAs in Ruminants and Their Potential Role in Nutrition and Physiology
by Oyindamola Esther Ojo and Susanne Kreuzer-Redmer
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010057 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
The knowledge of how diet choices, dietary supplements, and feed intake influence molecular mechanisms in ruminant nutrition and physiology to maintain ruminant health, is essential to attain. In the present review, we focus on the role of microRNAs in ruminant health and disease; [...] Read more.
The knowledge of how diet choices, dietary supplements, and feed intake influence molecular mechanisms in ruminant nutrition and physiology to maintain ruminant health, is essential to attain. In the present review, we focus on the role of microRNAs in ruminant health and disease; additionally, we discuss the potential of circulating microRNAs as biomarkers of disease in ruminants and the state of technology for their detection, also considering the major difficulties in the transition of biomarker development from bench to clinical practice. MicroRNAs are an inexhaustible class of endogenous non-protein coding small RNAs of 18 to 25 nucleotides that target either the 3′ untranslated (UTR) or coding region of genes, ensuring a tight post-transcriptionally controlled regulation of gene expression. The development of new “omics” technologies facilitated a fresh perspective on the nutrition–to–gene relationship, incorporating more extensive data from molecular genetics, animal nutrition, and veterinary sciences. MicroRNAs might serve as important regulators of metabolic processes and may present the inter-phase between nutrition and gene regulation, controlled by the diet. The development of biomarkers holds the potential to revolutionize veterinary practice through faster disease detection, more accurate ruminant health monitoring, enhanced welfare, and increased productivity. Finally, we summarize the latest findings on how microRNAs function as biomarkers, how technological paradigms are reshaping this field of research, and how platforms are being used to identify novel biomarkers. Numerous studies have demonstrated a connection between circulating microRNAs and ruminant diseases such as mastitis, tuberculosis, foot-and-mouth disease, fasciolosis, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, the identification and analysis of a small number of microRNAs can provide crucial information about the stage of a disease, etiology, and prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology, Nutrition, and Host-Microbiome Interaction in Ruminants)
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29 pages, 2262 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Phytogenic Substances against Secret Killers in Poultry: Current Status and Prospects
by Shereen Basiouni, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias, Juan D. Latorre, Brittany D. Graham, Victor M. Petrone-Garcia, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Sakine Yalçın, Amr Abd El-Wahab, Christian Visscher, Helen L. May-Simera, Claudia Huber, Wolfgang Eisenreich and Awad A. Shehata
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010055 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4550
Abstract
Chronic stress is recognized as a secret killer in poultry. It is associated with systemic inflammation due to cytokine release, dysbiosis, and the so-called leaky gut syndrome, which mainly results from oxidative stress reactions that damage the barrier function of the cells lining [...] Read more.
Chronic stress is recognized as a secret killer in poultry. It is associated with systemic inflammation due to cytokine release, dysbiosis, and the so-called leaky gut syndrome, which mainly results from oxidative stress reactions that damage the barrier function of the cells lining the gut wall. Poultry, especially the genetically selected broiler breeds, frequently suffer from these chronic stress symptoms when exposed to multiple stressors in their growing environments. Since oxidative stress reactions and inflammatory damages are multi-stage and long-term processes, overshooting immune reactions and their down-stream effects also negatively affect the animal’s microbiota, and finally impair its performance and commercial value. Means to counteract oxidative stress in poultry and other animals are, therefore, highly welcome. Many phytogenic substances, including flavonoids and phenolic compounds, are known to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this review, firstly, the main stressors in poultry, such as heat stress, mycotoxins, dysbiosis and diets that contain oxidized lipids that trigger oxidative stress and inflammation, are discussed, along with the key transcription factors involved in the related signal transduction pathways. Secondly, the most promising phytogenic substances and their current applications to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation in poultry are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals to Mitigate the Secret Killers in Animals)
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15 pages, 3034 KiB  
Article
A Clinical, Pathological, Epidemiological and Molecular Investigation of Recent Outbreaks of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants in the Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates
by Hassan Zackaria Ali Ishag, Abdelnasir Mohammed Adam Terab, Yassir Mohammed Eltahir, El Tigani Ahmed El Tigani-Asil, Nasereldien Altaib Hussein Khalil, Esamt Faisal Malik Gasim, Mohd Farouk Yuosf, Saeed Mohamed Saeed Al Yammahi, Asma Mohammed Amer Al Mansoori, Salama Suhail Mohammed Al Muhairi, Zulaikha Mohamed Abdel Hameed Al Hammadi, Asma Abdi Mohamed Shah, Majd Mohamed Azmi Naser Alherbawi, Mervat Mari Hassan Al Nuaimat, Oum Keltoum Bensalah and Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010056 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
(1) Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants, leading to significant economic losses. There has been little published data on PPR virus (PPRV) infection in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); (2) Methods: four outbreaks reported [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious animal disease affecting small ruminants, leading to significant economic losses. There has been little published data on PPR virus (PPRV) infection in the United Arab Emirates (UAE); (2) Methods: four outbreaks reported in goats and Dama gazelle in 2021 were investigated using pathological and molecular testing; (3) Results: The infected animals showed symptoms of dyspnea, oculo-nasal secretions, cough, and diarrhea. Necropsy findings were almost similar in all examined animals and compliant to the classical forms of the disease. Phylogenetic analysis based on N gene and F gene partial sequences revealed a circulation of PPRV Asian lineage IV in the UAE, and these sequences clustered close to the sequences of PPRV from United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Iran; (4) Conclusions: PPRV Asian lineage IV is currently circulating in the UAE. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first study describing PPRV in domestic small ruminant in the UAE. Full article
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13 pages, 1105 KiB  
Article
A Four-Year Survey of Hemoparasites from Nocturnal Raptors (Strigiformes) Confirms a Relation between Leucocytozoon and Low Hematocrit and Body Condition Scores of Parasitized Birds
by Bárbara Martín-Maldonado, Aida Mencía-Gutiérrez, Cristina Andreu-Vázquez, Rocío Fernández, Natalia Pastor-Tiburón, Alberto Alvarado, Alicia Carrero, Aitor Fernández-Novo, Fernando Esperón and Fernando González
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010054 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Most hemoparasites hosted by wild birds appear to be harmless, but most of the blood parasite studies in avian wildlife are mainly focused on passerines or migratory species. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of blood parasites in nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes order) [...] Read more.
Most hemoparasites hosted by wild birds appear to be harmless, but most of the blood parasite studies in avian wildlife are mainly focused on passerines or migratory species. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of blood parasites in nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes order) and their effect on hematological parameters. A total of 134 blood samples were collected during a four-year period for hematological analysis and hemoparasite detection and quantification by microscopical examination of the samples. Overall, the occurrence of hemoparasites was 35.1%, with Leucocytozoon being the most frequently detected (32.1%), followed by Haemoproteus (11.2%), Trypanosoma and Plasmodium (2.2% each). Among the different bird species, the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) showed the highest blood parasite positivity (94.7%). In barn owls, the positive birds displayed a lower hematocrit measurement and body condition score than the non-parasitized ones (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005, respectively), especially those parasitized by Leucocytozoon. Moreover, the analysis of the magnitude of this association revealed that the presence of hemoparasites is five times more frequent in barn owls with a 2/5 body condition score. Despite the host–parasite coevolution in Strigiformes, our results show a correlation between the presence of hemoparasites and some health parameters, including blood parameters. Full article
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12 pages, 2542 KiB  
Article
Impact of Chlorpyrifos on Cytopathological Indices in Mangrove Crab, Episesarma tetragonum (Fabricius)
by Rajesh Ravi, Maharajan Athisuyambulingam, Shanmugavel Kanagaraj, Nikola Tresnakova, Federica Impellitteri, Ganapiriya Viswambaran and Caterina Faggio
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010053 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide occurring in aquatic ecosystems. Due to exposure to xenobiotics, several harmful effects on aquatic organisms are noticed worldwide. Mangrove crabs are an ecologically important aquatic invertebrate species in food web interactions and in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide occurring in aquatic ecosystems. Due to exposure to xenobiotics, several harmful effects on aquatic organisms are noticed worldwide. Mangrove crabs are an ecologically important aquatic invertebrate species in food web interactions and in the mangrove ecosystem. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos on the mangrove crab, Episesarma tetragonum. Crabs were exposed to 0.0294 and 0.0588 ppm of chlorpyrifos for 7 and 28 days. Cytopathologic effects on the gill, hepatopancreas, and muscle were investigated, and observations were compared with a control group. The results suggest that chlorpyrifos induces time- and concentration-dependent cytopathological alternations in the gill and exhibited epithelial lifting, oedema, necrosis, and a fusion of secondary lamellae and haemorrhage. The deceased hepatopancreas showed infiltration, a large lumen formation, and the disappearance of haemocytes, while the muscle tissue showed atrophy, necrosis, a wavy appearance, an accumulation of granular material between muscle fibres, and fragmentation in a mangrove crab. This study shows the great potential of cytopathological investigations, allows us to assess the sensitivity of various aquatic animal species to potentially dangerous compounds, and calculates safe concentrations with which to reduce pesticide use. Full article
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25 pages, 4177 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Vegan Diets on Indicators of Health in Dogs and Cats: A Systematic Review
by Adriana Domínguez-Oliva, Daniel Mota-Rojas, Ines Semendric and Alexandra L. Whittaker
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010052 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 25354
Abstract
There has been an increase in vegetarianism and veganism in human populations. This trend also appears to be occurring in companion animals, with guardians preferring to feed their animals in accordance with their own dietary values and choices. However, there has been controversy [...] Read more.
There has been an increase in vegetarianism and veganism in human populations. This trend also appears to be occurring in companion animals, with guardians preferring to feed their animals in accordance with their own dietary values and choices. However, there has been controversy amongst vets and online commentators about the safety of feeding vegan diets to carnivorous species, such as cats and dogs. In spite of this controversy, to date there has been no systematic evaluation of the evidence on this topic. A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed, identifying 16 studies on the impact of vegan diets on cat and dog health. Studies were appraised for quality using established critical appraisal tools or reporting guidelines. There was considerable heterogeneity in the outcomes measured, and study designs employed, with few studies evaluating key outcomes of interest. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was utilized for assessment of certainty in the evidence, with the evidence for most outcomes being assessed as low or very low. Whilst the quality and amount of evidence needs to be considered in formulating recommendations, there was no overwhelming evidence of adverse effects arising from use of these diets and there was some evidence of benefits. It is, however, recommended that future high-quality studies, with standardized outcome measures and large sample sizes, be conducted. At the current time, if guardians wish to feed their companion animals vegan diets, a cautious approach should be taken using commercially produced diets which have been formulated considering the nutritional needs of the target species. Full article
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17 pages, 4878 KiB  
Article
Morphological Characteristics of Genital Organ-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in the Vaginal Vestibule of Goats and Pigs
by Tsolmon Chuluunbaatar, Osamu Ichii, Md. Abdul Masum, Takashi Namba and Yasuhiro Kon
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010051 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3019
Abstract
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a specialized form of peripheral lymphoid tissue (LT), which is found on mucosal surfaces exposed to the environment. However, morphological data of these tissues in farm animals are scarce. This study investigated the gross anatomical and histological features [...] Read more.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a specialized form of peripheral lymphoid tissue (LT), which is found on mucosal surfaces exposed to the environment. However, morphological data of these tissues in farm animals are scarce. This study investigated the gross anatomical and histological features of genital organ-associated lymphoid tissues (GOALTs) in the vaginal vestibule (VV) of healthy, non-pregnant, adult goats and pigs. Their VVs were composed of stratified squamous, non-keratinized epithelium, and various-sized dark-blue hematoxylin-positive spots were observed in whole-mount specimens, which were diffusely distributed throughout the mucosal surfaces. These spots were histologically identified as LTs and consisted of lymphatic nodules (LNs) or diffuse lymphoid tissue (DLTs). Both LNs and DLTs contained B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, plasma cells, and high endothelial venules. Only the numbers of B cells were significantly higher in both the LNs and DLTs of pigs compared to goats. Furthermore, the surface of the VV epithelium covering the LTs was partially disrupted with a large intercellular space containing abundant connective tissue fibers with numerous lymphocytes. In conclusion, GOALTs in the VV appear to be common local immunological barriers in both examined animals. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the structures and disorders of female reproductive organs in farm animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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11 pages, 887 KiB  
Review
Importance of Water Transport in Mammalian Female Reproductive Tract
by Lluis Ferré-Dolcet and Maria Montserrat Rivera del Alamo
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010050 - 11 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1966
Abstract
Aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in water homeostasis in tissues and are ubiquitous in the reproductive tract. AQPs are classified into classical aquaporins (AQP0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8), aquaglycerolporins (AQP3, 7, 9, and 10) and superaquaporins (AQP11 and 12). Nine AQPs [...] Read more.
Aquaporins (AQPs) are involved in water homeostasis in tissues and are ubiquitous in the reproductive tract. AQPs are classified into classical aquaporins (AQP0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8), aquaglycerolporins (AQP3, 7, 9, and 10) and superaquaporins (AQP11 and 12). Nine AQPs were described in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Some of their functions are influenced by sexual steroid hormones. The continuous physiological changes that occur throughout the sexual cycle, pregnancy and parturition, modify the expression of AQPs, thus creating at every moment the required water homeostasis. AQPs in the ovary regulate follicular development and ovulation. In the vagina and the cervix, AQPs are involved mainly in lubrication. In the uterus, AQPs are mostly mediated by estradiol and progesterone to prepare the endometrium for possible embryo implantation and fetal development. In the placenta, AQPs are responsible for the fluid support to the fetus to maintain fetal homeostasis that ensures correct fetal development as pregnancy goes on. This review is focused on understanding the role of AQPs in the mammalian female reproductive tract during the sexual cycle of pregnancy and parturition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Placentation in Mammals: Development, Function and Pathology)
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15 pages, 1976 KiB  
Article
Molecular Features and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi Isolates from Strangles Cases in Indonesia
by Dordia Anindita Rotinsulu, Christa Ewers, Katharina Kerner, Amrozi Amrozi, Retno Damayanti Soejoedono, Torsten Semmler and Rolf Bauerfeind
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010049 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
Strangles, caused by Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi equi), is a highly infectious and frequent disease of equines worldwide. No data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of strangles in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize S. equi equi isolates [...] Read more.
Strangles, caused by Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi equi), is a highly infectious and frequent disease of equines worldwide. No data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of strangles in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize S. equi equi isolates obtained from suspected strangles cases in Indonesia in 2018. Isolates originated from seven diseased horses on four different farms located in three provinces of Indonesia. Whole genome sequences of these isolates were determined and used for seM typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and core genome MLS typing (cgMLST). Genomes were also screened for known antimicrobial resistance genes and genes encoding for the recombinant antigens used in the commercial Strangvac® subunit vaccine. All seven S. equi equi isolates from Indonesia belonged to ST179 and carried seM allele 166. Isolates differed from each other by only 2 to 14 cgSNPs and built an exclusive sub-cluster within the Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure (BAPS) cluster 2 (BAPS-2) of the S. equi equi cgMLST scheme. All isolates revealed predicted amino acid sequence identity to seven and high similarity to one of the eight antigen fragments contained in Strangvac®. Furthermore, all isolates were susceptible to beta-lactam antibiotics penicillin G, ampicillin, and ceftiofur. Our data suggest that the horses from this study were affected by strains of the same novel sublineage within globally distributed BAPS-2 of S. equi equi. Nevertheless, penicillin G can be used as a first-choice antibiotic against these strains and Strangvac® may also be protective against Indonesian strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Streptococcus in Veterinary Medicine)
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13 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Subunit Vaccine Targeting Phosphate ABC Transporter ATP-Binding Protein, PstB, Provides Cross-Protection against Streptococcus suis Serotype 2, 7, and 9 in Mice
by Zujie Yan, Xiaohui Yao, Ruyi Pan, Junjie Zhang, Xiaochun Ma, Nihua Dong, Jianchao Wei, Ke Liu, Yafeng Qiu, Katie Sealey, Hester Nichols, Michael A. Jarvis, Mathew Upton, Xiangdong Li, Zhiyong Ma, Juxiang Liu and Beibei Li
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010048 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2117
Abstract
Streptococcus suis is a significant pathogen in pigs and a newly emerging zoonotic agent in humans. The presence of multiple serotypes and strains with diversified sequence types in pig herds highlights the need for the identification of broadly cross-reactive universal vaccine antigen targets, [...] Read more.
Streptococcus suis is a significant pathogen in pigs and a newly emerging zoonotic agent in humans. The presence of multiple serotypes and strains with diversified sequence types in pig herds highlights the need for the identification of broadly cross-reactive universal vaccine antigen targets, capable of providing cross-protection against S. suis infection. Subunit vaccines based on the conserved proteins shared between different S. suis serotypes are potential candidates for such a universally protective vaccine. In the present study, phosphate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein PstB (PstB), an immunogenic protein of the S. suis bacterium, was expressed and purified, and then subjected to cross-protection evaluation in mice. The PstB protein showed nearly 100% amino acid similarity across a panel of 31 S. suis isolates representing different serotypes, which were collected from different countries. A recombinant PstB (rPstB) protein (S. suis serotype 2) was recognized by rabbit sera specific to this serotype, and induced high levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 in mice immunized with the recombinant protein. These cytokines are considered important for protection against S. suis infection. Immunization of mice with rPstB resulted in an 87.5% protection against challenge with S. suis serotype 2 and 9 strains, suggesting a high level of cross-protection for S. suis serotypes 2 and 9. A lower protection rate (62.5%) was observed in mice challenged with the S. suis serotype 7 strain. These data demonstrate that PstB is a promising target antigen for development as a component of a universal subunit vaccine against multiple S. suis serotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Streptococcus in Veterinary Medicine)
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10 pages, 769 KiB  
Communication
Association between Milk Electrical Conductivity Biomarkers with Lameness in Dairy Cows
by Algimantas Paulauskas, Vida Juozaitienė, Karina Džermeikaitė, Dovilė Bačėninaitė, Gediminas Urbonavičius, Saulius Tušas, Evaldas Šlyžius, Walter Baumgartner, Arūnas Rutkauskas and Ramūnas Antanaitis
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010047 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Early identification of lameness at all phases of lactation improves milk yield and reduces the incidence of mastitis in the herd. According to the literature we hypothesized that there are associations of electrical conductivity variables of milk flow with lameness in dairy cows. [...] Read more.
Early identification of lameness at all phases of lactation improves milk yield and reduces the incidence of mastitis in the herd. According to the literature we hypothesized that there are associations of electrical conductivity variables of milk flow with lameness in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine if blood cortisol and electrical conductivity in the milk flow phases correlate with each other and whether they are related to cow lameness. On one farm, out of 1500 cows, 64 cows with signs of lameness and 56 healthy cows were selected with an average of 2.8 lactations and 60 days in the postpartum period. A local veterinarian who specializes in hoof care treatments identified and scored lameness. During evening milking, the milk flow of all 120 cows was measured using electronic milk flow meters (Lactocorder®, WMB AG, Balgache, Switzerland). Before each milking, two electronic mobile milk flow meters (Lactocorders) were mounted between the milking apparatus and the milking tube to take measurements. We found that the average cortisol concentration in the blood of the studied cows was significantly correlated with the laminitis score. Results of this study indicate that the number of non-lame cows with a milk electrical conductivity level of <6 mS/cm even reached 90.8–92.3% of animals. Milk electrical conductivity indicators ≥ 6 mS/cm were determined in 17.8–29.0% more animals in the group of lame cows compared to the group of non-lame cows. According to our study, we detected that blood cortisol concentration had the strongest positive correlation with milk electrical conductivity indicators. Cows with a greater lameness score had a higher cortisol content and milk conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spotlight on Mastitis of Dairy Cows)
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13 pages, 6529 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Investigation of Feline Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Encourages a Geographically Specific FCV Vaccine
by Jindong Gao, Yan Li, Qiyun Xie, Mayasar I. Al-zaban, Fatimah A. Al-Saeed, Ali A. Shati, Amin A. Al-Doaiss, Ahmed Ezzat Ahmed, Shah Nawaz, Hala Ebrahem, Irfan Irshad, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar and Jiakui Li
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010046 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3302
Abstract
A total of 1158 cats with feline upper respiratory tract infection were incorporated from twenty animal hospitals in Wuhan, China, from April 2019 to April 2022 to investigate the epidemiology of feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma felis (M. felis) and [...] Read more.
A total of 1158 cats with feline upper respiratory tract infection were incorporated from twenty animal hospitals in Wuhan, China, from April 2019 to April 2022 to investigate the epidemiology of feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), Mycoplasma felis (M. felis) and Chlamydia felis (C. felis) for the development of a geographically-specific FCV vaccine with reference to prevalence and risk factors for infection. The 871 samples (75.2%) of kittens were younger than 12 months, of which 693 were males, and 456 were females. Among the samples, 443 were British shorthair cats, accounting for 38.3%, and 252 were Chinese rural cats, accounting for 21.8%. PCR/RT-PCR detection of the above four viruses (FCV, FHV-1, M. felis, and C. felis) in the upper respiratory tract of cats showed that the total positive samples were 744 (64.3%), including 465 positive samples of feline calicivirus, accounting for 40.2% of the total 1158 samples. There were 311 positive samples of M. felis, accounting for 26.9% of the total samples, ranked second in clinical practice. The 180 positive samples of feline herpesvirus accounted for 15.5%, and 85 positive samples of Chlamydia felis accounted for 7.3%. Among them, the number of positive samples of single pathogenic infections was 493, accounting for 66.3% of the total 744 positive samples. Double, triple, and quadruple infections accounted for 28.2%, 5.0%, and 0.5%, respectively, with the highest proportion of single infections. The molecular biological characteristics of the 17 isolated FCVd strains in Wuhan were further analyzed. It was found that the F9 vaccine strain and the antigenic epitopes in the 5’HVR of the E region were collated with the F9 vaccine strain. Moreover, phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the strains related to the F9 and 255 vaccines were distantly related, leading to the failure of the vaccine. In addition, the strains associated with the F9 and 255 vaccines were distant, which might lead to vaccine failure in anticipation of the development of a more phylogenetically close FCV vaccine in China and may require the development of a vaccine for a locally related FCV strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Respiratory Diseases of Small Animals)
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14 pages, 1279 KiB  
Article
Detection of Necrosis in Digitised Whole-Slide Images for Better Grading of Canine Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Using Machine-Learning
by Ambra Morisi, Taran Rai, Nicholas J. Bacon, Spencer A. Thomas, Miroslaw Bober, Kevin Wells, Michael J. Dark, Tawfik Aboellail, Barbara Bacci and Roberto M. La Ragione
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010045 - 8 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The definitive diagnosis of canine soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) is based on histological assessment of formalin-fixed tissues. Assessment of parameters, such as degree of differentiation, necrosis score and mitotic score, give rise to a final tumour grade, which is important in determining prognosis and [...] Read more.
The definitive diagnosis of canine soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) is based on histological assessment of formalin-fixed tissues. Assessment of parameters, such as degree of differentiation, necrosis score and mitotic score, give rise to a final tumour grade, which is important in determining prognosis and subsequent treatment modalities. However, grading discrepancies are reported to occur in human and canine STSs, which can result in complications regarding treatment plans. The introduction of digital pathology has the potential to help improve STS grading via automated determination of the presence and extent of necrosis. The detected necrotic regions can be factored in the grading scheme or excluded before analysing the remaining tissue. Here we describe a method to detect tumour necrosis in histopathological whole-slide images (WSIs) of STSs using machine learning. Annotated areas of necrosis were extracted from WSIs and the patches containing necrotic tissue fed into a pre-trained DenseNet161 convolutional neural network (CNN) for training, testing and validation. The proposed CNN architecture reported favourable results, with an overall validation accuracy of 92.7% for necrosis detection which represents the number of correctly classified data instances over the total number of data instances. The proposed method, when vigorously validated represents a promising tool to assist pathologists in evaluating necrosis in canine STS tumours, by increasing efficiency, accuracy and reducing inter-rater variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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19 pages, 5262 KiB  
Article
Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Maternal Myofibroblasts in the Bovine Placenta around Parturition
by Valentina Kuczwara, Gerhard Schuler, Christiane Pfarrer, Louiza Tiedje, Ali Kazemian, Miguel Tavares Pereira, Mariusz P. Kowalewski and Karl Klisch
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010044 - 7 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Myofibroblasts are contractile cells that exhibit features of both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. In the synepitheliochorial placenta of the cow myofibroblasts are found in the maternal stroma. However, a deeper understanding of the structure and function of the stromal myofibroblasts in the [...] Read more.
Myofibroblasts are contractile cells that exhibit features of both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. In the synepitheliochorial placenta of the cow myofibroblasts are found in the maternal stroma. However, a deeper understanding of the structure and function of the stromal myofibroblasts in the developed bovine placenta is still missing. Thus, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses in bovine term placentomes, compared to non-pregnant caruncle samples, were conducted. To investigate functional aspects, contractility of placentomal caruncle slices was assessed in an in vitro contraction assay. Additionally, a three-dimensional reconstruction of a bovine placental myofibroblast was created. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a characteristic pattern, including cytoplasmic expression of α-smooth muscle actin, strong perinuclear signal for the intermediate filament vimentin and nuclear progesterone receptor staining. Ultrastructurally, stress fibers, extended cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear intermediate filaments were observed. Moreover, in vitro stimulation with angiotensin-II, but not with prostaglandin F2α, induced contraction of placental caruncle tissue. Altogether, these results indicate that progesterone-responsive myofibroblasts represent a mesenchymal phenotype that is involved in the contractile properties of bovine placental stroma. Therefore, the present findings suggest a potential involvement of myofibroblasts in post-partum events of cattle, i.e., expulsion of fetal membranes and uterine involution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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10 pages, 641 KiB  
Article
Do Calving-Related Injuries of the Vestibulum Vaginae and the Vagina Affect the Reproductive Performance in Primiparous Dairy Cows?
by Helena Marien, Natascha Gundling, Wolfgang Hasseler, Maren Feldmann, Kathrin Herzog and Martina Hoedemaker
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010043 - 7 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1887
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of calving-related injuries of the vestibulum vaginae and the vagina on fertility measures in heifers. German Holstein heifers (n = 236) were checked for vestibulum vaginae and vaginal injuries. These were scored [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of calving-related injuries of the vestibulum vaginae and the vagina on fertility measures in heifers. German Holstein heifers (n = 236) were checked for vestibulum vaginae and vaginal injuries. These were scored according to localization, depth and length. The healing process was assessed until day 42 post partum. Calving ease and the occurrence of metritis and endometritis were evaluated. In 160 heifers, the following fertility measures were calculated to assess the reproductive performance of heifers: mean interval from calving to first insemination, mean days open, mean interval from first insemination to conception, mean calving interval, mean pregnancy index, percentage of animals pregnant at 200 days p.p., and first service conception rate. On the one hand, dystocia was a risk factor for injuries of the soft birth canal, and, on the other hand, those injuries were a risk factor for metritis and endometritis. In this study, calving-related injuries of the vestibulum vaginae and the vagina had no statistically significant effect on the reproductive performance of heifers. One reason for this outcome was probably the overall good healing tendencies of those injuries in heifers. Full article
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10 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
Human ELISA Detects anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Cats: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Virus Spread in Domestic and Stray Cats in Bulgaria
by Ivo Sirakov, Nikolina Rusenova, Anton Rusenov, Raina Gergova and Tanya Strateva
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010042 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify whether the human DR-ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can be applied in cats, and to assess the risk factors that determine the spread of the virus among the cat population in Bulgaria. The [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to verify whether the human DR-ELISA for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can be applied in cats, and to assess the risk factors that determine the spread of the virus among the cat population in Bulgaria. The study included 92 serum samples collected from 68 domestic and 24 stray cats aged from 3 months to 20 years of age in the period of January–June 2021. The samples originated from three regions in Bulgaria and from three places of inhabitance. DR-ELISA based on peroxidase-labeled SARS-CoV-2 N protein was employed to detect IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies in the samples. Subsequently, the results were compared with a commercially available multi-species ELISA kit. There was high seroprevalence (83.33%) in stray cats and 41.18% in domestic cats, confirmed by the human and veterinary ELISA kit. The positive cases in the regional cities were 42.86%, in small towns 50% and in villages 78.26%. Cats under 7 years had a five times higher risk than those over 7 years (p = 0.001). The risk was seven times higher for stray cats than for domestic cats (p = 0.001). In addition, the results indicate that the risk was the highest for cats in villages (p = 0.006) compared to cats in other places of inhabitance. This study demonstrates that human DR-ELISA may be successfully applied to monitor the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in cats and other susceptible species. Cats might serve as sentinel animals for tracking the virus in nature and in inhabited areas (strays) and to discover asymptomatic cases in humans/owners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Model Research of SARS-CoV-2 and the Value of Imaging)
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8 pages, 253 KiB  
Article
Coagulation Abnormalities in Dogs with Parvoviral Enteritis
by Francesca Corda, Isabella Ballocco, Andrea Corda, Alessandra Mollica, Anna Cilano, Marta Polinas and Maria Luisa Pinna Parpaglia
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010041 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1955
Abstract
Hemostatic alterations have been documented in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis. This study’s aims were to measure the standard coagulation parameters, and to assess the relationship between them and the clinical variables in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis. Nine client-owned dogs with a [...] Read more.
Hemostatic alterations have been documented in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis. This study’s aims were to measure the standard coagulation parameters, and to assess the relationship between them and the clinical variables in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis. Nine client-owned dogs with a canine parvoviral infection were included in a prospective, observational clinical study. Clinical score and coagulation status were assessed at admission. All nine dogs showed alterations of three or more standard coagulation variables. A correlation analysis evidenced a significantly high positive correlation between the activated partial thromboplastin time and clinical score. The present study concurs that dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis have coagulation disorders that are detectable by measuring the standard coagulation parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Internal Medicine)
12 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
An Epidemiological Survey to Investigate the Prevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Bovine Hosts in Punjab, Pakistan
by Sadia Saleem, Haroon Ahmed, Kaleem Imdad, Jing Zhang and Jianping Cao
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010040 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease of worldwide geographical distribution. CE is most common in underdeveloped and herding communities where people survive on animal husbandry and agricultural activities. The prevalence of CE in livestock and its risk factors are widely underreported, [...] Read more.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease of worldwide geographical distribution. CE is most common in underdeveloped and herding communities where people survive on animal husbandry and agricultural activities. The prevalence of CE in livestock and its risk factors are widely underreported, because of inefficient surveillance systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and prevalence of CE in cattle in Punjab, Pakistan. Data were collected from slaughterhouses from September 2021 to February 2022. Ante- and postmortem examination and cyst characterization were performed. Epidemiological, demographic, and one health data were collected. A total of 8877 animals (8096 buffalo, 781 cattle) were examined, and the prevalence of CE was 6.22% (n = 552) in all animals, with a higher prevalence in cattle (15.20% vs. buffalo 5.83%). Prevalence was not significantly different in males and females. Of the 23 districts studied, the highest prevalence was in the Haripur district of KP (20.85%). The majority of animals studied were older than 3 years. Most cysts were found in animals older than 5 years. Lungs and liver were the predominant sites for the presence of cysts (65.58% and 31.34%, respectively. Of the collected cysts, 29.71% were fertile. The findings may be useful in estimating the eco-epidemiology of CE and improving surveillance and prevention programs in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Echinococcosis)
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14 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Isolated Bacteria from the Uteri of Camels with Different Reproductive Backgrounds: A Study on Sampling Methodology, Prevalence, and Clinical Significance
by Behnam Asadi, Fahimeh Seyedasgari, Iradj Ashrafi Tamai, Mehdi Yarmohammadi, Reza Ebadi, Ellen Kim and Abbas Barin
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010039 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to comparatively identify the common bacterial isolates from the uteri of camels coming from different reproductive backgrounds after standardizing the sampling method and to investigate the association of clinically measurable parameters with uterine colonization by these isolates. [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to comparatively identify the common bacterial isolates from the uteri of camels coming from different reproductive backgrounds after standardizing the sampling method and to investigate the association of clinically measurable parameters with uterine colonization by these isolates. The uterine samples from 856 dromedary camels yielded a total of 17 different bacterial species with a higher proportion of sub-fertile camel uteri being colonized by bacteria (66.6%) as compared to nulliparous, recently calved, and those with unknown reproductive history combined (44.2%; p < 0.05). Camels with body condition scoring < 3 and those with a consistently echogenic appearance of the uterine lumen by sonography were more likely to be positive on uterine culture, while the presence of pus in uterine discharge was not associated with the odds of bacterial isolation (p > 0.05). While certain strains were more likely to be obtained from the uteri of the sub-fertile group (p < 0.05), embryo transfer to camels with a positive uterine culture in the absence of other gross reproductive pathologies did not necessarily affect the overall pregnancy rate compared to recipients with a negative uterine culture (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a relatively high bacterial load can be identified from the uteri of both sub-fertile and normal dromedary camels, with a higher frequency among the former. The uterine ultrasonography and evaluation of the body condition score can help in identifying the camels in which uterus is contaminated by bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics)
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14 pages, 7313 KiB  
Article
Cleft Palate Syndrome in the Endangered Spectacled Flying Fox (Pteropus conspicillatus): Implications for Conservation and Comparative Research
by Lee McMichael, Jennefer Mclean, Jim Taylor, Yissu Martinez and Joanne Meers
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010038 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Cleft palate syndrome, first observed in the spectacled flying fox population in 1998, has produced sporadic neonatal mortality events over the past two decades, with an estimated incidence of up to 1/1000 births per year. This study presents a rudimentary characterisation of the [...] Read more.
Cleft palate syndrome, first observed in the spectacled flying fox population in 1998, has produced sporadic neonatal mortality events over the past two decades, with an estimated incidence of up to 1/1000 births per year. This study presents a rudimentary characterisation of the syndrome, presenting gross pathology of syndromic signs upon visual inspection, a histological examination of palate malformations, and syndrome incidence data representing the past two decades. The syndrome presents with a range of signs, primarily congenital palate malformations ranging from a pinhole cleft to a complete hard and soft palate deficit, resulting in the death or abandonment of neonates shortly after birth. The congenital palate malformations are often associated with claw deformities, wiry facial hair, and in some instances, muscle weakness and neurological signs. The natural occurrence of the lethal congenital orofacial birth defects in the spectacled flying fox presents a unique opportunity for the investigation of putative aetiologies, drawing parallels between bat and other mammalian cleft palate risk factors. Further syndrome investigation has the potential to deliver both biodiversity conservation and comparative veterinary and biomedical outcomes. Full article
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14 pages, 1326 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Respiratory Vaccine Type and Timing on Antibody Titers, Immunoglobulins, and Growth Performance in Pre- and Post-Weaned Beef Calves
by Jeff M. Matty, Cassidy Reddout, Jordan Adams, Mike Major, David Lalman, Rosslyn Biggs, Janeen L. Salak-Johnson and Paul A. Beck
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010037 - 4 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
In order to examine the effects of vaccine type and timing of crossbred beef calves (n = 151) were assigned to one of three BRD vaccination protocols stratified by breed of sire, sex, and date of birth, which included: (1) KM—a pentavalent [...] Read more.
In order to examine the effects of vaccine type and timing of crossbred beef calves (n = 151) were assigned to one of three BRD vaccination protocols stratified by breed of sire, sex, and date of birth, which included: (1) KM—a pentavalent killed viral (KV) vaccine at 2 to 3 months of age (D 0) and a pentavalent modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine at weaning (D 127); (2) MM—MLV on D 0 and revaccinated on D 127 or (3) WN—MLV at weaning and D 140. Vaccination treatment did not affect performance nor BRSV serum-neutralizing antibody titers. Serum-neutralizing antibody titers to BVDV-1 were greatest for the MM through D 154. However, following booster (KM) or initial vaccination (WN) at D 127, titers increased for the other treatment groups to higher values (KM) by the end of the study. Delay of initial vaccination until weaning may have delayed specific antibody response in the WN group and skewed the immune response towards a Th-1 or cell-mediated response. Overall, the inclusion of an MLV in the vaccine protocol resulted in a more robust antibody response, and the timing of vaccination may affect the onset of efficacious and robust vaccine responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Bovine Respiratory Diseases)
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18 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Oral Florfenicol Medication and Residues on the Kidney and Liver of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.)
by Avishek Bardhan, Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham, Jasmine Singha, Ravindran Rajisha, Edaparambil Krishnappan Nanitha Krishna, Satyen Kumar Panda and Prasanna Kumar Patil
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10010036 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
Florfenicol (FFC), an approved aquaculture antibiotic, is administered in feed at doses of 10–15 mg kg biomass−1 day−1 for 10 successive days. In this study, healthy Oreochromis niloticus were fed with 0–10 times the therapeutic dose of 15 mg kg biomass [...] Read more.
Florfenicol (FFC), an approved aquaculture antibiotic, is administered in feed at doses of 10–15 mg kg biomass−1 day−1 for 10 successive days. In this study, healthy Oreochromis niloticus were fed with 0–10 times the therapeutic dose of 15 mg kg biomass−1 day−1 for 10 days and tracked for 43 days post dosing. Assessments of residue accrual and depletion, oxidative stress, serum biochemistry, histopathology and extent of kidney and liver damages were made. FFC dosing reduced the feed intake significantly. The therapeutic dose produced no mortalities on day 10. Dose-dependent alterations in serum biochemistry were noted upon dosing. Several histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney and liver, which vindicated the toxic potentials of FFC. The residual FFC and florfenicol amine (FFA) accrual, depletion and oxidative stress responses, such as increased malondialdehyde, total nitric oxide, ferric reducing antioxidant power and reduced glutathione S-transferase activity, were documented. The dietary FFC persuaded the physiological state of O. niloticus, the effects of which normalized sparsely with time upon cessation of dosing at the higher doses. The study provided a brief outlook on the physiological responses upon oral FFC administration, which should be kept in mind during its application for fish health safety purposes. Full article
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