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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 106 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Metaphylaxis, the practice of delivering an antimicrobial to an at-risk population, can be an effective tool for reducing bovine respiratory disease. However, it is not always clear if metaphylaxis is needed for some cattle populations (e.g., those at medium risk). As the beef industry strives towards improved antimicrobial stewardship, alternative antimicrobial use strategies need to be comprehensively evaluated. This article describes a randomized clinical trial of two different antimicrobial use strategies for respiratory disease management, while considering a comprehensive framework of outcomes deemed critically important to industry stakeholders. These outcomes include animal health and wellbeing, animal performance and production efficiency, economics, estimated greenhouse gas emissions, and the amount of antimicrobial use. View this paper
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13 pages, 5463 KiB  
Article
Detection of Endoparasites in Non-Native Raccoons from Central Italy
by Andrea Lombardo, Marco Diano, Giuseppina Brocherel, Lucia Palmerini, Serena Giovannini, Ziad Mezher, Manuela Iurescia, Tamara Cerci, Andrea Caprioli, Claudia Eleni, Caterina Raso, Alessia Mariacher, Irene Del Lesto, Nadia Cappai, Luca Mattioli, Claudio De Liberato and Gianluca Fichi
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020171 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2313
Abstract
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a carnivore native to North and Central America, gradually introduced into Asia and Europe, including Italy. It is an important carrier of multiple endoparasites, both Protozoa and Helminths, some of them being zoonotic. The aim of [...] Read more.
The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a carnivore native to North and Central America, gradually introduced into Asia and Europe, including Italy. It is an important carrier of multiple endoparasites, both Protozoa and Helminths, some of them being zoonotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the endoparasites of the non-native raccoon population of Central Italy. Sixty-two raccoons were collected by local competent authorities (sixty trapped and euthanized, two found dead) and subjected to necroscopic examination. Carcasses underwent a broad parasitological investigation, including coprological techniques (macroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, trachea, and heart, Flotac®, Baermann test, and immunofluorescence for Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.), research on respiratory/urinary capillariosis and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae, and a histopathological examination of the ileum. Ascarid parasites were further identified at the species level using a next-generation sequencing-based amplicon sequencing approach. The results showed the presence of different Protozoa and Nematodes: Baylisascaris procyonis (26/62; 41.9%), Pearsonema sp. (6/62; 9.6%), Capillariidae (6/62; 9.6%), Eimeria sp. (2/62; 3.2%), Cryptosporidium sp. (2/62; 3.2%), and Ancylostomatidae (2/62; 3.2%). B. procyonis is an emerging helminthic zoonotic agent considered a serious concern for public and animal health, given the possibility of its transmission to paratenic hosts, including humans and pets. The demonstrated role of the raccoon as a multi-parasite carrier should be an incentive to continuing the eradication/control of this alien species, and supports the need to implement related disease surveillance programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasites Research in Wildlife)
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11 pages, 2244 KiB  
Case Report
Metastatic Multifocal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour in the Cervicothoracic Spinal Cord of a Dog Initially Mimicking Meningomyelitis
by Javier Espinosa, María Ortega, Martí Pumarola, Eduardo Fraga and Laura Martín
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020170 - 20 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3613
Abstract
A nine year old cross-breed dog was presented with a two week history of ambulatory tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia affecting all four limbs. Meningomyelitis of Unknown Origin (MUO) was presumptively diagnosed based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [...] Read more.
A nine year old cross-breed dog was presented with a two week history of ambulatory tetraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia affecting all four limbs. Meningomyelitis of Unknown Origin (MUO) was presumptively diagnosed based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. The dog received a tapering dose of glucocorticoids and cyclosporine, showing significant improvement and the stabilization of the clinical signs for seven months. After this period, the dog showed an acute clinical deterioration and a follow-up MRI revealed new multiple lesions affecting different spinal nerve roots along the cervicothoracic spinal cord. Following euthanasia, a final diagnose of multiple malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) was made based on the histopathological examination. MPNSTs can affect the cranial nerves, spinal nerves or the associated nerve roots at any location and can lead to secondary spinal cord compression. The aim of the present case report is to describe the clinical presentation and atypical MRI findings of a dog with histologically confirmed multiple MPNSTs. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first reported case of simultaneous MPNSTs in the cervicothoracic spinal cord of a dog. Full article
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9 pages, 1607 KiB  
Communication
Short Term Effect of Ivermectin on the Bacterial Microbiota from Fecal Samples in Chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera)
by Xinyi Ma, Jing Li, Luo Yang, Haoqian Liu, Yiping Zhu, Honglin Ren, Feng Yu and Bo Liu
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020169 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5416
Abstract
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in health of the host animals and the detrimental influence of pharmaceutical treatment on the fecal microbiota receives an increasing concern. The clinical use of ivermectin on chinchillas has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in health of the host animals and the detrimental influence of pharmaceutical treatment on the fecal microbiota receives an increasing concern. The clinical use of ivermectin on chinchillas has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of our study was to assess the influence of ivermectin injection on the fecal bacterial microbiota of chinchillas. A with-in subject, before and after study was performed on 10 clinically healthy chinchillas during a 14-day period, all chinchillas received the same ivermectin treatment, and the microbiota from their fecal samples before and after administration were compared as two experimental groups. Fecal samples were collected on day 0 (before ivermectin administration) and day 14 (post ivermectin administration). Fecal bacterial microbiota was analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No clinical abnormalities were observed post subcutaneous administration of ivermectin. No significant alteration was found in the abundance and diversity of fecal bacterial microbiota after treatment, but the dominant position of some bacterial species changed. In conclusion, ivermectin administration was associated with minimal alternations of the fecal bacterial microbiota in healthy chinchillas, and these changes had no observed negative effect on general health of chinchillas in short term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Microbiota on Animal Health)
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11 pages, 889 KiB  
Article
Thoracic Vertebral Length-to-Height Ratio, a Promising Parameter to Predict the Vertebral Heart Score in Normal Welsh Corgi Pembroke Dogs
by Theethad Tangpakornsak, Phasamon Saisawart, Somchin Sutthigran, Kotchapol Jaturunratsamee, Kittipong Tachampa, Chutimon Thanaboonnipat and Nan Choisunirachon
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020168 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
The vertebral heart score (VHS) is the sum of the ratio of the cardiac dimensions to the number of thoracic vertebrae, starting from the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4) to the intervertebral disk space (IVS). Breed-specific VHSs, in most cases, were different from the [...] Read more.
The vertebral heart score (VHS) is the sum of the ratio of the cardiac dimensions to the number of thoracic vertebrae, starting from the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4) to the intervertebral disk space (IVS). Breed-specific VHSs, in most cases, were different from the original reference value. Characteristics of the thoracic vertebrae and IVS may influence this variation. This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of the T4 and IVS on the thoracic radiographs of Corgis in comparison with other small-to-medium breed dogs to evaluate the Corgi-specific VHSs in healthy dogs. The ratio of the T4’s length/height (T4L/H) was significantly different among dog breeds but not the IVS between the T4 and T5. The T4L/H was highest in the Shih Tzu and lowest in Beagle dogs. The Corgi-specific VHS obtained from the ventrodorsal radiograph was significantly higher than that from the dorsoventral radiograph, but a significant difference was not observed between the right and left lateral radiographs. In contrast, the Corgi-specific VHS derived from the right lateral thoracic radiograph was significantly lower than the reference value. This may be correlated with the characteristics of the thoracic vertebrae of Corgis, which were slightly higher than those of the other breeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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42 pages, 604 KiB  
Review
The Importance of the Slaughterhouse in Surveilling Animal and Public Health: A Systematic Review
by Juan García-Díez, Sónia Saraiva, Dina Moura, Luca Grispoldi, Beniamino Terzo Cenci-Goga and Cristina Saraiva
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020167 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 6588
Abstract
From the point of public health, the objective of the slaughterhouse is to guarantee the safety of meat in which meat inspection represent an essential tool to control animal diseases and guarantee the public health. The slaughterhouse can be used as surveillance center [...] Read more.
From the point of public health, the objective of the slaughterhouse is to guarantee the safety of meat in which meat inspection represent an essential tool to control animal diseases and guarantee the public health. The slaughterhouse can be used as surveillance center for livestock diseases. However, other aspects related with animal and human health, such as epidemiology and disease control in primary production, control of animal welfare on the farm, surveillance of zoonotic agents responsible for food poisoning, as well as surveillance and control of antimicrobial resistance, can be monitored. These controls should not be seen as a last defensive barrier but rather as a complement to the controls carried out on the farm. Regarding the control of diseases in livestock, scientific research is scarce and outdated, not taking advantage of the potential for disease control. Animal welfare in primary production and during transport can be monitored throughout ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection at the slaughterhouse, providing valuable individual data on animal welfare. Surveillance and research regarding antimicrobial resistance (AMR) at slaughterhouses is scarce, mainly in cattle, sheep, and goats. However, most of the zoonotic pathogens are sensitive to the antibiotics studied. Moreover, the prevalence at the slaughterhouse of zoonotic and foodborne agents seems to be low, but a lack of harmonization in terms of control and communication may lead to underestimate its real prevalence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zoonotic Diseases: Eco-Epidemiology and Public Health Implications)
7 pages, 1659 KiB  
Case Report
Identification of Ameloblastin as an Amyloid Precursor Protein of Amyloid-Producing Ameloblastoma in Dogs and Cats
by Niki Sedghi Masoud, Susumu Iwaide, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Miki Hisada, Tomoyuki Harada and Tomoaki Murakami
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020166 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
Amyloid-producing ameloblastoma (APAB) is characterized by abundant amyloid deposits in ameloblastoma, but the amyloid precursor protein is unknown. To explore this, we conducted histopathologic and proteomic analyses on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples from five cases of APAB (three dogs and two cats). Histologically, [...] Read more.
Amyloid-producing ameloblastoma (APAB) is characterized by abundant amyloid deposits in ameloblastoma, but the amyloid precursor protein is unknown. To explore this, we conducted histopathologic and proteomic analyses on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples from five cases of APAB (three dogs and two cats). Histologically, the samples exhibited a proliferation of the odontogenic epithelium, with moderate to severe interstitial amyloid deposits. By using Congo red and polarized light, the amyloid deposits were found to show characteristic birefringence. Amyloid deposits were dissected from tissue sections and analyzed by LC/MS/MS, and high levels of ameloblastin were detected in all tissues. Mass spectrometry also revealed that the N-terminal region of ameloblastin is predominantly present in amyloid deposits. Immunohistochemistry was performed using two anti-ameloblastin (N terminal, middle region) antibodies and showed that amyloid deposits were positive for ameloblastin N terminal but negative for ameloblastin middle region. These results suggest that ameloblastin is the amyloid precursor protein of APABs in dogs and cats, and the N-terminal region may be involved in the amyloidogenesis of ameloblastin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis, Transmission and Diagnosis of Animal Amyloidosis)
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27 pages, 545 KiB  
Review
Arthropod-Borne Pathogens in Wild Canids
by Valentina Virginia Ebani, Simona Nardoni and Francesca Mancianti
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020165 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
Wild canids, as well as other wild animal species, are largely exposed to bites by ticks and other hematophagous vectors where the features favoring their presence and spread are found in wooded and semi-wooded areas. Much of the information about arthropod-borne infections concerns [...] Read more.
Wild canids, as well as other wild animal species, are largely exposed to bites by ticks and other hematophagous vectors where the features favoring their presence and spread are found in wooded and semi-wooded areas. Much of the information about arthropod-borne infections concerns domestic and companion animals, whereas data about these infections in wild canids are not exhaustive. The present study is a narrative review of the literature concerning vector-borne infections in wild canids, highlighting their role in the epidemiology of arthropod-borne bacteria and protozoa. Full article
29 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Topographical Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)—Part I: Thoracic Limb
by Christophe Casteleyn, Charlotte Gram and Jaco Bakker
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020164 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
Since the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is genetically closely related to man, it is generally accepted that its anatomy and physiology are largely similar to that of humans. Consequently, this non-human primate is most commonly used as a model in biomedical [...] Read more.
Since the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is genetically closely related to man, it is generally accepted that its anatomy and physiology are largely similar to that of humans. Consequently, this non-human primate is most commonly used as a model in biomedical research. Not only the validation of the obtained research data, but also the welfare of the captive rhesus monkeys are subject to thorough anatomical knowledge of this species. Unfortunately, anatomical literature on the rhesus monkey is scarce, outdated, and hardly available at present. Furthermore, its anatomy is only illustrated by means of line drawings or black-and-white photographs. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the anatomy of the thoracic limb of the rhesus monkey topographically, studying the various anatomical structures in relation to each other. In this manuscript, the anatomy of the thoracic limb is described per region. The structures that are visible on the different layers, from the superficial to the deepest layer, are described both in text and in numerous color images. As expected, the anatomy of the rhesus monkey is almost identical to human anatomy. However, some striking differences have been identified. This supports the necessity for an extensive publication on the anatomy of the rhesus monkey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Nonhuman Primate Medicine & Care)
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17 pages, 740 KiB  
Review
Neoplasms in Domestic Ruminants and Swine: A Systematic Literature Review
by Jackson Vasconcelos, Maria dos Anjos Pires, Anabela Alves, Madalena Vieira-Pinto, Cristina Saraiva and Luís Cardoso
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020163 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Background: Due to the limited information and lack of studies on neoplasms in domestic ruminants, i.e., cattle, sheep, and goats, and domestic swine, the objective of the present study was to systematically review the scientific literature to verify the occurrence, type, organ system, [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the limited information and lack of studies on neoplasms in domestic ruminants, i.e., cattle, sheep, and goats, and domestic swine, the objective of the present study was to systematically review the scientific literature to verify the occurrence, type, organ system, and organs most affected by neoplasms in these animals. Methods: The recommendations of the PRISMA methodology were followed for the elaboration of this study. The research consisted of a systematic review of neoplasms in domestic cattle, sheep, goats, and swine. Results: The number of neoplasms found was 1873. The most affected organ system was the integumentary system with 35.0%, followed in descending order by the alimentary system with 16.90%, the hematopoietic system with 13.50%, the special senses (i.e., eyes and ears) with 10.51%, the female and male genital systems with 7.31%, the urinary system with 4.38%, the liver and biliary system with 3.152%, the endocrine glands with 3.91%, the respiratory system with 2.67%, the nervous system with 2.35%, bones and joints with 0.43%, muscles and tendons with 0.37%, the cardiovascular system with 0.21%, and the pancreas with 0.16%. Of the animals with neoplasms studied, cattle were affected in 69.80% of cases, goats in 10.52%, sheep in 10.46%, and swine in 9.18%. In all species, the most frequent neoplasms were squamous cell carcinomas in ruminants, while melanoma was the most frequent in swine. Few studies carried out in slaughterhouses were found, and the existing ones referred to cattle and swine. No data were found on economic losses with carcass condemnation. Conclusions: In view of the above, it is necessary to carry out extensive and detailed studies that provide knowledge about the impact of neoplasms on the production and condemnation of carcasses in domestic cattle, sheep, goats, and swine and the respective risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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10 pages, 647 KiB  
Communication
Comparison of Fish, Krill and Flaxseed as Omega-3 Sources to Increase the Omega-3 Index in Dogs
by Hanna Lindqvist, Tonje Dominguez, Ragnhild Dragøy, Yunpeng Ding and Lena Burri
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020162 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
(1) Background: it is only the longer chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and not the shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) that have been linked to health benefits. (2) Methods: 45 dogs [...] Read more.
(1) Background: it is only the longer chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and not the shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) that have been linked to health benefits. (2) Methods: 45 dogs divided into three groups were first given premium dry food for 38 days (baseline). The O3I was then used as a diagnostic tool to provide a measure of the sum of EPA + DHA in red blood cell membranes given as a percentage of all fatty acids. The dogs were subsequently fed with either krill meal (krill), fishmeal/oil (fish) or flaxseed cake (flax) included in raw food providing daily 416 mg EPA + DHA (971 mg ALA), 513 mg EPA + DHA (1027 mg ALA) and 1465 mg ALA (122 mg EPA + DHA), respectively. (3) Results: the average baseline O3I level of all dogs was low (1.36%), warranting n-3 supplementation. After four weeks, O3I levels were significantly increased in the krill (from 1.36 ± 0.44 to 2.36 ± 0.39%) and fish (from 1.35 ± 0.22 to 1.9 ± 0.35%) groups (p < 0.001). No significant modification of the O3I was detected in the flax animals. (4) Conclusions: only marine n-3 PUFAs resulted in a significantly increased O3I, with dietary krill meal providing the highest increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Companion Animal Diet and Nutrition)
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13 pages, 720 KiB  
Article
“What If It Was Your Dog?” Resource Shortages and Decision-Making in Veterinary Medicine—A Vignette Study with German Veterinary Students
by Kirsten Persson, Wiebke-Rebekka Gerdts, Sonja Hartnack and Peter Kunzmann
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020161 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
The here presented vignette study was part of a survey on ethical judgement skills among advanced veterinary students at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The vignette describes a fictitious dilemma in veterinary practice due to medication supply shortages. First, the students [...] Read more.
The here presented vignette study was part of a survey on ethical judgement skills among advanced veterinary students at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. The vignette describes a fictitious dilemma in veterinary practice due to medication supply shortages. First, the students should make an ethically justified decision: who of the two patients in the waiting room gets the last dosage of a medication. Important factors were the animal patients’ characteristics (age, state of health, life expectancy), the patient owners’ wellbeing, and context-related criteria. Second, the students were asked for decisional changes if one of the patients was their own dog. They reacted in four different ways: (1) for a professional, this should not make a difference; (2) most likely being “egoistic” and preferring their own dog; (3) giving the medication to the other dog; and (4) avoiding a decision. Finally, the students judged a list of possible solutions to the dilemma on a 9-point scale. They preferred patient-related criteria to patient-owner-related criteria in this task. In the overall results, it became obvious that no “gold standard” or guidelines for situations of medication shortages exist, yet, which presents an important subject for future research and veterinary ethics teaching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medical Education: Challenges and Perspectives)
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20 pages, 3537 KiB  
Review
Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Dogs and Cats: Classification, Pathophysiology, Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
by Alexandros O. Konstantinidis, Michail N. Patsikas, Lysimachos G. Papazoglou and Katerina K. Adamama-Moraitou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020160 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 9227
Abstract
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are abnormal vascular communications between the portal and the systemic circulation, bypassing the hepatic parenchyma and resulting in liver hypoplasia and hepatic insufficiency. Such connections develop in utero and persist postnatally. CPSS are among the two most common congenital [...] Read more.
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are abnormal vascular communications between the portal and the systemic circulation, bypassing the hepatic parenchyma and resulting in liver hypoplasia and hepatic insufficiency. Such connections develop in utero and persist postnatally. CPSS are among the two most common congenital vascular anomalies of the liver in small animals, along with primary hypoplasia of the portal vein without portal hypertension (PHPV without PH). CPSS can be extrahepatic (ECPSS), most commonly diagnosed in small and toy breed dogs and cats, or intrahepatic (ICPSS), most commonly seen in large breed dogs. Single ECPSS is the most common type encountered in both dogs and cats. Clinical signs of CPSS are non-specific and may wax and wane, while laboratory findings can raise clinical suspicion for CPSS, but they are also not specific. Definitive diagnosis will be established by evaluation of liver function tests, such as determination of fasting plasma ammonia (FA) levels, and pre- and postprandial serum bile acids concentrations, and diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this article is to review the definition, classification, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of CPSS in dogs and cats, highlighted by the authors’ clinical experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digestive Diseases of Dogs and Cats)
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10 pages, 2892 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulator Riociguat on Contractility of Isolated Pulmonary Artery and Hemodynamics of U46619-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs
by Satoshi Kameshima, Yuki Nakamura, Kenji Uehara, Tomoko Kodama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Kotaro Nishi, Shozo Okano, Ryo Niijima, Yuya Kimura and Naoyuki Itoh
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020159 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator riociguat is a relatively novel therapeutic agent for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in human medicine. Riociguat induces endothelium-independent pulmonary artery (PA) relaxation by directly activating the sGC-cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in muscle cells. Although riociguat may be effective in [...] Read more.
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulator riociguat is a relatively novel therapeutic agent for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in human medicine. Riociguat induces endothelium-independent pulmonary artery (PA) relaxation by directly activating the sGC-cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway in muscle cells. Although riociguat may be effective in the treatment of dogs with refractory PH, basic studies on its clinical application in veterinary medicine are lacking. The present study aimed to explore the effects of riociguat on the contractility of an isolated canine PA and the hemodynamics of dogs with acute PH. In an isolated endothelium-denuded canine PA, the effects of riociguat on endothelin (ET)-1-induced contraction and cGMP levels were investigated using the Magnus method and ELISA, respectively. The effect of riociguat on the hemodynamics of the thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced PH model dog was examined by invasive catheterization. Riociguat increased cGMP levels and reduced ET-1-induced contraction of the isolated PA. Riociguat inhibited the U46619-induced elevation of PA pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output, but it had no effect on basal systemic blood pressure. These results demonstrate for the first time that riociguat can inhibit the elevation of PA pressure through PA relaxation via an endothelium-independent increase in cGMP in dogs with PH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Small Animal Cardiovascular Disease)
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11 pages, 1314 KiB  
Article
Use of Laryngeal Mask and Anesthetic Management in Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas) Undergoing Laparoscopic Salpingectomy—A Case Series
by Annalaura Scardia, Pietro Laricchiuta, Marzia Stabile, Claudia Acquafredda, Luca Lacitignola, Annamaria Uva, Antonio Crovace and Francesco Staffieri
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020158 - 15 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2415
Abstract
The study aims to describe the anesthetic and airway management of baboons (Papio hamadryas) undergoing laparoscopic salpingectomy with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device. Eleven baboons received tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine; anesthesia was induced with propofol. An LMA was positioned for oxygen and isoflurane [...] Read more.
The study aims to describe the anesthetic and airway management of baboons (Papio hamadryas) undergoing laparoscopic salpingectomy with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device. Eleven baboons received tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine; anesthesia was induced with propofol. An LMA was positioned for oxygen and isoflurane administration in spontaneous respiration. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory rate (RR), end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2), minute volume (MV), and peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded before (PREPP) and immediately after abdomen insufflation (PP1), at 10 (PP2), 20 (PP3), and 30 (PP4) minutes during pneumoperitoneum, and after (POSTPP) pneumoperitoneum. The respiratory rate was significantly higher at all times compared to PREPP. The end tidal carbon dioxide concentration was significantly higher at PP2, PP3, PP4, and POSTPP, compared to the previous times. The higher values for RR and EtCO2 were registered at PP4: 22.7 (95% CI 17.6–27.8) breaths/min and 57.9 (95% CI 51.9–63.8) mmHg, respectively. The minute volume was significantly higher at PP4 and POSTPP compared to the other times. The higher value for MV was registered at POSTPP (269.1 (95% CI 206.1–331.8) mL/kg/min). This protocol is suitable for baboons undergoing laparoscopic salpingectomy. The LMA was easy to insert and allowed for good ventilation, gas exchange, and delivery of the anesthetic in spontaneous breathing baboons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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15 pages, 1268 KiB  
Article
Detection of Lymphoid Markers (CD3 and PAX5) for Immunophenotyping in Dogs and Cats: Comparison of Stained Cytology Slides and Matched Cell Blocks
by Filipe Sampaio, Carla Marrinhas, Luísa Fonte Oliveira, Fernanda Malhão, Célia Lopes, Hugo Gregório, Carla Correia-Gomes, Ricardo Marcos, Mario Caniatti and Marta Santos
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020157 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
Immunolabeling on Romanowsky-stained cytology (RSC) slides can be used, although there is limited evidence of its suitability for phenotyping canine and feline lymphomas. A comparison with matched cell blocks (CB) is missing. Immunolabeling on RSC and CB was compared for lymphoid markers (CD3 [...] Read more.
Immunolabeling on Romanowsky-stained cytology (RSC) slides can be used, although there is limited evidence of its suitability for phenotyping canine and feline lymphomas. A comparison with matched cell blocks (CB) is missing. Immunolabeling on RSC and CB was compared for lymphoid markers (CD3 and PAX5) in 53 lymphomas and 4 chylous effusions from dogs and cats. The influence of pre-analytical variables (species, time of archive, type of specimens and coverslipping) and the interobserver agreement among the 2 observers was assessed. Fewer CD3+ lymphocytes were identified in RSC, while the PAX5 positivity by RSC and CB had a substantial agreement. Immunodetection of CD3 and the diagnosis of a T-cell population on RSC was more difficult. Lower intensity and higher background were noted in RSC. Immunophenotyping was inconclusive in 54% RSC and 19% CB. The interobserver reproducibility of immunophenotyping on CB was substantial, being higher than in RSC. The immunolabeling performance on the RSC of effusion and feline samples was unsatisfactory. The detection of lymphoid markers, especially membranous antigens in retrospective RSC, is affected by the pre-analytical variables: species, time of the archive, and type of specimens. CB are a more consistent type of sample for immunophenotyping purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lymphoma in Animals)
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11 pages, 1087 KiB  
Article
Thiamine Supplementation Improves Survival and Body Condition of Hatchery-Reared Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Oregon
by Aimee N. Reed, Freya E. Rowland, Jennifer A. Krajcik and Donald E. Tillitt
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020156 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Early rearing of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Oregon hatcheries is often problematic; fry can become emaciated and die during the period between hatch and first feed. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has caused early mortality in salmonids; however, the thiamine status of Oregon’s [...] Read more.
Early rearing of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Oregon hatcheries is often problematic; fry can become emaciated and die during the period between hatch and first feed. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has caused early mortality in salmonids; however, the thiamine status of Oregon’s steelhead populations is unknown, to date. Of the 26 egg samples from three Oregon hatcheries in 2019, 20 (77%) had thiamine levels < 10 nmol/g, and 13 of those samples (50%) had levels <6.5 nmol/g, suggesting the thiamine deficiency of adult, female steelhead. To investigate if thiamine deficiency was causally related to fry survival, females were injected with buffered thiamine HCl 50 mg/kg prior to spawning; additionally, a subset of eggs were supplemented via bath treatment with thiamine mononitrate (1000 ppm) at spawning. Cumulative fry mortality at 8 weeks post-hatch from thiamine-injected females was 2.9% compared to 13.8% mortality of fry without thiamine supplementation. Fry treated only with the thiamine via bath as eggs had a mortality rate of 6.9%. There were no additional improvements for the survival of fry from injected females that also received a thiamine bath. Furthermore, condition factors were greater in thiamine-supplemented fry than in those that received no thiamine. These data identify thiamine deficiency in Oregon steelhead and suggest supplementation with thiamine can mitigate early rearing mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approach to Reducing and Preventing Fish Disease)
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15 pages, 1387 KiB  
Article
The Status and Risk Factors of Brucellosis in Smallholder Dairy Cattle in Selected Regions of Tanzania
by Isaac Joseph Mengele, Gabriel Mkilema Shirima, Shedrack Festo Bwatota, Shabani Kiyabo Motto, Barend Mark de Clare Bronsvoort, Daniel Mushumbusi Komwihangilo, Eliamoni Lyatuu, Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook and Luis E. Hernandez-Castro
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020155 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
Bovine brucellosis is a bacterial zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine brucellosis seroprevalence and risk factors among smallholder dairy cattle across six regions in Tanzania. We sampled 2048 dairy cattle on 1374 farms between July 2019 and [...] Read more.
Bovine brucellosis is a bacterial zoonoses caused by Brucella abortus. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine brucellosis seroprevalence and risk factors among smallholder dairy cattle across six regions in Tanzania. We sampled 2048 dairy cattle on 1374 farms between July 2019 and October 2020. Sera were tested for the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence was calculated at different administrative scales, and spatial tests were used to detect disease hotspots. A generalized mixed-effects regression model was built to explore the relationships among Brucella serostatus, animals, and farm management factors. Seroprevalence was 2.39% (49/2048 cattle, 95% CI 1.7–3.1) across the study area and the Njombe Region represented the highest percentage with 15.5% (95% CI 11.0–22.0). Moreover, hotspots were detected in the Njombe and Kilimanjaro Regions. Mixed-effects models showed that having goats (OR 3.02, 95% C 1.22–7.46) and abortion history (OR 4.91, 95% CI 1.43–16.9) were significant risk factors for brucellosis. Education of dairy farmers regarding the clinical signs, transmission routes, and control measures for brucellosis is advised. A One Health approach is required to study the role of small ruminants in cattle brucellosis and the status of brucellosis in dairy farmers in the Njombe and Kilimanjaro Regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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13 pages, 3191 KiB  
Article
Impact of Selected Bacterial and Viral Toll-like Receptor Agonists on the Phenotype and Function of Camel Blood Neutrophils
by Jamal Hussen, Mayyadah Abdullah Alkuwayti, Baraa Falemban, Sameer M. Alhojaily, Salma Al Adwani, El Awad El Hassan and Abdullah IA Al-Mubarak
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020154 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1735
Abstract
Innate recognition of pathogens depends on the interaction between microbial structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in host cells. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are among the most important PRRs being expressed on and in a wide range of [...] Read more.
Innate recognition of pathogens depends on the interaction between microbial structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in host cells. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are among the most important PRRs being expressed on and in a wide range of immune cell types. Studies on the interaction mechanisms between different pathogen species and the immune system of the dromedary camel are still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of synthetic bacterial and viral TLR ligands on some phenotypic properties and selected functions of neutrophils purified from dromedary camel blood. Neutrophils were separated from camel blood (n = five animals) and were stimulated in vitro with the TLR ligands LPS, Pam3CSK4, R848 (Resiquimod), and Poly IC or were left without stimulation. Stimulation with the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used as a positive control stimulation. Shape change, phagocytosis activity, ROS production, the expression of cell surface markers, and cell vitality were compared between stimulated and non-stimulated cells. With exception of the TLR3 agonist Poly IC, all TLR ligands used showed the potential to stimulate camel neutrophils resulting in increased cell size and the upregulation of CD18 and CD14 on their surface. Similarly, the phagocytosis activity of camel neutrophils was significantly improved after priming with all TLR ligands, except Poly IC, which, in contrast, resulted in a reduced percentage of phagocytosis-positive cells. In contrast to stimulation with PMA, which induced a significant ROS production in camel neutrophils, none of the TLR ligands used stimulated ROS generation in neutrophils. Only stimulation with Pam3CSK4 increased the expression of MHCII molecules on camel neutrophils, resulting in an expanded MHCIIhigh fraction within camel neutrophils. Our study indicates selective immunomodulating effects of TLR agonists on purified camel neutrophils without affecting their vitality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Immune Biomarkers in Animal Diseases)
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8 pages, 11409 KiB  
Brief Report
Usefulness and Limitations of Cryopreservation for Immunocytochemical Staining of Canine Cytological Specimens for Detection of Cytokeratin and Vimentin
by Yu Furusawa, Mariko Shima-Sawa, Tatsuro Hifumi, Noriaki Miyoshi, Osamu Yamato and Akira Yabuki
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020153 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1403
Abstract
Immunocytochemistry is an advanced diagnostic tool for identifying the origin of tumor cells. This study aimed to highlight the usefulness of cryopreserved, air-dried cytological samples in detecting cytokeratin and vimentin. Air-dried cytological smear samples were prepared from a total of 39 resected canine [...] Read more.
Immunocytochemistry is an advanced diagnostic tool for identifying the origin of tumor cells. This study aimed to highlight the usefulness of cryopreserved, air-dried cytological samples in detecting cytokeratin and vimentin. Air-dried cytological smear samples were prepared from a total of 39 resected canine tumors and stored in a medical freezer without fixation. The duration of cryopreservation ranged from 2 to 56 months. The same tumors were processed for routine histopathological examination. Based on the morphological diagnosis, cryopreserved FNA smears from epithelial tumors were stained by enzymatic immunocytochemistry (ICC) for cytokeratin; those from mesenchymal and melanocytic tumors were stained by ICC for vimentin. To ascertain the positivity of tumor cells to the selected markers, tissue paraffin-embedded sections were also stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the same markers. Immunoreactivity for cytokeratin was detected in cryopreserved cytological smears for a maximum of 46 months. Immunoreactivity for vimentin was clearly detected for 33 months. Smears stored at room temperature for 1 week did not show any signals under immunocytochemical examination. Thus, immunocytochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin can be safely applied to air-dried smears cryopreserved in a freezer for at least 33 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Cytopathology in Companion Animals)
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11 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of a Blocking Lateral Flow Assay Strip for Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus Antibodies
by Rongzhou Lv, Junqing Guo, Yuhang Zhang, Xun Wang, Ge Li, Zekun Meng, Li Wang, Shujun Chai, Qingmei Li and Gaiping Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020152 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute septicemic infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Considering that vaccination is currently the main modality for the prevention of ND, it is essential to assess the effectiveness of clinical immunization. In this study, we have [...] Read more.
Newcastle disease (ND) is an acute septicemic infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Considering that vaccination is currently the main modality for the prevention of ND, it is essential to assess the effectiveness of clinical immunization. In this study, we have developed a blocking lateral flow assay (bLFA) strip for the rapid detection of NDV antibodies using the monoclonal antibody 9C1 against haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), which allows for the determination of an NDV-specific antibody titer within 10 min at room temperature. In addition, the bLFA strip has no cross-reactivity with the positive serum of other avian pathogens including avian influenza subtypes H5, H7, and H9, MD, IBD, IB, EDS, and avian adenovirus. The ability of the bLFA strip for detecting a neutralizing antibody was also estimated. The results showed that the chicken NDV hyperimmunized serum had a complete blocking (100%) titer of 11 log 2, and half-blocking titer of 13 log 2, which are 4 times less than and the same as that of the HI test (13 log 2), and 8 and 2 times less than that of the VN test (14 log 2), respectively. A total of 510 clinical samples were tested for NDV antibodies. The coincidence rate between the results of the bLFA strip and HI test was 97.65%. Therefore, it is an ideal alternative method for assessing the clinical immunity of ND vaccines in the field in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis, Pathogenesis and Pathology of Virus Infection in Poultry)
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14 pages, 1036 KiB  
Review
Application of Eugenol in Poultry to Control Salmonella Colonization and Spread
by Mohammed Aljuwayd, Israa Abdullah Malli and Young Min Kwon
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020151 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4491
Abstract
The poultry sector is an essential component of agriculture that has experienced unprecedented growth during the last few decades. It is especially true for the United States, where the average intake of chicken meat increased from 10 pounds (4.5 kg) per person in [...] Read more.
The poultry sector is an essential component of agriculture that has experienced unprecedented growth during the last few decades. It is especially true for the United States, where the average intake of chicken meat increased from 10 pounds (4.5 kg) per person in 1940 to 65.2 pounds (29.6 kg) per person in 2018, while the country produced 113 billion eggs in 2019 alone. Besides providing nutrition and contributing significantly to the economy, chicken is also a natural reservoir of Salmonella, which is responsible for salmonellosis in humans, one of the significant foodborne illnesses around the globe. The increasing use of chicken manure and antibiotics increases the spread of Salmonella and selects for multi-drug resistant strains. Various plant extracts, primarily essential oils, have been investigated for their antimicrobial activities. The multiple ways through which these plant-derived compounds exert their antimicrobial effects make the development of resistance against them unlikely. Eugenol, an aromatic oil primarily found in clove and cinnamon, has shown antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic bacteria. A few reports have also highlighted the anti-Salmonella effects of eugenol in chicken, especially in reducing the colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, the primary Salmonella species responsible for human salmonellosis. Besides limiting Salmonella infection in chicken, the supplementation of eugenol also significantly improves intestinal health, improving overall well-being. In this review, we highlight the rising incidences of salmonellosis worldwide and the factors increasing its prevalence. We then propose the usage of eugenol as a natural feed supplement for containing Salmonella in chicken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
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10 pages, 3925 KiB  
Case Report
Application of Bifurcated Semitendinosus Muscle Transposition for Treatment of Fecal Incontinence in Two Dogs
by Mu-Young Kim, Chang-Hoon Nam, Ji-Hyun Kim and Hun-Young Yoon
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020150 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 5641
Abstract
A 4-year-old mixed breed dog and a 19-year-old English cocker spaniel dog were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The second dog’s fecal incontinence was associated with the anal mass. In both dogs, reconstruction of the external anal sphincter was required to gain fecal continence. [...] Read more.
A 4-year-old mixed breed dog and a 19-year-old English cocker spaniel dog were evaluated for fecal incontinence. The second dog’s fecal incontinence was associated with the anal mass. In both dogs, reconstruction of the external anal sphincter was required to gain fecal continence. Especially in the dog with an anal mass, the whole musculature involved in fecal continence was removed with the affected anorectum. Conventional surgical treatments for fecal incontinence have limitations in terms of muscle flap length and complexity of the surgical procedure. A modified surgical technique using the semitendinosus muscle was devised in the present study to overcome these limitations. The distal part of the semitendinosus muscle was bifurcated to make two muscle bundles, used to completely encircle the anorectum. These muscle bundles were sutured to the surrounding rectal muscle and the pelvic diaphragm to simulate the function of the external anal sphincter. Three months after surgery, both dogs showed significantly improved fecal continence without severe complications, such as infection, dehiscence, or lameness of the limb where the semitendinosus muscle was harvested. The outcomes of the two dogs supported the acceptability of the bifurcated muscle flap for anal sphincter augmentation. In addition, this report showed the possibility of more diverse applications of semitendinosus muscle in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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10 pages, 981 KiB  
Case Report
Herd Health Troubles Potentially Related to Aluminium Grass Silage Content in Dairy Cows
by Justine Eppe, Salem Djebala, Frédéric Rollin and Hugues Guyot
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020149 - 12 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2076
Abstract
In ruminants, the main documented clinical manifestation of aluminium (Al) intoxication is similar to grass tetany. In a 50 dairy cow Belgian herd, the farmer reported excessive uterine bleeding at calving and decreased milk production. Dairy cows received a mixed ration (MR) with [...] Read more.
In ruminants, the main documented clinical manifestation of aluminium (Al) intoxication is similar to grass tetany. In a 50 dairy cow Belgian herd, the farmer reported excessive uterine bleeding at calving and decreased milk production. Dairy cows received a mixed ration (MR) with high Al concentration (453 ppm/kg of dry matter (DM)). Various analyses were sampled from 10 sick cows and compared with 10 healthy cows (from another herd). Sick cows presented anaemia and marginal hypozincaemia and 6/10 showed subclinical ketosis. Their urine analysis revealed hypomagnesaemia and a high Al/creatinine ratio. It was advised to determine soil pH, add salts to the ration to chelate the Al and support cows with mineral supplements and propylene glycol. A visit was carried out 2 years later and highlighted an improvement in the situation, but all examined animals presented subclinical ketosis. Grass silage Al content remained high (700 ppm/kg DM), as did butyric acid concentration (11.22 g/kg DM). Al could be incriminated at different stages: micronutrient deficiencies, anaemia and negative energy balance. However, Al was probably not the only culprit. This case report is a concern for future years in these areas due to droughts, scarcity of forage and an increase in contaminated soil ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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15 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Acceptance of a Novel, Highly Palatable, Calorically Dense, and Nutritionally Complete Diet in Dogs with Benign and Malignant Tumors
by Reshma M. Anthony, Madison D. Amundson, John Brejda and Iveta Becvarova
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020148 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4529
Abstract
Diminished appetite and poor eating behavior accompanied by weight loss or cachexia are often reported in dogs living with cancer. This study was conducted to determine the acceptance and eating enthusiasm in dogs with cancer for a new therapeutic, nutritionally balanced, and calorically [...] Read more.
Diminished appetite and poor eating behavior accompanied by weight loss or cachexia are often reported in dogs living with cancer. This study was conducted to determine the acceptance and eating enthusiasm in dogs with cancer for a new therapeutic, nutritionally balanced, and calorically dense food designed for dogs with cancer. Adult dogs with diagnosis of cancer were recruited from general and oncology practices and were fed the study food for 28 days. Evaluations included physical examination, body weight, food intake, caloric intake, hematology and serum biochemistry, and owner assessments, namely food evaluation, quality of life, and stool scores. The dogs transitioned smoothly and tolerated the food very well. The results showed high food acceptance within the first day, with continued eating enthusiasm over the 28 days. Significant increases in food and caloric intake were observed, with the study food having a positive impact on body weight in dogs that were losing weight and helping to maintain a high quality of life. Blood laboratory parameters remained within reference ranges. Thus, the therapeutic study food was well accepted and efficacious in supporting continued eating and required caloric intake, promoting a healthy weight gain and maintaining a high quality of life in dogs with cancer. Full article
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11 pages, 1469 KiB  
Article
KITLG Copy Number Germline Variations in Schnauzer Breeds and Their Relevance in Digital Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Black Giant Schnauzers
by Heike Aupperle-Lellbach, Daniela Heidrich, Alexandra Kehl, David Conrad, Maria Brockmann, Katrin Törner, Christoph Beitzinger and Tobias Müller
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020147 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3550
Abstract
Copy number variations (CNVs) of the KITLG gene seem to be involved in the oncogenesis of digital squamous cell carcinoma (dSCC). The aims of this study were (1) to investigate KITLG CNV in giant (GS), standard (SS), and miniature (MS) schnauzers and (2) [...] Read more.
Copy number variations (CNVs) of the KITLG gene seem to be involved in the oncogenesis of digital squamous cell carcinoma (dSCC). The aims of this study were (1) to investigate KITLG CNV in giant (GS), standard (SS), and miniature (MS) schnauzers and (2) to compare KITLG CNV between black GS with and without dSCC. Blood samples from black GS (22 with and 17 without dSCC), black SS (18 with and 4 without dSSC; 5 unknown), and 50 MS (unknown dSSC status and coat colour) were analysed by digital droplet PCR. The results are that (1) most dogs had a copy number (CN) value > 4 (range 2.5–7.6) with no significant differences between GS, SS, and MS, and (2) the CN value in black GS with dSCC was significantly higher than in those without dSCC (p = 0.02). CN values > 5.8 indicate a significantly increased risk for dSCC, while CN values < 4.7 suggest a reduced risk for dSCC (grey area: 4.7–5.8). Diagnostic testing for KITLG CNV may sensitise owners to the individual risk of their black GS for dSCC. Further studies should investigate the relevance of KITLG CNV in SS and the protective effects in MS, who rarely suffer from dSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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11 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Environment in Veterinary Education
by María del Pino Palacios-Díaz and Vanessa Mendoza-Grimón
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020146 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
Environmental concerns have become priority issues over the last third of the 20th century. The EU’s common agricultural policy (CAP) has gone from rules which supported the farming sector after years of famine to being oriented towards looking at environmental aspects. Therefore, it [...] Read more.
Environmental concerns have become priority issues over the last third of the 20th century. The EU’s common agricultural policy (CAP) has gone from rules which supported the farming sector after years of famine to being oriented towards looking at environmental aspects. Therefore, it has evolved not only to react to a changing market and consumer demands but also to respond to climate change and the need for sustainable development. Environmental education is an important pillar for responding and adapting to climate change. The CAP policies oriented towards optimizing the use of natural resources, residue management, antimicrobial use reduction, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and animal welfare need linked educational programs. In this context, veterinarians, being experts in animal production, welfare, and food safety and its technology and public health under the One Health concept, are scarcely informed in environmental aspects, which would help them to understand and face the consequences of climate change in the rural world. Future veterinarians must be able to quantify the effects of animal production on the environment, optimizing the use of natural resources, minimizing GHG emissions, and managing the risks associated with climate change by using different analysis tools that need to be included in their learning programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medical Education: Challenges and Perspectives)
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19 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
A Highly Conserved Region in BRCA2 Suppresses the RAD51-Interaction Activity of BRC Repeats
by Zida Zhu, Taisuke Kitano, Masami Morimatsu, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Kosuke Oosumi, Xianghui Lin, Koichi Orino and Yasunaga Yoshikawa
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020145 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of tumors in female dogs. Breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) malignant mutations are associated with tumorigenesis in humans and dogs. BRCA2 plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination repair by recruiting RAD51 recombinase [...] Read more.
Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of tumors in female dogs. Breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) malignant mutations are associated with tumorigenesis in humans and dogs. BRCA2 plays a pivotal role in homologous recombination repair by recruiting RAD51 recombinase to DNA damage sites to maintain genome stability. To recruit RAD51, BRCA2 must interact with RAD51 via BRC repeats, but the regulation of this interaction has been unclear. In this study, we focused on a highly conserved region (HCR) near BRC repeats. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay, we found that HCR suppressed the RAD51-interaction activity of BRC repeats and that substitutions of HCR phosphorylation sites affected it. In canine tumor samples, we found ten mutations, including a novel HCR mutation (I1110M) from canine tumor samples. The effect of four HCR mutations, including I1110M, on the RAD51-interaction activity of BRC repeats was tested. One of the HCR mutations found in canine mammary tumors increased the interaction, but the two mutations found in human breast cancers decreased it. This study suggested that the HCR regulated the RAD51-interacting activity of BRC repeats through HCR phosphorylation and that mutations in HCR may be related to tumorigenesis in both dogs and humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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15 pages, 8814 KiB  
Article
Developmental Ultrasound Characteristics in Guinea Pigs: Similarities with Human Pregnancy
by Alejandro A. Candia, Tamara Jiménez, Álvaro Navarrete, Felipe Beñaldo, Pablo Silva, Claudio García-Herrera, Amanda N. Sferruzzi-Perri, Bernardo J. Krause, Alejandro González-Candia and Emilio A. Herrera
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020144 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
Background: Biometrical and blood flow examinations are fundamental for assessing fetoplacental development during pregnancy. Guinea pigs have been proposed as a good model to study fetal development and related gestational complications; however, longitudinal growth and blood flow changes in utero have not been [...] Read more.
Background: Biometrical and blood flow examinations are fundamental for assessing fetoplacental development during pregnancy. Guinea pigs have been proposed as a good model to study fetal development and related gestational complications; however, longitudinal growth and blood flow changes in utero have not been properly described. This study aimed to describe fetal and placental growth and blood flow of the main intrauterine vascular beds across normal guinea pig pregnancy and to discuss the relevance of this data for human pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant guinea pigs were studied from day 25 of pregnancy until term (day ~70) by ultrasound and Doppler assessment. The results were compared to human data from the literature. Results: Measurements of biparietal diameter (BPD), cranial circumference (CC), abdominal circumference, and placental biometry, as well as pulsatility index determination of umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery (MCA), and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR), were feasible to determine across pregnancy, and they could be adjusted to linear or nonlinear functions. In addition, several of these parameters showed a high correlation coefficient and could be used to assess gestational age in guinea pigs. We further compared these data to ultrasound variables from human pregnancy with high similarities. Conclusions: BPD and CC are the most reliable measurements to assess fetal growth in guinea pigs. Furthermore, this is the first report in which the MCA pulsatility index and CPR are described across guinea pig gestation. The guinea pig is a valuable model to assess fetal growth and blood flow distribution, variables that are comparable with human pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Placentation in Mammals: Development, Function and Pathology)
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14 pages, 1298 KiB  
Article
Chrysoeriol Improves In Vitro Porcine Embryo Development by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Autophagy
by Chao-Rui Wang, He-Wei Ji, Sheng-Yan He, Rong-Ping Liu, Xin-Qin Wang, Jing Wang, Chu-Man Huang, Yong-Nan Xu, Ying-Hua Li and Nam-Hyung Kim
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020143 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Chrysoeriol (CHE) is a flavonoid substance that exists in many plants. It has various physiological and pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, and protective activity, especially for the cardiovascular system and liver. Among common livestock embryos, porcine embryos are often considered high-quality objects [...] Read more.
Chrysoeriol (CHE) is a flavonoid substance that exists in many plants. It has various physiological and pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor, and protective activity, especially for the cardiovascular system and liver. Among common livestock embryos, porcine embryos are often considered high-quality objects for studying the antioxidant mechanisms of oocytes. Because porcine embryos contain high levels of lipids, they are more vulnerable to external stimuli, which affect development. Our study explored the influence of CHE supplementation on oxidative stress in porcine oocytes and its possible mechanisms. Different concentrations of CHE (0, 0.1, 1, and 3 µM) were supplemented in the in vitro culture medium of the porcine oocytes. The results showed that supplementation with 1 µM CHE significantly increased the blastocyst rate and total cell number of embryos in vitro. After finding the beneficial effects of CHE, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) when the oocytes reached the 4-cell stage of development and determined the levels of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and autophagy at the blastocyst stage of development. The expression levels of some related genes were preliminarily detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the apoptosis of blastocysts in the CHE-treated culture also decreased compared with the untreated culture. Furthermore, CHE downregulated intracellular ROS and increased GSH in the embryos. CHE was also shown to improve the activity of mitochondria and inhibit the occurrence of autophagy. In addition, antioxidant-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, and CAT) and cell pluripotency-related genes (SOX2, OCT4, and NANOG) were upregulated. At the same time, apoptosis-related (Caspase 3) and autophagy-related (LC3B) genes showed a downward trend after supplementation with CHE. These results indicate that CHE improved the development of porcine embryos in vitro by reducing oxidative stress and autophagy levels. Full article
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15 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
An Improved Duplex Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assay with a Canine Endogenous Internal Positive Control for More Sensitive and Reliable Detection of Canine Parainfluenza Virus 5
by Gyu-Tae Jeon, Hye-Ryung Kim, Yeun-Kyung Shin, Oh-Kyu Kwon, Hae-Eun Kang, Oh-Deog Kwon and Choi-Kyu Park
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020142 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
A duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (dqRT-PCR) assay was successfully developed to simultaneously detect canine parainfluenza virus 5 (CPIV5) and a canine endogenous internal positive control (EIPC) in canine clinical samples. Two sets of primers and probes for the CPIV5 L [...] Read more.
A duplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (dqRT-PCR) assay was successfully developed to simultaneously detect canine parainfluenza virus 5 (CPIV5) and a canine endogenous internal positive control (EIPC) in canine clinical samples. Two sets of primers and probes for the CPIV5 L and canine 16S rRNA genes were included in the dqRT-PCR assay to detect CPIV and monitor invalid results throughout the qRT-PCR process. The developed dqRT-PCR assay specifically detected CPIV5 but no other canine pathogens. Furthermore, 16S rRNA was stably amplified by dqRT-PCR assay in all samples containing canine cellular materials. The assay’s sensitivity was determined as below ten RNA copies per reaction, with CPIV5 L gene standard RNA and 1 TCID50/mL with the CPIV5 D008 vaccine strain, which was 10-fold higher than that of the previous HN gene-specific qRT-PCR (HN-qRT-PCR) assays and was equivalent to that of the previous N gene-specific qRT-PCR (N-qRT-PCR) assays, respectively. Moreover, the Ct values of the CPIV5-positive samples obtained using the dqRT-PCR assay were lower than those obtained using the previous HN- and N-qRT-PCR assays, indicating that the diagnostic performance of the dqRT-PCR assay was superior to those of previous HN- and N-qRT-PCR assays. The calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficient values (95% confidence interval) between dqRT-PCR and the HN- or N-specific qRT-PCR assays were 0.97 (0.90–1.03) or 1.00 (1.00–1.00), respectively. In conclusion, the newly developed dqRT-PCR assay with high sensitivity, specificity, and reliability will be a promising diagnostic tool for the detection of CPIV5 in clinical samples and useful for etiological and epidemiological studies of CPIV5 infection in dogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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