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Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ., Volume 12, Issue 12 (December 2022) – 12 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The majority of the 55 million people living with dementia globally are being cared for at home. As the disease progresses, families find it increasingly challenging to maintain meaningful interactions. Music interventions are known to stimulate autobiographical recall and regulate agitation, resulting in better person-centred care. To support families, we developed a music training program (HOMESIDE) that guides them to use music in more intentional and informed ways to support care. In this article, we outline the music training and intervention protocol, including in-depth descriptions of how to guide families in their use of music to increase and maintain engagement, regulate arousal, manage agitation, and how to safely encourage reminiscence. View this paper
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23 pages, 1921 KiB  
Article
Digital Pandemic Stress in Higher Education in Venezuela
by Álvaro Antón-Sancho, Diego Vergara, Elsy Medina and María Sánchez-Calvo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1878-1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120132 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic had a great impact on the process of integrating digital technologies in higher education and caused digital stress among professors, mainly in countries with a lower level of digitalization. In this work, quantitative research was carried out on the stress [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic had a great impact on the process of integrating digital technologies in higher education and caused digital stress among professors, mainly in countries with a lower level of digitalization. In this work, quantitative research was carried out on the stress of professors in Venezuela due to the digitalization of their teaching activities caused by the pandemic, and gender gaps were identified in this regard. This digital stress was compared with that of professors in other countries with a low level of digitalization. For this purpose, a questionnaire designed by the authors was used. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 129 Venezuelan professors and 132 professors from countries with low digitalization levels. As a result, it was found that Venezuelan professors have lower digital competence and lower digital stress than their colleagues in weakly digitized countries, and that digital stress decreases as digital competence increases. Moreover, among Venezuelan professors, there was a strong gender gap in digital stress, which was higher among females in all subject areas, except for Health Sciences. This gender gap is specific to Venezuela since it differs from that in countries with low digital levels. According to the results, we urgently recommend investing resources in the digital training of faculty members, especially in regards to the integration of female professors. Full article
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11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Feasibility & Acceptability of Patient and Family Directed Active Music Making during Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Process
by Annie Heiderscheit
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1867-1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120131 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1534
Abstract
(1) Background: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is an aggressive and complex medical treatment for children with certain types of cancer and other diseases. The transplant process entails replacing the patient’s diseased bone marrow with the healthy marrow of a donor. During the course [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Bone marrow transplant (BMT) is an aggressive and complex medical treatment for children with certain types of cancer and other diseases. The transplant process entails replacing the patient’s diseased bone marrow with the healthy marrow of a donor. During the course of treatment, patients are isolated in their room to reduce the risk of infection. Patient’s experience a variety of symptoms and side effects during the process including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, fatigue, pain, discomfort, extreme muscle weakness, and emotional distress. Children often need a parent or caregiver present with them at all times throughout treatment. This process can cause significant stress and anxiety for the patient and their family. (2) Methods: This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of a patient and family directed active music making protocol during the BMT process. Ten patients, their parents, and family members participated in the study during the course of the BMT. (3) Results: Participants reported engaging in active music making 3–4 times per week and completed 121 journal forms reporting their music making experiences. They indicated using active music making to manage pain, discomfort, stress, anxiety, and boredom, foster relaxation and sleep, for enjoyment, and as a way to connect. (4) Conclusions: Patients, parents and family members reported feeling a sense of empowerment when engaged in making music to support their child or loved one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Music and Music Therapy on Health and Wellbeing)
15 pages, 361 KiB  
Article
Headache in Workers: A Matched Case–Control Study
by Reparata Rosa Di Prinzio, Gabriele Arnesano, Igor Meraglia and Nicola Magnavita
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1852-1866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120130 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2297
Abstract
A case–control study including 446 workers reporting headaches (cases; 136 males and 310 females, mean age 46.71 ± 10.84 years) and 446 age- and sex-matched colleagues without headaches (controls; mean age 45.44 ± 10.13) was conducted in the second half of 2020 in [...] Read more.
A case–control study including 446 workers reporting headaches (cases; 136 males and 310 females, mean age 46.71 ± 10.84 years) and 446 age- and sex-matched colleagues without headaches (controls; mean age 45.44 ± 10.13) was conducted in the second half of 2020 in a sample drawn from socio health and commercial services companies to investigate the association of headache with lifestyle, metabolic, and work-related factors. Workers suffering from headache reported higher body weight (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.46–2.53, p < 0.001), higher blood cholesterol (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.46–2.77, p < 0.001), triglyceride (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.20–3.35, p < 0.01), blood glucose (OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.16–3.24, p < 0.01), and blood pressure levels (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.23–2.52, p < 0.01). In the year preceding the survey, cases had experienced a higher frequency of workplace violence (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20, p < 0.01 for physical aggression, OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.45–3.41, p < 0.001 for threat, OR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.72–4.38, p < 0.001 for harassment) and were more frequently distressed (effort/reward ratio > 1) (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.39–2.40, p < 0.001) than the controls. Compared to the controls, cases also had higher scores on anxiety and depression scales, lower scores on happiness, and lower levels of sleep quality (p < 0.001). The association of headaches with metabolic and mental health problems suggests that monitoring headaches in the workplace could help to identify workers at risk of impairment. Full article
10 pages, 312 KiB  
Article
The Therapist’s Intuition and Responsiveness: What Makes the Difference between Expert and in Training Gestalt Psychotherapists
by Margherita Spagnuolo Lobb, Federica Sciacca, Serena Iacono Isidoro and Santo Di Nuovo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1842-1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120129 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3173
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the presence of intuition and responsiveness in early students and in experienced students and psychotherapists, which is understood as the ability to integrate bodily sensitivity and cognition of what is experienced with the patient (aesthetic relational knowing—ARK). The [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the presence of intuition and responsiveness in early students and in experienced students and psychotherapists, which is understood as the ability to integrate bodily sensitivity and cognition of what is experienced with the patient (aesthetic relational knowing—ARK). The study compares how the therapist’s felt sense of the phenomenological intersubjective field and aesthetic relational competence differs between a group of experienced students and psychotherapists and a group of beginners. The sample consisted of 128 participants (20 M; 108 F), finally divided into two groups: “experienced students and psychotherapists” and “beginners”. The Aesthetic Relational Knowledge Scale (ARKS), a questionnaire consisting of 58 items targeting three factors (empathy, body awareness, and resonance), was administered. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess (i) differences between the two groups (through Student’s t and Cohen’s d for effect sizes), (ii) the influence of the level of training for each ARK factor using analyses of covariance for testing the possible influence of demographic variables, and (iii) logistic regressions to compare the influence of the three factors of the ARK model on the group variable with groups as a categorical variable. Significant differences between the two groups were found in body awareness and resonance. Body awareness was found to be the variable best discriminating between the beginners and the experienced students and psychotherapists. Despite being non-significant, there is a tendency suggesting that empathy appears more relevant at the beginning of training. The study shows the importance of training for the development of the therapist’s intuition and responsiveness, especially in the factors of body awareness and resonance. The results indicate the importance of assessing and supporting the aesthetic and field resonance of therapists in training, increasing quality and depth of the therapist’s responsiveness. This study is limited by a correlational design using self-report and on a limited sample, but it shows that the ARKS can monitor the effectiveness of training related to Gestalt therapeutic competencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Teaching Innovation in Higher Education: Areas of Knowledge)
9 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Spirituality, Happiness, and Prosocial Bystander Behavior in Bullying—The Mediating Role of Altruism
by Fernanda Inéz García-Vázquez, Maria Fernanda Durón-Ramos, Rubén Pérez-Rios and Ricardo Ernesto Pérez-Ibarra
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1833-1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120128 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
Positive psychology is vital in increasing prosocial behavior and reducing bullying. However, limited studies have analyzed the influence of positive personal characteristics on the prosocial behaviors of bystanders in bullying. The present study examined direct and indirect relationships between spirituality, happiness, altruism, and [...] Read more.
Positive psychology is vital in increasing prosocial behavior and reducing bullying. However, limited studies have analyzed the influence of positive personal characteristics on the prosocial behaviors of bystanders in bullying. The present study examined direct and indirect relationships between spirituality, happiness, altruism, and prosocial bystander behavior in bullying. Participants in this study were 685 students from Northwestern Mexico; 51% were male and 49% female, between 12 and 18 years old (M = 14.3 years, SD = 1.68). A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated. The results indicate that happiness and altruism were related to prosocial bystander behavior. Spirituality and happiness have an indirect relationship by increasing prosocial bystander behavior through the positive effects of altruism. The SEM explained 48% of the variance of the prosocial bystander. The implications for improving defensive behavior in bullying and reducing school violence are discussed. Full article
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21 pages, 1167 KiB  
Protocol
The HOMESIDE Music Intervention: A Training Protocol for Family Carers of People Living with Dementia
by Helen Odell-Miller, Laura Blauth, Jodie Bloska, Anna A. Bukowska, Imogen N. Clark, Sarah Crabtree, Runa B. Engen, Solgunn Knardal, Tone K. Kvamme, Kate McMahon, Carina Petrowitz, Agnieszka Smrokowska-Reichmann, Karette Stensæth, Jeanette Tamplin, Thomas Wosch, Nina Wollersberger and Felicity A. Baker
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1812-1832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120127 - 4 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3021
Abstract
Background: The number of people living with dementia (PwD) worldwide is expected to double every 20 years. Many continue living at home, receiving support from family caregivers who may experience significant stress, simultaneously to that of the PwD. Meaningful and effective home-based interventions [...] Read more.
Background: The number of people living with dementia (PwD) worldwide is expected to double every 20 years. Many continue living at home, receiving support from family caregivers who may experience significant stress, simultaneously to that of the PwD. Meaningful and effective home-based interventions to support PwD and their caregivers are needed. The development of a theory- and practice-driven online home-based music intervention (MI) is delivered by credentialed music therapists, nested within the HOMESIDE RCT trial. Methods: Dyads including the PwD and their family carer are randomised to MI, reading (RI) or standard care (SC). MI aims to support health wellbeing and quality of life by training caregivers to intentionally use music (singing, instrument playing, movement/dancing, and music listening) with their family member (PwD) in daily routines. MI is underpinned by cognitive, relational, social, and psychological theories of mechanisms of change. Results: Preliminary sub-cohort results analyses show MI can be delivered and is accepted well by participants and music-therapist interventionists across five countries. Conclusions: The specialist skills of a music therapist through MI enable carers to access music when music therapists are not present, to meet carer and PwD needs. Music therapists embrace this changing professional role, observing therapeutic change for members of the dyads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Music and Music Therapy on Health and Wellbeing)
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19 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Use of Personal Resources May Influence the Rate of Biological Aging Depending on Individual Typology
by Tatiana N. Berezina and Stanislav A. Rybtsov
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1793-1811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120126 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Individual hobbies and interests, the ways of spending leisure time develop personal resources influencing health and wellbeing. The literature analysis helped selecting thirteen personal resources that also affect the rate of aging: sports, order, creativity, intellect, handwork, kindness, Humor, spirituality, risk, nature, achievements, [...] Read more.
Individual hobbies and interests, the ways of spending leisure time develop personal resources influencing health and wellbeing. The literature analysis helped selecting thirteen personal resources that also affect the rate of aging: sports, order, creativity, intellect, handwork, kindness, Humor, spirituality, risk, nature, achievements, optimism, communication. In 1632 people, (840 women and 792 men) personal resources were assessed using a questionnaire developed in-house. Biological age was determined by health indicators. The personal typology was determined by testing functional asymmetry, physique, interaction style, emotionality, profession, marital status, gender, age, and place of residence. The data were processed by correlation and cluster analysis and methods of automatic artificial neural networks (ANN). Personal resources were used as input continuous variables. Personality types were used as input categorical variables. The index of relative biological aging (RBA) was applied as an output continuous variable. We also calculated the correlation between the RBA index and the applied personal resources in different types of personalities. For most female types including investigative occupations, psychomotor emotionality, living in urban areas, asthenic physique, negative correlations were found between most personal resources and the aging index. In men, resources that slow down aging are found only for certain types: enterprising and conventional professions, ambidexter and left-handed, intellectual emotionality, athletic physique. In conclusion, with the help of the trained ANN, we selected personal resources that slow down aging. For women of all types, there are common resources reducing RBA index including nature, intellect, and achievements. For men, ANN was unable to find common resources that slow down aging. However, with an individual selection of resources, a trained neural network gives a favorable forecast of the ability to slow down the biological aging of a particular man by changing his hobbies and interests and ways of spending free time. Full article
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13 pages, 1836 KiB  
Review
Virtual and Augmented Reality versus Traditional Methods for Teaching Physiotherapy: A Systematic Review
by David Lucena-Anton, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez, Ana I. Pacheco-Serrano, Cristina Garcia-Munoz and Jose A. Moral-Munoz
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1780-1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120125 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3975
Abstract
The use of virtual worlds in health-related education is increasingly popular, but an overview of their use in physiotherapy education is still needed. The aim of this review was to analyse the use of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) compared to traditional methods [...] Read more.
The use of virtual worlds in health-related education is increasingly popular, but an overview of their use in physiotherapy education is still needed. The aim of this review was to analyse the use of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) compared to traditional methods for teaching physiotherapy. A systematic review was performed up to October 2022 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycInfo. The quality appraisal and risk of bias were assessed by the Joana Briggs Institute checklist and the Cochrane Collaboration’s RoB Tool 2.0, respectively. A total of seven randomised and non-randomised controlled studies were included, involving 737 students. VR/AR-based teaching approaches included simulation and virtual worlds, and were conducted through immersive head-mounted displays, AR-based applications, and 3D visualisations. Three studies were focused on teaching anatomy content, two on clinical decision making skills, and the rest were focused on pathology, physiotherapy tasks or exercise performance, and movement analysis of lower limbs. Inconclusive results were found in terms of learning satisfaction and academic performance, showing VR/AR-based teaching models to be equally effective as traditional methods for teaching physiotherapy. We encourage researchers and teachers to include games in their VR/AR-based teaching approaches to enhance interaction and active learning in physiotherapy education. Full article
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20 pages, 382 KiB  
Article
State of Mind Assessment in Relation to Adult Attachment and Text Analysis of Adult Attachment Interviews in a Sample of Patients with Anorexia Nervosa
by Cristina Civilotti, Martina Franceschinis, Gabriella Gandino, Fabio Veglia, Simona Anselmetti, Sara Bertelli, Armando D’Agostino, Carolina Alberta Redaelli, Renata del Giudice, Rebecca Giampaolo, Isabel Fernandez, Sarah Finzi, Alessia Celeghin, Edoardo Donarelli and Giulia Di Fini
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1760-1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120124 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Background: Attachment theory represents one of the most important references for the study of the development of an individual throughout their life cycle and provides the clinician with a profound key for the purposes of understanding the suffering that underlies severe psychopathologies such [...] Read more.
Background: Attachment theory represents one of the most important references for the study of the development of an individual throughout their life cycle and provides the clinician with a profound key for the purposes of understanding the suffering that underlies severe psychopathologies such as eating disorders. As such, we conducted a cross-sectional study with a mixed-methods analysis on a sample of 32 young women with anorexia nervosa (AN); this study was embedded in the utilized theoretical framework with the following aims: 1. to evaluate the state of mind (SoM) in relation to adult attachment, assuming a prevalence of the dismissing (DS) SoM and 2. to analyze the linguistic attachment profile emerging from the transcripts of the AAIs. Methods: Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using the linguistic inquiry and word count (LIWC) method. Results: The results were observed to be consistent with the referenced literature. The prevalence of a DS SoM (68.75%) is observed in the study sample, whereas the results of the lexical analysis of the stories deviate from expectations. Notably, the lexical results indicate the coexistence of the dismissing and entangled aspects at the representational level. Conclusions: The study results suggest a high level of specificity in the emotional functioning of patients with AN, with a focusing on a pervasive control of emotions that is well illustrated by the avoidant/ambivalent (A/C) strategy described in Crittenden’s dynamic–maturational model. These findings and considerations have important implications for clinical work and treatment, which we believe must be structured on the basis of starting from a reappraisal of emotional content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health Psychology: Theories, Methods and Applications)
17 pages, 1273 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Biomedical Research Training Model: Rationale, Design, and Evaluation
by Payam Sheikhattari, Shiva Mehravaran, Jummai Apata, Gillian Silver, Shamara Murphy, Sylvia Hurtado and Farin Kamangar
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1743-1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120123 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1813
Abstract
Much is told regarding the need for greater diversity in the biomedical research workforce in terms of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. However, there are few evidence-based models that are tested and can have significant effects in this regard. Thus, there is a [...] Read more.
Much is told regarding the need for greater diversity in the biomedical research workforce in terms of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. However, there are few evidence-based models that are tested and can have significant effects in this regard. Thus, there is a need for development and evaluation of innovative models that may help train a more diverse biomedical research workforce. In this study, we provided the rationale, conceptual model, and preliminary evaluation of a program called “A Student-Centered Entrepreneurship Development (ASCEND)”. This training program was designed, implemented, and evaluated between 2017 and 2020 at Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The program’s conceptual model is based on four stages: Attraction and Inspiration, Ideation and Innovation, Research Implementation, and Career Growth. Results of the comparative survey between 50 students who participated in ASCEND and 86 non-member controls showed an increase in science identity, academic self-concept, science self-efficacy, and peer support. The only domain that did not show a larger increase in participants in our program compared to controls was social self-concept. In addition, a total of 59 students submitted 48 research concepts, and 16 undergraduate student projects were funded. Of participants in the Health Research Concepts Competition, 39 students graduated, and 13 were pursuing graduate programs in STEM fields at the time of evaluation. The number of research projects and trainees who started a graduate degree were also reported. The ASCEND training model fosters an entrepreneurial mindset among undergraduate students. Such a program might be effective in diversifying the biomedical research workforce. While this preliminary evaluation indicates the efficacy of the ASCEND model, there is a need for further long-term and multi-center evaluations with the trainees’ research productivity and receipt of independent funding as outcomes. Full article
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14 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Status of Slovene Adults in the Post-COVID-19 Epidemic Period
by Boštjan Jakše, Uroš Godnov and Stanislav Pinter
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1729-1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120122 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Background: Monitoring nutritional status data in the adult population is extremely important to mediate their health status. Unfortunately, for Slovenia (2.1 million European Union citizens), data on the body composition status of the general adult population are currently rare or nonexistent in scientific [...] Read more.
Background: Monitoring nutritional status data in the adult population is extremely important to mediate their health status. Unfortunately, for Slovenia (2.1 million European Union citizens), data on the body composition status of the general adult population are currently rare or nonexistent in scientific journals. Furthermore, dietary intake was last assessed several years before the COVID-19 epidemic period. Methods: We randomly recruited 844 adult Slovenes from all regions of Slovenia. The primary aim of the cross-sectional study was to examine body composition status (using a medically approved electrical bioimpedance monitor) during the post-COVID-19 epidemic period. In addition, we assessed dietary intake (using a standardized food frequency questionnaire) and compared the obesity propensity for both sexes separately using the body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%) obesity classification of the World Health Organization. Results: Regarding BMI classification, 43% of the whole sample was overweight (28%) or obese (15%), and there were more older adults than adults (64% vs. 42%, p < 0.001). The average FAT% of adult females and males was 26.9% and 19.5% (p < 0.001), respectively, while for older adult females and males, it was 32.7% and 23% (p < 0.001). In addition, a comparison of the proportions of obese people between the two cut-off obesity classifications (BMI vs. FAT%) showed a significantly underestimated proportion of obese female participants based on BMI classification (13% vs. 17%, p = 0.005). In terms of the dietary intake of the assessed nutrients in comparison with the national dietary reference values for energy and nutrient intake, the participants, on average, had lower intake than the recommended values for carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins C, D and E (for males) and calcium, and higher intake than the recommended values for total fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sodium and chloride (for males). Conclusions: The results urgently call for the need to not only improve the overall national nutritional status but also for regular national monitoring of body composition and dietary intake statuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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10 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Attitudes towards Tattoos among Spanish Health Science Students
by Gemma Blázquez Abellán, Jesús López-Torres López, Mª José Moreno de la Rosa, Angel López González, Joseba Rabanales Sotos and Jesús Dativo López-Torres Hidalgo
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(12), 1719-1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12120121 - 22 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1629
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim is to ascertain health science students’ attitudes towards tattoos and their association with healthy lifestyles and socio-demographic variables. (2) Methods: Descriptive study conducted on pharmacy, medical and nursing students (n = 423). To ascertain attitudes towards tattoos, we used [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim is to ascertain health science students’ attitudes towards tattoos and their association with healthy lifestyles and socio-demographic variables. (2) Methods: Descriptive study conducted on pharmacy, medical and nursing students (n = 423). To ascertain attitudes towards tattoos, we used the Attitudes Towards Tattoos Scale. Other variables were physical activity, healthy diet, harmful habits and socio-demographic variables. (3) Results: A total of 12.6% (95% CI 9.1–16.2) of students reported having a tattoo; 58.9% did not regard tattoos as a health risk. In terms of attitudes, the mean score in the range of 7–35 (7—most unfavourable to 35—most favourable) was 22.6 (SD 5.2; 95% CI: 22.0–23.2). Scores were higher (p < 0.05) among women (23.1; SD: 5.3), persons aged <20 years (23.6; SD: 5.0) and smokers (23.9; SD: 4.6). Attitudes were found to be more favourable (p < 0.05) in nursing students than in pharmacy or medical students. No relationship was observed with physical activity, healthy diet or drug use. (4) Conclusions: The attitude to tattoos is most favourable among women, persons aged under 20 years and nursing students. In terms of health habits, attitudes are more favourable among smokers, regardless of their level of physical activity, compliance with healthy eating guidelines or consumption of alcohol or other drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Research in Clinical and Health Contexts)
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