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Volume 12, December
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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Despite the great benefits of the Internet, it also poses many risks to society. It is important to make people cybersecurity-literate and aware of the risks of misusing the Internet. Due to a lack of existing instruments, a questionnaire was developed to measure Internet risks, which was shown to have good validity and reliability. View this paper
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16 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
A Pilot Study on the Relationship between Cardiovascular Health, Musculoskeletal Health, Physical Fitness and Occupational Performance in Firefighters
by Jaron Ras, Denise L. Smith, Elpidoforos S. Soteriades, Andre P. Kengne and Lloyd Leach
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1703-1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110120 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Firefighters’ face life threatening situations and are frequently exposed to numerous physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of conducting a large-scale study on cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health, physical fitness and occupational [...] Read more.
Firefighters’ face life threatening situations and are frequently exposed to numerous physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of conducting a large-scale study on cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health, physical fitness and occupational performance of firefighters. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study by recruiting 36 firefighters. A researcher-generated questionnaire and physical measures were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health, physical fitness and occupational performance using a physical ability test (PAT). We documented a high equipment and intra-assessor reliability (r > 0.9). The potential logistic and/or administrative obstacles in the context of a larger study were discerned. Data were successfully retrieved using available equipment and survey instruments. Hypertension (30.6%) dyslipidaemia (33.3%), obesity (36.1%) and physical inactivity (66.7%) were the most prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factors. A significant difference between genders in total PAT completion time was also seen (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness, lean body mass, grip strength and leg strength were significantly associated with occupational performance (p < 0.001). The pilot study supports the larger study feasibility and verified equipment and assessors’ reliability for research. Cardiovascular health, musculoskeletal health and physical fitness may be related to PAT performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
3 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial of Special Issue “Body Image Perception and Body Composition in Different Populations: The Role of Physical Education and Sport”
by Gianpiero Greco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1700-1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110119 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Body image is the dynamic perception of one’s body—how it looks, feels, and moves; it can change with mood, physical experience, and environment [...] Full article
18 pages, 2140 KiB  
Article
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Lifestyle in Thai Occupational Therapy Students: A Mixed Method Study
by Tiam Srikhamjak, Kanyarak Yanawuth, Kornkamon Sucharittham, Chitsanucha Larprabang, Patcharaporn Wangsattabongkot, Tanyathorn Hauwadhanasuk, Chirathip Thawisuk, Peeradech Thichanpiang and Anuchart Kaunnil
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1682-1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110118 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to global reports of hazards to mental health. However, reports regarding lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. Using a convergent mixed methods design, we conducted individual interviews with twelve occupational therapy students [...] Read more.
The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to global reports of hazards to mental health. However, reports regarding lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. Using a convergent mixed methods design, we conducted individual interviews with twelve occupational therapy students and interpreted the results by content analysis. We completed a survey of Thai Sensory Patterns Assessment (TSPA) concerning perspectives from occupational therapy students (n = 99). They identified two major themes: (i) adaptive responses were consistent with areas of occupation during the COVID-19 pandemic; (ii) multidimensional challenges were related to sensory patterns of purposeful and meaningful activities. The participants reported both positive and negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives. It had both positive and negative effects on the lifestyle of students affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The positive effect was that most students learned better ways to protect and care for themselves. During the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy students were most concerned about their online learning activities, economic problems, isolation from society, and lifestyle. The negative effects of this include stress, anxiety, loneliness, frustration, boredom, and exhaustion for occupational therapy students. As an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, occupational therapy students adapted to new lifestyles and experienced mental health issues related to their studies, families, friends, economics, social climate, and future job opportunities. Educators may use the findings of this study to prevent negative impacts on mental health and promote academic achievement in the future, as well as general well-being, efficacy, and empowerment of students in the new normal post-COVID-19 pandemic era. Full article
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9 pages, 319 KiB  
Article
The Role of Sleep Quality and Physical Activity Level on Gait Speed and Brain Hemodynamics Changes in Young Adults—A Dual-Task Study
by Marina Saraiva, Maria António Castro and João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1673-1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110117 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Walking requires attentional resources, and the studies using neuroimage techniques have grown to understand the interaction between cortical activity and motor performance. Previous studies reported a decline in gait performance and changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during a dual-task performance compared [...] Read more.
Walking requires attentional resources, and the studies using neuroimage techniques have grown to understand the interaction between cortical activity and motor performance. Previous studies reported a decline in gait performance and changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during a dual-task performance compared to walking only. Some lifestyle factors, such as sleep and physical activity (PA) levels, can compromise walking performance and brain activity. Nonetheless, the studies are scarce. This study aimed to assess gait speed and hemodynamic response in the PFC during a cognitive dual-task (cog-DT) compared to walking only, and to analyze the correlation between PA and sleep quality (SQ) with gait performance and hemodynamic response in the PFC during a single task (ST) and cog-DT performance in young adults. A total of 18 healthy young adults (mean age ± SD = 24.11 ± 4.11 years) participated in this study. They performed a single motor task (mot-ST)—normal walking—and a cog-DT—walking while performing a cognitive task on a smartphone. Gait speed was collected using a motion capture system coupled with two force plates. The hemoglobin differences (Hb-diff), oxyhemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) and deoxyhemoglobin ([deoxy-Hb]) concentrations in the PFC were obtained using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The SQ and PA were assessed through the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form questionnaires, respectively. The results show a decrease in gait speed (p < 0.05), a decrease in [deoxy-Hb] (p < 0.05), and an increase in Hb-diff (p < 0.05) and [oxy-Hb] (p > 0.05) in the prefrontal cortex during the cog-DT compared to the single task. A positive correlation between SQ and Hb-diff during the cog-DT performance was found. In conclusion, the PFC’s hemodynamic response during the cog-DT suggests that young adults prioritize cognitive tasks over motor performance. SQ only correlates with the Hb-diff during the cog-DT, showing that poor sleep quality was associated with increased Hb-diff in the PFC. The gait performance and hemodynamic response do not correlate with physical activity level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
16 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
Assessment of ‘Cool’ and ‘Hot’ Executive Skills in Children with ADHD: The Role of Performance Measures and Behavioral Ratings
by Andreia S. Veloso, Selene G. Vicente and Marisa G. Filipe
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1657-1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110116 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Executive dysfunction is an underlying characteristic of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this study explored which measures of executive functions (EF) may lead to a better diagnostic prediction and evaluated whether participants were adequately assigned to the ADHD group based on the identified [...] Read more.
Executive dysfunction is an underlying characteristic of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this study explored which measures of executive functions (EF) may lead to a better diagnostic prediction and evaluated whether participants were adequately assigned to the ADHD group based on the identified predictors. Seventeen 6- to 10-year-old children with ADHD were matched with 17 typically developing peers (TD) by age, gender, and non-verbal intelligence. Performance-based measures and behavior ratings of ‘cool’ and ‘hot’ EF were used. As expected, there was a significant group effect on the linear combination of measures, indicating that children with ADHD showed significant difficulties with EF compared to the TD group. In fact, significant differences were found in measures of short-term and working memory, planning, delay aversion, and EF-related behaviors, as reported by parents and teachers. However, the discriminant function analysis only revealed three significant predictors: the General Executive Composite of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Parent and Teacher Forms) and the Delay of Gratification Task, with 97.1% correct classifications. These findings highlight the importance and contribution of both behavioral ratings and ‘hot’ measures of EF for the characterization of ADHD in children. Full article
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13 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Serial Mediation Model of Social Capital Effects over Academic Stress in University Students
by Mario Eduardo Castro Torres, Pablo Marcelo Vargas-Piérola, Carlos F. Pinto and Rubén Alvarado
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1644-1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110115 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Background: Although several studies have shown that social capital and social support decreases academic stress (AS), there has been lack of atheoretical model to explain how this occurs. This study aims to verify a model that explains the effect of bonding social capital [...] Read more.
Background: Although several studies have shown that social capital and social support decreases academic stress (AS), there has been lack of atheoretical model to explain how this occurs. This study aims to verify a model that explains the effect of bonding social capital (BSC) over academic stress psychological symptoms (PsyS), considering the multiple sequential mediation of socio-emotional support (SES), self-efficacy (sEffic) and self-esteem (sEstee). Methods: In a transversal study, 150 undergraduate volunteer students were recruited using non-probabilistic purposive sampling. Data were collected using psychological questionnaires and were processed through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Results: Goodness of fit of the models (SRMR = 0.056, 0.057, <HI95) (dULS, dG < HI95), reliability and validity are adequate. The indirect effect of BSC over PsyS (β = −0.196; IC 95% [−0.297, −0.098]) is relevant and significant and is serial mediated by SES and sEffic. Conclusions: From a very precise conceptual definition, a model is generated, within which empirical evidence explains the relationship between BSC and PsyS, emphasizing the role of BSC in the development of personal resources to cope with AS. This can be applied to policies and public health programs that affect these variables. Full article
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23 pages, 1563 KiB  
Article
Interpretive Diversity Understanding, Parental Practices, and Contextual Factors Involved in Primary School-age Children’s Cheating and Lying Behavior
by Narcisa Prodan, Melania Moldovan, Simina Alexandra Cacuci and Laura Visu-Petra
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1621-1643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110114 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2067
Abstract
Dishonesty is an interpersonal process that relies on sophisticated socio-cognitive mechanisms embedded in a complex network of individual and contextual factors. The present study examined parental rearing practices, bilingualism, socioeconomic status, and children’s interpretive diversity understanding (i.e., the ability to understand the constructive [...] Read more.
Dishonesty is an interpersonal process that relies on sophisticated socio-cognitive mechanisms embedded in a complex network of individual and contextual factors. The present study examined parental rearing practices, bilingualism, socioeconomic status, and children’s interpretive diversity understanding (i.e., the ability to understand the constructive nature of the human mind) in relation to their cheating and lie-telling behavior. 196 school-age children (9–11 years old) participated in a novel trivia game-like temptation resistance paradigm to elicit dishonesty and to verify their interpretive diversity understanding. Results revealed that children’s decision to cheat and lie was positively associated with their understanding of the constructive nature of the human mind and with parental rejection. Children with rejective parents were more likely to lie compared to their counterparts. This may suggest that understanding social interactions and the relationship with caregivers can impact children’s cheating behavior and the extent to which they are willing to deceive about it. Understanding the constructive nature of the mind was also a positive predictor of children’s ability to maintain their lies. Finally, being bilingual and having a higher socioeconomic status positively predicted children’s deception, these intriguing results warranting further research into the complex network of deception influences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Related to School Coexistence at Different Educational Stages)
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14 pages, 480 KiB  
Article
Reducing Choice-Blindness? An Experimental Study Comparing Experienced Meditators to Non-Meditators
by Léa Lachaud, Baptiste Jacquet and Jean Baratgin
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1607-1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110113 - 6 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
The mindfulness trait is an intrinsic characteristic of one’s disposition that facilitates awareness of the present moment. Meditation has proven to enhance situational awareness. In this study, we compared the performance of participants that were split into two groups depending on their experience [...] Read more.
The mindfulness trait is an intrinsic characteristic of one’s disposition that facilitates awareness of the present moment. Meditation has proven to enhance situational awareness. In this study, we compared the performance of participants that were split into two groups depending on their experience in mindfulness meditation (a control group naive to mindfulness meditation and a group of experienced mindfulness meditators). Choice-blindness happens when people fail to notice mismatches between their intentions and the consequences of decisions. Our task consisted of decisions where participants chose one preferred female facial image from a pair of images for a total of 15 decisions. By reversing the decisions, unbeknownst to the participants, three discrepancies were introduced in an online experimental design. Our results indicate that the likelihood of detecting one or more manipulations was higher in the mindful group compared to the control group. The higher FMI scores of the mindful group did not contribute to this observation; only the practice of mindfulness meditation itself did. Thus, this could be explained by better introspective access and control of reasoning processes acquired during practice and not by the latent characteristics that are attributed to the mindfulness trait. Full article
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13 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Behaviors Associated with ASD in Others: Knowledge of the Diagnosis Increases Empathy and Improves Perceptions of Warmth and Competence
by Deven L. Nestorowich, Shannon P. Lupien and Vicki Madaus Knapp
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1594-1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110112 - 4 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit atypical social behaviors that some may perceive as odd or discomforting. Given that ASD is largely invisible, it may be difficult to understand why a person is displaying these atypical behaviors, leading to less favorable [...] Read more.
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often exhibit atypical social behaviors that some may perceive as odd or discomforting. Given that ASD is largely invisible, it may be difficult to understand why a person is displaying these atypical behaviors, leading to less favorable attitudes. The current study aimed to examine if having an explanation for an individual exhibiting behaviors associated with ASD could improve perceptions of warmth and competence, as well as the amount of empathy felt towards the individual. Participants (n = 82) were presented with a scenario involving two people, one of whom exhibited behaviors consistent with ASD. ASD diagnosis information was manipulated, such that half of the participants were told that the target was diagnosed with ASD, and the other half were given no diagnostic information. Afterwards, participants rated the target. Results indicated that having an explanation for the ASD-related behaviors led to higher ratings of warmth and competence and greater feelings of empathy. Furthermore, empathy mediated the relationship between having the diagnostic information and target ratings. Thus, having an explanation for someone’s behavior may lead to greater feelings of empathy and improve perceptions and understanding. This has important implications for improving education and awareness about behaviors associated with ASD as well as for making the decision of whether or not to disclose one’s diagnosis. Full article
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13 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Internet Risk Perception: Development and Validation of a Scale for Adults
by Norma Torres-Hernández, Inmaculada García-Martínez and María-Jesús Gallego-Arrufat
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1581-1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110111 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2805
Abstract
Despite the importance of Internet risk perception, no instrument currently exists that measures this awareness in the Spanish population. The goal of this study was to provide information on studies of the validity and reliability of the Internet Risk Perception (IRP) Scale for [...] Read more.
Despite the importance of Internet risk perception, no instrument currently exists that measures this awareness in the Spanish population. The goal of this study was to provide information on studies of the validity and reliability of the Internet Risk Perception (IRP) Scale for adult Spanish citizens. We began with a literature review and validation using a mixed panel with 20 participants. We analyzed the degree to which the subjects agreed or disagreed with the criteria evaluated, including contributions for improving the instrument, and performed a pilot test with 517 adults aged 18 to 77. Construct reliability and validity were analyzed using various statistical analyses. The results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed a sufficient accuracy of the data with parameters that indicated an excellent fit for all items. The Spanish version of the scale for adults is a reliable and valid instrument for use in studies that investigate Internet risk perception in people over 18 years of age. Full article
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9 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Admission Grades as Predictors of Medical Students’ Academic Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study from Saudi Arabia
by Ali Hendi, Mohammed S. Mahfouz, Ahmad Y. Alqassim, Anwar Makeen, Mohammed Somaili, Mohammed O. Shami, Abdellh A. Names, Alaa Darraj, Areej Kariri, Asma Ashiri and Abdulaziz H. Alhazmi
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1572-1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110110 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
Background: Admission to medical school is competitive, and different countries use various tests in addition to high school grades to minimize selection bias. A few studies have been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of these tests as predictors for students’ academic performance. [...] Read more.
Background: Admission to medical school is competitive, and different countries use various tests in addition to high school grades to minimize selection bias. A few studies have been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of these tests as predictors for students’ academic performance. In this article, we aimed to assess factors that influenced students’ grades in medical school. Methods: A cross-sectional study included all students who graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at Jazan University between 2018 and 2020. Scores of the included participants were extracted from the registry of Jazan University, and additional questions about study habits were completed by the included students. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses were performed for the factors that impacted academic performance. Results: There were 331 included candidates, and the majority of them were female (53%). About 60% of the participants were medical residents at the time of the study, and 40% were interns. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that grades in high school and the pre-requisite tests were positively associated with students’ academic performance. Further, studying more than two hours per day was positively correlated with better grades in medical school. Conclusion: Scores of the admission tests can serve as predictors for student performance in medical school. National studies are deemed essential to evaluate additional admission tests for medical school, an action that would minimize selection bias. Full article
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