Next Issue
Volume 10, October
Previous Issue
Volume 10, August
 
 

Plants, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2021) – 220 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Glyphosate has for a long time assumed a leading role in the herbicide industry, and its benefits to the agri-food industry cannot be ignored. However, due to cumulative and increasing application practices, soil contamination by this herbicide is becoming an emerging environmental issue that needs to be critically evaluated. Therefore, sustainable ways to prevent glyphosate non-target toxicity need to be developed to ensure a safer use of this herbicide. Here, using tomato as a nontarget crop model, we show that nitric oxide, when provided as foliar spray, is able to prevent glyphosate macroscopic phytotoxicity, mainly due to its features as a radical scavenger and stimulator of defence mechanisms, thus ensuring the maintenance of the redox homeostasis under herbicide co-exposure. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
9 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Herbicide-Resistant Invasive Plant Species Ludwigia decurrens Walter
by Denny Kurniadie, Ryan Widianto, Dedi Widayat, Uum Umiyati, Ceppy Nasahi and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1973; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091973 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
Ludwigia decurrens Walter is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Onagraceae. It is native to Central Eastern USA but has been spreading quickly and has naturalized in aquatic and riparian ecosystems (including rice paddy fields) in many countries; therefore, it is now [...] Read more.
Ludwigia decurrens Walter is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Onagraceae. It is native to Central Eastern USA but has been spreading quickly and has naturalized in aquatic and riparian ecosystems (including rice paddy fields) in many countries; therefore, it is now considered an invasive noxious weed. L. decurrens is highly competitive with rice and causes a significant reduction in rice production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the herbicide penoxsulam for the control of L. decurrens in rice fields. The seeds of L. decurrens were collected from four villages in Indonesia, and penoxsulam was applied to L. decurrens in seven dosages (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 g a.i. ha−1) 3 weeks after seed sowing. The plant populations from Hegarmanah, Jatisari, and Joho showed complete mortality at the recommended dosage of penoxsulam (10 g a.i. ha−1). However, the plants from Demakan grew, flowered, and produced seeds 56 days after treatment with 40 g a.i. ha−1 of penoxsulam. The resistance index value of the population was 36.06. This is the first report of a penoxsulam-resistant weed from a dicotyledonous plant species and also the first report of a herbicide-resistant population of L. decurrens. The appearance of herbicide-resistant L. decurrens is a serious issue from both an environmental and an economic perspective, especially since protected forest and freshwater ecosystems are located at a short distance from the study area. Further research is needed to evaluate herbicide mixtures and/or the rotation of herbicide action sites. The identification of the penoxsulam-resistance mechanism in L. decurrens is also necessary to develop a herbicide resistance management strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Alien Species in Protected Areas)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Identification of Bacterial Wilt (Erwinia tracheiphila) Resistances in USDA Melon Collection
by Bimala Acharya, Lucas Mackasmiel, Ali Taheri, Christine A. Ondzighi-Assoume, Yiqun Weng and C. Korsi Dumenyo
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091972 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3391
Abstract
Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Erwinia tracheiphila (Et.), is an important disease in melon (Cucumis melo L.). BW-resistant commercial melon varieties are not widely available. There are also no effective pathogen-based disease management strategies as BW-infected plants ultimately die. [...] Read more.
Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Erwinia tracheiphila (Et.), is an important disease in melon (Cucumis melo L.). BW-resistant commercial melon varieties are not widely available. There are also no effective pathogen-based disease management strategies as BW-infected plants ultimately die. The purpose of this study is to identify BW-resistant melon accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) collection. We tested 118 melon accessions in two inoculation trials under controlled environments. Four-week-old seedlings of test materials were mechanically inoculated with the fluorescently (GFP) labeled or unlabeled E. tracheiphila strain, Hca1-5N. We recorded the number of days to wilting of inoculated leaf (DWIL), days to wilting of whole plant (DWWP) and days to death of the plant (DDP). We identified four melon lines with high resistance to BW inoculation based on all three parameters. Fluorescent microscopy was used to visualize the host colonization dynamics of labeled bacteria from the point of inoculation into petioles, stem and roots in resistant and susceptible melon accessions, which provides an insight into possible mechanisms of BW resistance in melon. The resistant melon lines identified from this study could be valuable resistance sources for breeding of BW resistance as well as the study of cucurbit—E. tracheiphila interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 638 KiB  
Article
The Cultivation of Chelidonium majus L. Increased the Total Alkaloid Content and Cytotoxic Activity Compared with Those of Wild-Grown Plants
by Valerija Krizhanovska, Inga Sile, Arta Kronberga, Ilva Nakurte, Ieva Mezaka, Maija Dambrova, Osvalds Pugovics and Solveiga Grinberga
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091971 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3024
Abstract
The effect of cultivation practises on both the phytochemical profile and biological activity of aqueous ethanol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. was studied. Extracts were prepared from aerial parts of the same plant population collected in the wild and grown under organic farming [...] Read more.
The effect of cultivation practises on both the phytochemical profile and biological activity of aqueous ethanol extracts of Chelidonium majus L. was studied. Extracts were prepared from aerial parts of the same plant population collected in the wild and grown under organic farming conditions. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of alkaloids and flavonoid derivatives were performed by LC/MS methods, and the cytotoxicity of lyophilised extracts was studied in B16-F10, HepG2, and CaCo-2 cells. Coptisine was the dominant alkaloid of extracts prepared from wild-grown plants, whereas after cultivation, chelidonine was the most abundant alkaloid. The total alkaloid content was significantly increased by cultivation. Ten flavonol glycoconjugates were identified in C. majus extracts, and quantitative analysis did not reveal significant differences between extracts prepared from wild-grown and cultivated specimens. Treatment with C. majus extracts resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity in all three cell lines. The extracts prepared from cultivated specimens showed higher cytotoxicity than the extracts prepared from wild-grown plants. The strongest cytotoxic effect of cultivated C. majus was observed in B16-F10 cells (IC50 = 174.98 ± 1.12 µg/mL). Cultivation-induced differences in the phytochemical composition of C. majus extracts resulted in significant increases in the cytotoxic activities of the preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Plants Phytochemistry and Bioactivity Analysis)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1792 KiB  
Article
Non-Target Site Mechanisms Endow Resistance to Glyphosate in Saltmarsh Aster (Aster squamatus)
by José Alfredo Domínguez-Valenzuela, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Candelario Palma-Bautista, José Guadalupe Vázquez-García, Hugo E. Cruz-Hipolito and Rafael De Prado
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091970 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Of the six-glyphosate resistant weed species reported in Mexico, five were found in citrus groves. Here, the glyphosate susceptibility level and resistance mechanisms were evaluated in saltmarsh aster (Aster squamatus), a weed that also occurs in Mexican citrus groves. The R [...] Read more.
Of the six-glyphosate resistant weed species reported in Mexico, five were found in citrus groves. Here, the glyphosate susceptibility level and resistance mechanisms were evaluated in saltmarsh aster (Aster squamatus), a weed that also occurs in Mexican citrus groves. The R population accumulated 4.5-fold less shikimic acid than S population. S plants hardly survived at 125 g ae ha−1 while most of the R plants that were treated with 1000 g ae ha−1, which suffered a strong growth arrest, showed a vigorous regrowth from the third week after treatment. Further, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate basal and enzymatic activities did not diverge between populations, suggesting the absence of target-site resistance mechanisms. At 96 h after treatment, R plants absorbed ~18% less glyphosate and maintained 63% of the 14C-glyphsoate absorbed in the treated leaf in comparison to S plants. R plants metabolized twice as much (72%) glyphosate to amino methyl phosphonic acid and glyoxylate as the S plants. Three non-target mechanisms, reduced absorption and translocation and increased metabolism, confer glyphosate resistance saltmarsh aster. This is the first case of glyphosate resistance recorded for A. squamatus in the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbicide Mechanisms of Action and Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1697 KiB  
Article
Alleviation of Lead Stress on Sage Plant by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA)
by Hamed M. El-Shora, Gehan F. Massoud, Ghada A. El-Sherbeny, Salma Saleh Alrdahe and Doaa B. Darwish
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091969 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Oxidative stress is imparted by a varying range of environmental factors involving heavy metal stress. Thus, the mechanisms of antioxidant resistance may advance a policy to improve metal tolerance. Lead as a toxic heavy metal negatively affects the metabolic activities and growth of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is imparted by a varying range of environmental factors involving heavy metal stress. Thus, the mechanisms of antioxidant resistance may advance a policy to improve metal tolerance. Lead as a toxic heavy metal negatively affects the metabolic activities and growth of medicinal and aromatic plants. This investigation aimed to assess the function of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the alleviation of Pb stress in sage plants (Salvia officinalis L.) grown either hydroponically or in pots. Various concentrations of Pb (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM) and different concentrations of ALA (0, 10, and 20 mg L−1) were tested. This investigation showed that Pb altered the physiological parameters. Pb stress differentially reduced germination percentage and protein content compared to control plants. However, lead stress promoted malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents in the treated plants. Also, lead stress enhanced the anti-oxidative enzyme activities; ascorbate peroxidase superoxide, dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in Salvia plants. ALA application enhanced the germination percentage and protein content compared to their corresponding controls. Whereas, under ALA application MDA and H2O2 contents, as well as the activities of SOD, APX, GPX, and GR, were lowered. These findings suggest that ALA at the 20 mgL−1 level protects the Salvia plant from Pb stress. Therefore, the results recommend ALA application to alleviate Pb stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop and Medical Plants Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Bordered Pit Formation in Cell Walls of Spruce Tracheids
by Dmitry G. Chukhchin, Ksenia Vashukova and Evgeniy Novozhilov
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1968; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091968 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
The process of pit formation in plants still has various questions unaddressed and unknown, which opens up many interesting and new research opportunities. The aim of this work was elucidation of the mechanism for the formation of bordered pits of the spruce ( [...] Read more.
The process of pit formation in plants still has various questions unaddressed and unknown, which opens up many interesting and new research opportunities. The aim of this work was elucidation of the mechanism for the formation of bordered pits of the spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) tracheid with exosomes participation and mechanical deformation of the cell wall. Sample sections were prepared from spruce stem samples after cryomechanical destruction with liquid nitrogen. The study methods included scanning electron microscopy and enzymatic treatment. Enzymatic treatment of the elements of the bordered pit made it possible to clarify the localization of cellulose and pectin. SEM images of intermediate stages of bordered pit formation in the radial and tangential directions were obtained. An asynchronous mechanism of formation of bordered-pit pairs in tracheids is proposed. The formation of the pit pair begins from the side of the initiator cell and is associated with enzymatic hydrolysis of the secondary cell wall and subsequent mechanical deformation of the primary cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the S1 layer of the secondary cell wall is carried out by exosome-delivered endoglucanases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 13271 KiB  
Article
The Role of Periodic Structures in Light Harvesting
by Eugene Bukhanov, Alexandr V. Shabanov, Mikhail N. Volochaev and Svetlana A. Pyatina
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091967 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
The features of light propagation in plant leaves depend on the long-period ordering in chloroplasts and the spectral characteristics of pigments. This work demonstrates a method of determining the hidden ordered structure. Transmission spectra have been determined using transfer matrix method. A band [...] Read more.
The features of light propagation in plant leaves depend on the long-period ordering in chloroplasts and the spectral characteristics of pigments. This work demonstrates a method of determining the hidden ordered structure. Transmission spectra have been determined using transfer matrix method. A band gap was found in the visible spectral range. The effective refractive index and dispersion in the absorption spectrum area of chlorophyll were taken into account to show that the density of photon states increases, while the spectrum shifts towards the wavelength range of effective photosynthesis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

36 pages, 5626 KiB  
Article
Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco: Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence
by Noureddine Bencheikh, Amine Elbouzidi, Loubna Kharchoufa, Hayat Ouassou, Ilyass Alami Merrouni, Hamza Mechchate, Imane Es-safi, Christophe Hano, Mohamed Addi, Mohamed Bouhrim, Bruno Eto and Mostafa Elachouri
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091966 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 6998
Abstract
Kidney disease is one of the most common health problems and kidney failure can be fatal. It is one of the health disorders associated with extreme pain and discomfort in patients. In developing countries, such as Morocco where socioeconomic and sanitary conditions are [...] Read more.
Kidney disease is one of the most common health problems and kidney failure can be fatal. It is one of the health disorders associated with extreme pain and discomfort in patients. In developing countries, such as Morocco where socioeconomic and sanitary conditions are precarious, medicinal plants are considered the primary source of medication. In the present work an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in a remote area of North-Eastern Morocco and we focused on (1) establishing a record of medicinal plants used traditionally by local people to treat kidney diseases and (2) correlate the obtained ethnomedical use with well-studied pharmacological evidence. From February 2018 to January2020, information was gathered from 488 informants using semi-structured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using three quantitative indices: The use value (UV), family use value (FUV), and informant consensus factor (ICF). A total of 121 plant species belonging to 57 botanical families were identified to treat kidney diseases. The families most represented were Asteraceae (14 species), followed by Lamiaceae (12 species) and Apiaceae (10 species). The most commonly used plant parts were leaves, followed by the whole plant and they were most commonly prepared by decoction and infusion. The highest value of the (UV) index was attributed to Herniaria hirsuta L. (UV = 0.16), and the highest family use value (FUV) was assigned to Caryophyllaceae with (FUV = 0.163). Regarding the informant consensus factor (ICF), this index’s highest values were recorded for kidney stones (ICF = 0.72). The use of 45% of the selected plants were validated based on literature review. This study helped document and preserve crucial traditional plant knowledge of 121 plant species used to treat kidney problems that can be used in the search for new biologically active compounds through more upcoming pharmacological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on African Traditional Medicinal Plants Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3872 KiB  
Article
Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Storage of Hydrologically Altered Mangrove Wetlands in Puerto Rico after a Hurricane
by Lauren N. Griffiths, Elix Hernandez, Elvira Cuevas and William J. Mitsch
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091965 - 20 Sep 2021
Viewed by 2509
Abstract
Mangrove wetlands are important ecosystems, yet human development coupled with climate change threatens mangroves and their large carbon stores. This study seeks to understand the soil carbon dynamics in hydrologically altered mangrove swamps by studying aboveground biomass estimates and belowground soil carbon concentrations [...] Read more.
Mangrove wetlands are important ecosystems, yet human development coupled with climate change threatens mangroves and their large carbon stores. This study seeks to understand the soil carbon dynamics in hydrologically altered mangrove swamps by studying aboveground biomass estimates and belowground soil carbon concentrations in mangrove swamps with high, medium, and low levels of disturbance in Cataño, Jobos Bay, and Vieques, Puerto Rico. All three sites were affected by hurricane María in 2017, one year prior to the study. As a result of being hit by the Saffir-Simpson category 4 hurricane, the low-disturbance site had almost no living mangroves left during sampling. There was no correlation between level of hydrologic alteration and carbon storage, rather different patterns emerged for each of the three sites. At the highly disturbed location, belowground carbon mass averaged 0.048 ± 0.001 g-C cm−3 which increased with increased aboveground biomass. At the moderately disturbed location, belowground carbon mass averaged 0.047 ± 0.003 g-C cm−3 and corresponded to distance from open water. At the low-disturbed location, organic carbon was consistent between all sites and inorganic carbon concentrations controlled total carbon mass which averaged 0.048 ± 0.002 g-C cm−3. These results suggest that mangroves are adaptive and resilient and have the potential to retain their carbon storage capacities despite hydrologic alterations, but mass carbon storage within mangrove forests can be spatially variable in hydrologically altered conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecology: Plant Adaptations to Changing Wetland Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. Isolates in Cocoa Seed Treatment and Seedling Production
by Willian Nogueira de Sousa, Nayane Fonseca Brito, Cristina Aledi Felsemburgh, Thiago Almeida Vieira and Denise Castro Lustosa
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091964 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Isolates of Trichoderma spp., a soil fungus, has been used to control diseases and promote plant growth, reducing the use of chemicals in the production of seedlings of different plant species. We evaluated the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on seed treatment [...] Read more.
Isolates of Trichoderma spp., a soil fungus, has been used to control diseases and promote plant growth, reducing the use of chemicals in the production of seedlings of different plant species. We evaluated the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on seed treatment and seedling production of Theobromacacao. Five isolates from the Amazon region were tested. In laboratory, the following variables were evaluated for seed treatments: germination, germination speed index, radicle and hypocotyl lengths, and fungi incidence. In nursery, the following forms of application were tested: via seeds; in the substrate at pre-planting; monthly in post-planting substrate, and also their combination. The following was evaluated: height, diameter, number of leaves, root length, leaf area, and shoot dry mass and root system. Inoculation with Trichoderma increased the length of the radicle and hypocotyl and showed no fungi in the seeds. In seedlings, some treatments increased height and plant root dry mass. The use of Trichoderma was beneficial for seeds and appeared favorable for T. cacao production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Seed Treatments for Ecosustainable Agriculture)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1940 KiB  
Article
Impact of Foliar Fertilization on Growth, Flowering, and Corms Production of Five Gladiolus Varieties
by Endre Kentelky and Zsolt Szekely-Varga
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091963 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3521
Abstract
Degraded and salt affected soils are appearing more often in cultivated areas. These specific problems could reduce nutrient uptake, which can result in quality and yield loss of the cultivated plants. In order to cope with this pedo-climatic condition growers are applying fertilizers; [...] Read more.
Degraded and salt affected soils are appearing more often in cultivated areas. These specific problems could reduce nutrient uptake, which can result in quality and yield loss of the cultivated plants. In order to cope with this pedo-climatic condition growers are applying fertilizers; however, due to inadequate application, soil degradation will continue. Five Gladiolus varieties were subjected to foliar fertilization treatments to assess the effect on the plant’s growth parameters, vase durability and daughter corm production. Our results indicate that plants treated with foliar fertilization show significant increase in the measured parameters, flower stem length, vase durability and daughter corm production. In conclusion, our study suggests that application of foliar fertilization can increase Gladiolus plants decoration and propagation, even with a smaller footprint on nature. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3760 KiB  
Article
Supraoptimal Brassinosteroid Levels Inhibit Root Growth by Reducing Root Meristem and Cell Elongation in Rice
by Kewalee Jantapo, Watcharapong Wimonchaijit, Wenfei Wang and Juthamas Chaiwanon
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091962 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Root growth depends on cell proliferation and cell elongation at the root meristem, which are controlled by plant hormones and nutrient availability. As a foraging strategy, rice (Oryza sativa L.) grows longer roots when nitrogen (N) is scarce. However, how the plant [...] Read more.
Root growth depends on cell proliferation and cell elongation at the root meristem, which are controlled by plant hormones and nutrient availability. As a foraging strategy, rice (Oryza sativa L.) grows longer roots when nitrogen (N) is scarce. However, how the plant steroid hormone brassinosteroid (BR) regulates rice root meristem development and responses to N deficiency remains unclear. Here, we show that BR has a negative effect on meristem size and a dose-dependent effect on cell elongation in roots of rice seedlings treated with exogenous BR (24-epicastasterone, ECS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ). A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 4110 and 3076 differentially expressed genes in response to ECS and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis shows that terms related to cell proliferation and cell elongation were enriched among the ECS-repressed genes. Furthermore, microscopic analysis of ECS- and PPZ-treated roots grown under N-sufficient and N-deficient conditions demonstrates that exogenous BR or PPZ application could not enhance N deficiency-mediated root elongation promotion as the treatments could not promote root meristem size and cell elongation simultaneously. Our study demonstrates that optimal levels of BR in the rice root meristem are crucial for optimal root growth and the foraging response to N deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2379 KiB  
Communication
Burial Environment Drives Seed Mortality of Kochia (Bassia scoparia), Wild Oat (Avena fatua), and Volunteer Canola (Brassica napus) Irrespective of Crop Species
by Charles M. Geddes
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091961 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Models of weed population demography are critical to understanding the long-term viability of management strategies. The driving factors of weed seedbank persistence are often underrepresented in demographic models due to the cumbersome nature of seedbank research. Simplification of weed seedbank dynamics may induce [...] Read more.
Models of weed population demography are critical to understanding the long-term viability of management strategies. The driving factors of weed seedbank persistence are often underrepresented in demographic models due to the cumbersome nature of seedbank research. Simplification of weed seedbank dynamics may induce substantial error in model simulations. A soil bioassay was conducted to determine whether growth of different crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), canola (Brassica napus L.), and field pea (Pisum sativum L.), differentially impact seed mortality of kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott], wild oat (Avena fatua L.), and volunteer canola in seven burial environments in western Canada. Weed seed survival after the 7 week burial period varied widely among burial environments (from 8% to 88% when averaged among weed and crop species), whereas growth of the different crop species had negligible impact on seedbank persistence. Among environments, wild oat seed survived the greatest (79%), followed by kochia (20%), and volunteer canola (6%). Weed seed survival was associated with soil physical properties (texture) and seed microsite characteristics (temperature), but not crop species or soil chemical properties. Overall, these data support the need for greater integration of soil and environmental parameters into models of weed population demography. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 2127 KiB  
Article
The Integrated Amendment of Sodic-Saline Soils Using Biochar and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhances Maize (Zea mays L.) Resilience to Water Salinity
by Yasser Nehela, Yasser S. A. Mazrou, Tarek Alshaal, Asmaa M. S. Rady, Ahmed M. A. El-Sherif, Alaa El-Dein Omara, Ahmed M. Abd El-Monem and Emad M. Hafez
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091960 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3827
Abstract
The utilization of low-quality water or slightly saline water in sodic-saline soil is a major global conundrum that severely impacts agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. Herein, we proposed an integrated amendment strategy for sodic-saline [...] Read more.
The utilization of low-quality water or slightly saline water in sodic-saline soil is a major global conundrum that severely impacts agricultural productivity and sustainability, particularly in arid and semiarid regions with limited freshwater resources. Herein, we proposed an integrated amendment strategy for sodic-saline soil using biochar and/or plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azotobacter chroococcum SARS 10 and Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738) to alleviate the adverse impacts of saline water on the growth, physiology, and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.), as well as the soil properties and nutrient uptake during two successive seasons (2018 and 2019). Our field experiments revealed that the combined application of PGPR and biochar (PGPR + biochar) significantly improved the soil ecosystem and physicochemical properties and K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ contents but reduced the soil exchangeable sodium percentage and Na+ content. Likewise, it significantly increased the activity of soil urease (158.14 ± 2.37 and 165.51 ± 3.05 mg NH4+ g−1 dry soil d−1) and dehydrogenase (117.89 ± 1.86 and 121.44 ± 1.00 mg TPF g−1 dry soil d−1) in 2018 and 2019, respectively, upon irrigation with saline water compared with non-treated control. PGPR + biochar supplementation mitigated the hazardous impacts of saline water on maize plants grown in sodic-saline soil better than biochar or PGPR individually (PGPR + biochar > biochar > PGPR). The highest values of leaf area index, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total soluble sugar (TSS), relative water content, K+ and K+/Na+ of maize plants corresponded to PGPR + biochar treatment. These findings could be guidelines for cultivating not only maize but other cereal crops particularly in salt-affected soil and sodic-saline soil. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 4168 KiB  
Article
Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil and Its Biological Activity
by Lucia Galovičová, Petra Borotová, Veronika Valková, Nenad L. Vukovic, Milena Vukic, Jana Štefániková, Hana Ďúranová, Przemysław Łukasz Kowalczewski, Natália Čmiková and Miroslava Kačániová
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091959 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 43 | Viewed by 6352
Abstract
Thymus vulgaris essential oil has potential good biological activity. The aim of the research was to evaluate the biological activity of the T. vulgaris essential oil from the Slovak company. The main components of T. vulgaris essential oil were thymol (48.1%), p-cymene [...] Read more.
Thymus vulgaris essential oil has potential good biological activity. The aim of the research was to evaluate the biological activity of the T. vulgaris essential oil from the Slovak company. The main components of T. vulgaris essential oil were thymol (48.1%), p-cymene (11.7%), 1,8-cineole (6.7), γ-terpinene (6.1%), and carvacrol (5.5%). The antioxidant activity was 85.2 ± 0.2%, which corresponds to 479.34 ± 1.1 TEAC. The antimicrobial activity was moderate or very strong with inhibition zones from 9.89 to 22.44 mm. The lowest values of MIC were determined against B. subtilis, E. faecalis, and S. aureus. In situ antifungal analysis on bread shows that the vapor phase of T. vulgaris essential oil can inhibit the growth of the microscopic filamentous fungi of the genus Penicillium. The antimicrobial activity against S. marcescens showed 46.78–87.80% inhibition at concentrations 62.5–500 µL/mL. The MALDI TOF MS analyses suggest changes in the protein profile of biofilm forming bacteria P. fluorescens and S. enteritidis after the fifth and the ninth day, respectively. Due to the properties of the T. vulgaris essential oil, it can be used in the food industry as a natural supplement to extend the shelf life of the foods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1940 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Physiological and Photophysiological Responses of Critically Endangered Acer catalpifolium to Acid Stress
by Yuyang Zhang, Tao Yu, Wenbao Ma, Buddhi Dayananda, Kenji Iwasaki and Junqing Li
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091958 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Acid rain deposition (AR) has long-lasting implications for the community stability and biodiversity conservation in southwest China. Acer catalpifolium is a critically endangered species in the rain zone of Western China where AR occurs frequently. To understand the effects of AR on the [...] Read more.
Acid rain deposition (AR) has long-lasting implications for the community stability and biodiversity conservation in southwest China. Acer catalpifolium is a critically endangered species in the rain zone of Western China where AR occurs frequently. To understand the effects of AR on the morphology and physiology of A. catalpifolium, we conducted an acid stress simulation experiment for 1.5 years. The morphological, physiological, and photosynthetic responses of A. catalpifolium to the acidity, composition, and deposition pattern of acid stress was observed. The results showed that simulated acid stress can promote the growth of A. catalpifolium via the soil application mode. The growth improvement of A. catalpifolium under nitric-balanced acid rain via the soil application mode was greater than that of sulfuric-dominated acid rain via the soil application mode. On the contrary, the growth of A. catalpifolium was significantly inhibited by acid stress and the inhibition increased with the acidity of acid stress applied via leaf spraying. The inhibitory impacts of nitric-balanced acid rain via the leaf spraying of A. catalpifolium were greater than that of sulfur-dominant acid rain via leaf spraying. The observations presented in this work can be utilized for considering potential population restoration plans for A. catalpifolium, as well as the forests in southwest China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 3104 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Activity and Discrimination of Organic Apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) Cultivated in the Western Region of Romania: A DPPH· Kinetics–PCA Approach
by Olimpia Alina Iordănescu, Maria Băla, Alina Carmen Iuga, Dina Gligor (Pane), Ionuţ Dascălu, Gabriel Stelian Bujancă, Ioan David, Nicoleta Gabriela Hădărugă and Daniel Ioan Hădărugă
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091957 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is one of the most used fruit for beverages in Romania. The goal of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and discrimination of various parts of organic and non-organic apple varieties cultivated in the western region [...] Read more.
Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is one of the most used fruit for beverages in Romania. The goal of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and discrimination of various parts of organic and non-organic apple varieties cultivated in the western region of Romania using the DPPH kinetics–PCA (principal component analysis) approach. Organic and non-organic apples were subjected to solid–liquid ethanol extraction. Core and shell extracts were mixed with DPPH· and spectrophotometrically monitored at 517 nm. Antioxidant activity and mean DPPH· reaction rate at various time ranges reveal significant differences between organic and non-organic samples, as well as apple parts. Organic core and shell extracts had higher antioxidant activities than the corresponding non-organic samples (74.5–96.9% and 61.9–97.2%, respectively, 23.5–94.3% and 59.5–95.5%). Significant differences were observed for the DPPH· reaction rate for the first ½ min, especially in the presence of organic core extracts (3.7–4.8 μM/s). The organic samples were well discriminated by DPPH· kinetics–PCA, the most important variables being the DPPH· reaction rate for the first time range. This is the first DPPH· kinetics–PCA approach applied for discriminating between organic and non-organic fruits and can be useful for evaluating the quality of such type of fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioactive Compounds and Prospects for Their Use in Beverages)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 939 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Flavonoid 3′-Hydroxylase of Malus × domestica
by Julia Weissensteiner, Christian Molitor, Silvija Marinovic, Lisa Führer, Syed Waqas Hassan, Olly Sanny Hutabarat, Andreas Spornberger, Karl Stich, Johanna Hausjell, Oliver Spadiut, Christian Haselmair-Gosch and Heidi Halbwirth
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091956 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2426
Abstract
Malus × domestica (apple) accumulates particularly high amounts of dihydrochalcones in various tissues, with phloridzin (phloretin 2′-O-glucoside) being prevalent, although small amounts of 3-hydroxyphloretin and 3-hydroxyphloridzin are also constitutively present. The latter was shown to correlate with increased disease resistance of [...] Read more.
Malus × domestica (apple) accumulates particularly high amounts of dihydrochalcones in various tissues, with phloridzin (phloretin 2′-O-glucoside) being prevalent, although small amounts of 3-hydroxyphloretin and 3-hydroxyphloridzin are also constitutively present. The latter was shown to correlate with increased disease resistance of transgenic M. × domestica plants. Two types of enzymes could be involved in 3-hydroxylation of dihydrochalcones: polyphenol oxidases or the flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), which catalyzes B-ring hydroxylation of flavonoids. We isolated two F3′H cDNA clones from apple leaves and tested recombinant Malus F3′Hs for their substrate specificity. From the two isolated cDNA clones, only F3′HII encoded a functionally active enzyme. In the F3′HI sequence, we identified two putatively relevant amino acids that were exchanged in comparison to that of a previously published F3′HI. Site directed mutagenesis, which exchanged an isoleucine into methionine in position 211 restored the functional activity, which is probably because it is located in an area involved in interaction with the substrate. In contrast to high activity with various flavonoid substrates, the recombinant enzymes did not accept phloretin under assay conditions, making an involvement in the dihydrochalcone biosynthesis unlikely. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Mechanisms of Resistance to Plant Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Anti-Quorum Sensing, Enzyme Inhibitory, and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Extracts of Clinopodium nepeta L. Kuntze
by Hatem Beddiar, Sameh Boudiba, Merzoug Benahmed, Alfred Ngenge Tamfu, Özgür Ceylan, Karima Hanini, Selcuk Kucukaydin, Abdelhakim Elomri, Chawki Bensouici, Hocine Laouer, Salah Akkal, Louiza Boudiba and Rodica Mihaela Dinica
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091955 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3233
Abstract
Phenolic extracts of Clinopodium nepeta were prepared and their preliminary phenolic profiles determined using HPLC-DAD with 26 phenolic standards. Apigenin (21.75 ± 0.41 µg/g), myricetin (72.58 ± 0.57 µg/g), and rosmarinic acid (88.51 ± 0.55 µg/g) were the most abundant compounds in DCM [...] Read more.
Phenolic extracts of Clinopodium nepeta were prepared and their preliminary phenolic profiles determined using HPLC-DAD with 26 phenolic standards. Apigenin (21.75 ± 0.41 µg/g), myricetin (72.58 ± 0.57 µg/g), and rosmarinic acid (88.51 ± 0.55 µg/g) were the most abundant compounds in DCM (dichloromethane), AcOEt (ethyl acetate), and BuOH (butanol) extracts, respectively. The DCM and AcOEt extracts inhibited quorum-sensing mediated violacein production by C. violaceum CV12472. Anti-quorum-sensing zones on C. violaceum CV026 at MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) were 10.3 ± 0.8 mm for DCM extract and 12.0 ± 0.5 mm for AcOEt extract. Extracts showed concentration-dependent inhibition of swarming motility on flagellated P. aeruginosa PA01 and at the highest test concentration of 100 μg/mL, AcOEt (35.42 ± 1.00%) extract displayed the best activity. FRAP assay indicated that the BuOH extract (A0.50 = 17.42 ± 0.25 µg/mL) was more active than standard α-tocopherol (A0.50 = 34.93 ± 2.38 µg/mL). BuOH extract was more active than other extracts except in the ABTS●+, where the DCM extract was most active. This antioxidant activity could be attributed to the phenolic compounds detected. C. nepeta extracts showed moderate inhibition on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), tyrosinase, and α-amylase. The results indicate that C. nepeta is a potent source of natural antioxidants that could be used in managing microbial resistance and Alzheimer′s disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5259 KiB  
Article
Diversity and Cytogenomic Characterization of Wild Carrots in the Macaronesian Islands
by Guilherme Roxo, Mónica Moura, Pedro Talhinhas, José Carlos Costa, Luís Silva, Raquel Vasconcelos, Miguel Menezes de Sequeira and Maria Manuel Romeiras
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091954 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
The Macaronesian islands constitute an enormous reservoir of genetic variation of wild carrots (subtribe Daucinae; Apiaceae), including 10 endemic species, but an accurate understanding of the diversification processes within these islands is still lacking. We conducted a review of the morphology, ecology, and [...] Read more.
The Macaronesian islands constitute an enormous reservoir of genetic variation of wild carrots (subtribe Daucinae; Apiaceae), including 10 endemic species, but an accurate understanding of the diversification processes within these islands is still lacking. We conducted a review of the morphology, ecology, and conservation status of the Daucinae species and, on the basis of a comprehensive dataset, we estimated the genome size variation for 16 taxa (around 320 samples) occurring in different habitats across the Macaronesian islands in comparison to mainland specimens. Results showed that taxa with larger genomes (e.g., Daucus crinitus: 2.544 pg) were generally found in mainland regions, while the insular endemic taxa from Azores and Cabo Verde have smaller genomes. Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis, both endemic to Madeira Island, showed intermediate values. Positive correlations were found between mean genome size and some morphological traits (e.g., spiny or winged fruits) and also with habit (herbaceous or woody). Despite the great morphological variation found within the Cabo Verde endemic species, the 2C-values obtained were quite homogeneous between these taxa and the subspecies of Daucus carota, supporting the close relationship among these taxa. Overall, this study improved the global knowledge of DNA content for Macaronesian endemics and shed light into the mechanisms underpinning diversity patterns of wild carrots in the western Mediterranean region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and the Conservation of Plant Diversity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8367 KiB  
Article
Morphology, Anatomy and Secondary Metabolites Investigations of Premna odorata Blanco and Evaluation of Its Anti-Tuberculosis Activity Using In Vitro and In Silico Studies
by Fadia S. Youssef, Elisa Ovidi, Nawal M. Al Musayeib and Mohamed L. Ashour
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091953 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3941
Abstract
In-depth botanical characterization was performed on Premna odorata Blanco (Lamiaceae) different organs for the first time. The leaves are opposite, hairy and green in color. Flowers possess fragrant aromatic odors and exist in inflorescences of 4–15 cm long corymbose cyme-type. In-depth morphological and [...] Read more.
In-depth botanical characterization was performed on Premna odorata Blanco (Lamiaceae) different organs for the first time. The leaves are opposite, hairy and green in color. Flowers possess fragrant aromatic odors and exist in inflorescences of 4–15 cm long corymbose cyme-type. In-depth morphological and anatomical characterization revealed the great resemblance to plants of the genus Premna and of the family Lamiaceae, such as the presence of glandular peltate trichomes and diacytic stomata. Additionally, most examined organs are characterized by non-glandular multicellular covering trichomes, acicular, and rhombic calcium oxalate crystals. P. odorata leaves n-hexane fraction revealed substantial anti-tuberculous potential versus Mycobacterium tuberculosis, showing a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 100 μg/mL. Metabolic profiling of the n-hexane fraction using gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed 10 major compounds accounting for 93.01%, with trans-phytol constituting the major compound (24.06%). The virtual screening revealed that trans-phytol highly inhibited MTB C171Q receptor as M. tuberculosis KasA (β-ketoacyl synthases) with a high fitting score (∆G = −15.57 kcal/mol) approaching that of isoniazid and exceeding that of thiolactomycin, the co-crystallized ligand. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity predictions (ADME/TOPKAT) revealed that trans-phytol shows lower solubility and absorption levels when compared to thiolactomycin and isoniazid. Still, it is safer, causing no mutagenic or carcinogenic effects with higher lethal dose, which causes the death of 50% (LD50). Thus, it can be concluded that P. odorata can act as a source of lead entities to treat tuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphological Features and Phytochemical Properties of Herbs)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2813 KiB  
Article
Ecological and Biological Properties of Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Thymus spinulosus Ten.: Two Wild Officinal Species of Conservation Concern in Apulia (Italy). A Preliminary Survey
by Enrico V. Perrino, Francesca Valerio, Shaima Jallali, Antonio Trani and Giuseppe N. Mezzapesa
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091952 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 48 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of ecology (plant community, topography and pedology), as well as of climate, on the composition of essential oils (EOs) from two officinal wild plant species (Lamiales) from Apulia, namely Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Thymus spinulosus Ten. Few scientific [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of ecology (plant community, topography and pedology), as well as of climate, on the composition of essential oils (EOs) from two officinal wild plant species (Lamiales) from Apulia, namely Satureja cuneifolia Ten. and Thymus spinulosus Ten. Few scientific data on their chemical composition are available, due to the fact that the first has a limited distribution range and the second is endemic of southern Italy. Results for both species, never officially used in traditional medicine and/or as spices, showed that the ecological context (from a phytosociological and ecological point of view) may influence their EO composition, and hence, yield chemotypes different from those reported in the literature. S. cuneifolia and Th. spinulosus can be considered good sources of phytochemicals as natural agents in organic agriculture due to the presence of thymol and α-pinene. Overall, the obtained trend for EOs suggests a potential use of both species as food, pharmacy, cosmetics and perfumery. Hence, their cultivation and use represent a positive step to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals and to meet the increasing demand for natural and healthier products. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

33 pages, 2967 KiB  
Article
Glucosinolate Induction and Resistance to the Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae, Differs among Kale Genotypes with High and Low Content of Sinigrin and Glucobrassicin
by Francisco Rubén Badenes-Pérez and María Elena Cartea
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091951 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2812
Abstract
The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a generalist insect pest of cruciferous crops. We tested glucosinolate induction by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), and by these phytohormones combined with feeding by M. brassicae larvae in four genotypes of [...] Read more.
The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a generalist insect pest of cruciferous crops. We tested glucosinolate induction by jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), and by these phytohormones combined with feeding by M. brassicae larvae in four genotypes of kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (Brassicaceae). The genotypes tested had high glucobrassicin (genotype HGBS), low glucobrassicin (genotype LGBS), high sinigrin (genotype HSIN), and low sinigrin content (genotype LSIN). Application of JA increased indolic and total glucosinolate content in all kale genotypes 1, 3, and 9 days after treatment. For SA-treated plants, glucosinolate induction varied depending on the number of days after treatment and the genotype. Overall, herbivory by M. brassicae accentuated and attenuated the effects of JA and SA, respectively, on plant glucosinolate content. Larvae of M. brassicae gained less weight on leaves from plants treated with JA compared to leaves from control plants and plants treated with SA. In bioassays with leaf discs, a significant reduction of defoliation only occurred in JA-treated plants of the HSIN genotype. This research shows that previous herbivory alters the susceptibility of kale to M. brassicae and that induction of glucosinolates varies among kale genotypes differing in their glucosinolate content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant–Insect Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5269 KiB  
Article
Androgenesis of Red Cabbage in Isolated Microspore Culture In Vitro
by Anna Mineykina, Ludmila Bondareva, Alexey Soldatenko and Elena Domblides
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091950 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
Red cabbage belongs to the economically important group of vegetable crops of the Brassicaceae family. A unique feature of this vegetable crop that distinguishes it from other members of the family is its unique biochemical composition characterized by high anthocyanin content, which gives [...] Read more.
Red cabbage belongs to the economically important group of vegetable crops of the Brassicaceae family. A unique feature of this vegetable crop that distinguishes it from other members of the family is its unique biochemical composition characterized by high anthocyanin content, which gives it antioxidant properties. The production mainly uses F1 hybrids, which require constant parental lines, requiring 6–7 generations of inbreeding. Culture of isolated microspores in vitro is currently one of the promising methods for the accelerated production of pure lines with 100% homozygosity. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors and select optimal parameters for successful induction of red cabbage embryogenesis in isolated microspore culture in vitro and subsequent regeneration of DH plants. As a result of research, for the first time, it was possible to carry out the full cycle of obtaining DH plants of red cabbage from the induction of embryogenesis to their inclusion in the breeding process. The size of buds containing predominantly microspores at the late vacuolated stage and pollen at the early bi-cellular stage has to be selected individually for each genotype, because the embryoid yield will be determined by the interaction of these two factors. In the six samples studied, the maximum embryoid yield was obtained from buds 4.1–4.4 mm and 4.5–5.0 mm long, depending on the genotype. Cultivation of microspores was carried out on liquid NLN culture medium with 13% sucrose. The maximum number of embryoids (173.5 ± 7.5 pcs./Petri dish) was obtained on culture medium with pH 5.8 and heat shock at 32 °C for 48 h. Successful embryoid development and plant regeneration by direct germination from shoot apical meristem were achieved on MS culture medium with 2% sucrose and 0.7% agar, supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine at a concentration of 1 mg/L. Analysis of the obtained regenerated plants, which successfully passed the stage of adaptation to ex vitro conditions by flow cytometry, showed that most of them were doubled haploids (up to 90.9%). A low number of seeds produced by self-fertilization in DH plants was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Development and Morphogenesis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 4020 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of the IQM Gene Family in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
by Tian Fan, Tianxiao Lv, Chuping Xie, Yuping Zhou and Changen Tian
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091949 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
Members of the IQM (IQ-Motif Containing) gene family are involved in plant growth and developmental processes, biotic and abiotic stress response. To systematically analyze the IQM gene family and their expression profiles under diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, we identified 8 IQM genes [...] Read more.
Members of the IQM (IQ-Motif Containing) gene family are involved in plant growth and developmental processes, biotic and abiotic stress response. To systematically analyze the IQM gene family and their expression profiles under diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, we identified 8 IQM genes in the rice genome. In the current study, the whole genome identification and characterization of OsIQMs, including the gene and protein structure, genome localization, phylogenetic relationship, gene expression and yeast two-hybrid were performed. Eight IQM genes were classified into three subfamilies (I–III) according to the phylogenetic analysis. Gene structure and protein motif analyses showed that these IQM genes are relatively conserved within each subfamily of rice. The 8 OsIQM genes are distributed on seven out of the twelve chromosomes, with three IQM gene pairs involved in segmental duplication events. The evolutionary patterns analysis revealed that the IQM genes underwent a large-scale event within the last 20 to 9 million years. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis of eight OsIQMs genes displayed different expression patterns at different developmental stages and in different tissues as well as showed that most IQM genes were responsive to PEG, NaCl, jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, suggesting their crucial roles in biotic, and abiotic stress response. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsIQMs can interact with OsCaMs, and the IQ motif of OsIQMs is required for OsIQMs to combine with OsCaMs. Our results will be valuable to further characterize the important biological functions of rice IQM genes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 2869 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of the Five Isolates of Funneliformis mosseae on the Tomato Plants Were Not Related to Their Evolutionary Distances of SSU rDNA or PT1 Sequences in the Nutrition Solution Production
by Jingyu Feng, Zhe Huang, Yongbin Zhang, Wenjing Rui, Xihong Lei and Zhifang Li
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091948 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The symbiosis and beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) on plants have been widely reported; however, the effects might be unascertained in tomato industry production with coconut coir due to the nutrition solution supply, or alternatively with isolate-specific. Five isolates of [...] Read more.
The symbiosis and beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) on plants have been widely reported; however, the effects might be unascertained in tomato industry production with coconut coir due to the nutrition solution supply, or alternatively with isolate-specific. Five isolates of AM fungi were collected from soils of differing geographical origins, identified as Funneliformis mosseae and evidenced closing evolutionary distances with the covering of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA regions and Pi transporter gene (PT1) sequences. The effects of these isolates on the colonization rates, plant growth, yield, and nutrition uptake were analyzed in tomato nutrition solution production with growing seasons of spring–summer and autumn–winter. Our result indicated that with isolate-specific effects, irrespective of geographical or the SSU rDNA and PT1 sequences evolution distance, two isolates (A2 and NYN1) had the most yield benefits for plants of both growing seasons, one (E2) had weaker effects and the remaining two (A2 and T6) had varied seasonal-specific effects. Inoculation with effective isolates induced significant increases of 29.0–38.0% (isolate X5, T6) and 34.6–36.5% (isolate NYN1, T6) in the plant tissues respective nitrogen and phosphorus content; the plant biomass increased by 18.4–25.4% (isolate T6, NYN1), and yields increased by 8.8–12.0% (isolate NYN1, A2) compared with uninoculated plants. The maximum root biomass increased by 28.3% (isolate T6) and 55.1% (isolate E2) in the autumn–winter and spring–summer growing seasons, respectively. This strong effect on root biomass was even more significant in an industry culture with a small volume of substrate per plant. Our results reveal the potential benefits of using selected effective isolates as a renewable resource that can overcome the suppressing effects of sufficient nutrient availability on colonization rates, while increasing the yields of industrially produced tomatoes in nutrition solution with coconut coir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant–Fungal Interactions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3748 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Water Deficit on Two Greek Vitis vinifera L. Cultivars: Physiology, Grape Composition and Gene Expression during Berry Development
by Anastasios Alatzas, Serafeim Theocharis, Dimitrios-Evangelos Miliordos, Konstantina Leontaridou, Angelos K. Kanellis, Yorgos Kotseridis, Polydefkis Hatzopoulos and Stefanos Koundouras
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091947 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
Plants are exposed to numerous abiotic stresses. Drought is probably the most important of them and determines crop distribution around the world. Grapevine is considered to be a drought-resilient species, traditionally covering semiarid areas. Moreover, in the case of grapevine, moderate water deficit [...] Read more.
Plants are exposed to numerous abiotic stresses. Drought is probably the most important of them and determines crop distribution around the world. Grapevine is considered to be a drought-resilient species, traditionally covering semiarid areas. Moreover, in the case of grapevine, moderate water deficit is known to improve the quality traits of grape berries and subsequently wine composition. However, against the backdrop of climate change, vines are expected to experience sustained water deficits which could be detrimental to both grape quality and yield. The influence of water deficit on two Greek Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, ‘Agiorgitiko’ and ‘Assyrtiko’, was investigated during the 2019 and 2020 vintages. Vine physiology measurements in irrigated and non-irrigated plants were performed at three time-points throughout berry development (green berry, veraison and harvest). Berry growth and composition were examined during ripening. According to the results, water deficit resulted in reduced berry size and increased levels of soluble sugars, total phenols and anthocyanins. The expression profile of specific genes, known to control grape color, aroma and flavor was altered by water availability during maturation in a cultivar-specific manner. In agreement with the increased concentration of phenolic compounds due to water deficit, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the red-skinned Agiorgitiko exhibited higher expression levels and earlier up-regulation than in the white Assyrtiko. The expression profile of the other genes during maturation or in response to water deficit was depended on the vintage. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1515 KiB  
Article
Combined Abiotic Stresses Repress Defense and Cell Wall Metabolic Genes and Render Plants More Susceptible to Pathogen Infection
by Nasser Sewelam, Mohamed El-Shetehy, Felix Mauch and Veronica G. Maurino
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091946 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Plants are frequently exposed to simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, a condition that induces complex responses, negatively affects crop productivity and is becoming more exacerbated with current climate change. In this study, we investigated the effects of individual and combined heat and osmotic [...] Read more.
Plants are frequently exposed to simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, a condition that induces complex responses, negatively affects crop productivity and is becoming more exacerbated with current climate change. In this study, we investigated the effects of individual and combined heat and osmotic stresses on Arabidopsis susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) and the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytiscinerea (Bc). Our data showed that combined abiotic and biotic stresses caused an enhanced negative impact on plant disease resistance in comparison with individual Pst and Bc infections. Pretreating plants with individual heat or combined osmotic-heat stress strongly reduced the expression of many defense genes including pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-1 and PR-5) and the TN-13 gene encoding the TIR-NBS protein, which are involved in disease resistance towards Pst. We also found that combined osmotic-heat stress caused high plant susceptibility to Bc infection and reduced expression of a number of defense genes, including PLANT DEFENSIN 1.3 (PDF1.3), BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE 1 (BOS1) and THIONIN 2.2 (THI2.2) genes, which are important for disease resistance towards Bc. The impaired disease resistance against both Pst and Bc under combined abiotic stress is associated with reduced expression of cell wall-related genes. Taken together, our data emphasize that the combination of global warming-associated abiotic stresses such as heat and osmotic stresses makes plants more susceptible to pathogen infection, thus threatening future global food security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 3604 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Different Types of Hydrocarbon Disturbance on the Resiliency of Native Desert Vegetation in a War-Affected Area: A Case Study from the State of Kuwait
by Eman Kalander, Meshal M. Abdullah and Jawad Al-Bakri
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091945 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
This study assesses the impact of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration and soil parameters (heavy metals, chemical properties, and water-soluble boron) on the succession process of vegetation survival in the Al-Burgan oil field in Kuwait. A total of 145 soil samples were randomly [...] Read more.
This study assesses the impact of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration and soil parameters (heavy metals, chemical properties, and water-soluble boron) on the succession process of vegetation survival in the Al-Burgan oil field in Kuwait. A total of 145 soil samples were randomly collected from the three main types of hydrocarbon contamination, including dry oil lake (DOL), wet oil lake (WOL), and tarcrete. Sampling was also extended to noncontaminated bare soils that were considered reference sites. Remote-sensing data from Sentinel-2 were also processed to assess the level of contamination in relation to soil surface cover. The results showed that TPH concentration was significantly higher in WOL and DOL (87,961.4 and 35,740.6 mg/kg, respectively) compared with that in tarcrete (24,063.3 mg/kg), leading to a significant increase in soil minerals and heavy metals, greater than 50 mg/kg for Ba, and 10 mg/kg for V, Zn, Ni, and Cr. Such high concentrations of heavy metals massively affected the native vegetation’s resiliency at these sites (<5% vegetation cover). However, vegetation cover was significantly higher (60%) at tarcrete-contaminated sites, as TPH concentration was lower, almost similar to that in uncontaminated areas, especially at subsurface soil layers. The presence of vegetation at tarcrete locations was also associated with the lower concentration of Ba, V, Zn, Ni, and Cr. The growth of native vegetation was more likely related to the low concentration of TPH contamination at the subsurface layer of the soils in tarcrete sites, making them more suitable sites for restoration and revegetation planning. We concluded that further investigations are required to provide greater insight into the native plants’ phytoextraction potential and phytoremediation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
A Simple Method for the Acquisition and Transmission of Brassica Yellows Virus from Transgenic Plants and Frozen Infected Leaves by Aphids
by Deng-Pan Zuo, Meng-Jun He, Xiang-Ru Chen, Ru-Jian Hu, Tian-Yu Zhao, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Yan-Mei Peng, Ying Wang, Da-Wei Li, Jia-Lin Yu and Cheng-Gui Han
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091944 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2215
Abstract
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is a tentative species of the genus Polerovirus, which occurs widely, and mostly damages Brassicaceae plants in East Asia. Because BrYV cannot be transmitted mechanically, an insect-based transmission method is required for further virus research. Here, a reliable [...] Read more.
Brassica yellows virus (BrYV) is a tentative species of the genus Polerovirus, which occurs widely, and mostly damages Brassicaceae plants in East Asia. Because BrYV cannot be transmitted mechanically, an insect-based transmission method is required for further virus research. Here, a reliable and unrestricted method is described, in which non-viruliferous aphids (Myzus persicae) acquired BrYV from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, harboring the full-length viral genome germinated from seeds and its frozen leaves. The aphids then transmitted the virus to healthy plants. There was no significant difference in acquisition rates between fresh and frozen infected leaves, although the transmission rate from frozen infected leaves was lower compared to fresh infected leaves. This simple novel method may be used to preserve viral inocula, evaluate host varietal resistance to BrYV, and investigate interactions among BrYV, aphids, and hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Virus-Aphid Relationships)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop