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Systems, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 49 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The article discusses changeability analysis methods that help in responding to uncertain and new requirements from system stakeholders. These methods include asset management issues such as modeling lifecycle path dependency of system/asset upgrades. Epoch-era networks are an effective tool for managing evolving requirements of a capability system to ensure sustained value throughout its life. Stakeholders have numerous options to change capability systems over time, which can impact future decisions. The paper introduces a revised epoch-era network approach exploring potential lifecycle paths and utility vs. expense strategies using a military frigate as an example. The study shows that selecting the largest and most capable technology upgrades too early in life can limit future value. View this paper
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31 pages, 8226 KiB  
Article
Digital Transformation Journey Guidance: A Holistic Digital Maturity Model Based on a Systematic Literature Review
by Arzu Aras and Gülçin Büyüközkan
Systems 2023, 11(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040213 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6432
Abstract
For a successful digital transformation, organizations must create an accurate roadmap and manage the process effectively. A digital maturity model is a critical success factor as it enables organizations to assess their current situation and create roadmaps aligned with their goals; however, a [...] Read more.
For a successful digital transformation, organizations must create an accurate roadmap and manage the process effectively. A digital maturity model is a critical success factor as it enables organizations to assess their current situation and create roadmaps aligned with their goals; however, a comprehensive systematic literature review covering the maturity models proposed by academia and consultancy firms is hard to find. Further, the existing models are sector-oriented, not organization-oriented, and do not consider the transformation journey holistically, but instead focus on model dimensions. This study first undertakes a comprehensive and up-to-date systematic literature review by applying the PRISMA approach using a bibliometric analysis tool capable of providing visual maps, then developing a unique holistic digital maturity model that covers several aspects of an organization’s digital transformation journey, from strategy to governance, and asking relevant questions. The hierarchical structure, comprising dimensions and sub-dimensions, presents content beyond the scope of other models. The results of the digital maturity assessment can be interpreted in parallel with the stages of the digital transformation. Consequently, the new holistic and sector-independent digital maturity model can be used by organizations in both the private and public sector. Full article
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23 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
How to Enhance Data Sharing in Digital Government Construction: A Tripartite Stochastic Evolutionary Game Approach
by Changqi Dong, Jida Liu and Jianing Mi
Systems 2023, 11(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040212 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
Digital government construction is a complex system project, and data sharing is its governance niche. Cross-sectoral data sharing is the core issue of improving governance capacity in the construction of digital governments. Aimed at the dilemma of insufficient data sharing across departments, according [...] Read more.
Digital government construction is a complex system project, and data sharing is its governance niche. Cross-sectoral data sharing is the core issue of improving governance capacity in the construction of digital governments. Aimed at the dilemma of insufficient data sharing across departments, according to evolutionary game theory (EGT), we refined the game relationship between the data management department and the different government functional departments participating in cross-department data sharing. We used white Gaussian noise as a random perturbation, constructed a tripartite stochastic evolutionary game model, analyzed the stability of the stochastic game system and studied the influence of the main parameters on the evolution of the game system with the help of numerical simulation. The results show that there exists a positive stable point in the process of cross-department data sharing. The external effect of data sharing can be improved by enhancing the investment in data sharing by government functional departments. The accumulation of interagency trust relationships can gradually eliminate the differences in data sharing among different departments. The coordination mechanism of government data sharing and the construction of the “good and bad reviews” system can form an internal and external adjustment mechanism for functional departments and the data management department and can promote multiple departments to participate in cross-department data sharing more actively. Full article
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17 pages, 5528 KiB  
Article
Protection Schemes for DDoS, ARP Spoofing, and IP Fragmentation Attacks in Smart Factory
by Tze Uei Chai, Hock Guan Goh, Soung-Yue Liew and Vasaki Ponnusamy
Systems 2023, 11(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040211 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Industry Revolution 4.0 connects the Internet of Things (IoT) resource-constrained devices to Smart Factory solutions and delivers insights. As a result, a complex and dynamic network with a vulnerability inherited from the Internet becomes an attractive target for hackers to attack critical infrastructures. [...] Read more.
Industry Revolution 4.0 connects the Internet of Things (IoT) resource-constrained devices to Smart Factory solutions and delivers insights. As a result, a complex and dynamic network with a vulnerability inherited from the Internet becomes an attractive target for hackers to attack critical infrastructures. Therefore, this paper selects three potential attacks with the evaluation of the protections, namely (1) distributed denial of service (DDoS), (2) address resolution protocol (ARP) spoofing, and (3) Internet protocol (IP) fragmentation attacks. In the DDoS protection, the F1-score, accuracy, precision, and recall of the four-feature random forest with principal component analysis (RFPCA) model are 95.65%, 97%, 97.06%, and 94.29%, respectively. In the ARP spoofing, a batch processing method adopts the entropy calculated in the 20 s window with sensitivity to network abnormalities detection of various ARP spoofing scenarios involving victims’ traffic. The detected attacker’s MAC address is inserted in the block list to filter malicious traffic. The proposed protection in the IP fragmentation attack is implementing one-time code (OTC) and timestamp fields in the packet header. The simulation shows that the method detected 160 fake fragments from attackers among 2040 fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic SDGs 2030 in Buildings and Infrastructure)
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19 pages, 3027 KiB  
Article
Social Bots and Information Propagation in Social Networks: Simulating Cooperative and Competitive Interaction Dynamics
by Yaming Zhang, Wenjie Song, Yaya H. Koura and Yanyuan Su
Systems 2023, 11(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040210 - 20 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1872
Abstract
With the acceleration of human society’s digitization and the application of innovative technologies to emerging media, popular social media platforms are inundated by fresh news and multimedia content from multiple more or less reliable sources. This abundance of circulating and accessible information and [...] Read more.
With the acceleration of human society’s digitization and the application of innovative technologies to emerging media, popular social media platforms are inundated by fresh news and multimedia content from multiple more or less reliable sources. This abundance of circulating and accessible information and content has intensified the difficulty of separating good, real, and true information from bad, false, and fake information. As it has been proven, most unwanted content is created automatically using bots (automated accounts supported by artificial intelligence), and it is difficult for authorities and respective media platforms to combat the proliferation of such malicious, pervasive, and artificially intelligent entities. In this article, we propose using automated account (bots)-originating content to compete with and reduce the speed of propagating a harmful rumor on a given social media platform by modeling the underlying relationship between the circulating contents when they are related to the same topic and present relative interest for respective online communities using differential equations and dynamical systems. We studied the proposed model qualitatively and quantitatively and found that peaceful coexistence could be obtained under certain conditions, and improving the controlled social bot’s content attractiveness and visibility has a significant impact on the long-term behavior of the system depending on the control parameters. Full article
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17 pages, 4181 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Intellectual Property Rights City Policy on Firm Green Innovation: A Quasi-Natural Experiment Based on a Staggered DID Model
by Xingneng Xia, Tao Huang and Sheng Zhang
Systems 2023, 11(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040209 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2029
Abstract
Green innovation is considered an important way to promote low-carbon society formation and the sustainable development of environmental engineering. However, few quantitative studies have focused on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPR) on firm green innovation (FGI). This paper constructs a quasi-natural [...] Read more.
Green innovation is considered an important way to promote low-carbon society formation and the sustainable development of environmental engineering. However, few quantitative studies have focused on the impact of intellectual property rights (IPR) on firm green innovation (FGI). This paper constructs a quasi-natural experiment based on the IPR pilot city policy in China. We empirically investigated the influence of IPR policy on FGI using a staggered difference-in-differences (DID) model and Chinese listed company data from 2007 to 2020. The findings of this research are as follows: (1) IPR policy significantly promotes FGI, and its effectiveness is confirmed by a variety of robustness tests. (2) The IPR policy supports both green product and green process innovation, with a stronger effect on green product innovation. (3) The IPR policy encourages green independent R&D but has little influence on green joint R&D. (4) The IPR policy promotes FGI with a high knowledge intensity, state-owned enterprises, and firms in key city groups. (5) The IPR policy supports FGI primarily via two institutional channels: increasing R&D investment and easing financing constraints. This paper broadens the study of green innovation city policy and FGI development, offering new perspectives for achieving social and environmental sustainability. Full article
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31 pages, 554 KiB  
Review
Distributed Control of Cyber Physical System on Various Domains: A Critical Review
by Muzaffar Hamzah, Md. Monirul Islam, Shahriar Hassan, Md. Nasim Akhtar, Most. Jannatul Ferdous, Muhammed Basheer Jasser and Ali Wagdy Mohamed
Systems 2023, 11(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040208 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5219
Abstract
Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a symbol of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) by integrating physical and computational processes which can associate with humans in various ways. In short, the relationship between Cyber networks and the physical component is known as CPS, which is [...] Read more.
Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a symbol of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) by integrating physical and computational processes which can associate with humans in various ways. In short, the relationship between Cyber networks and the physical component is known as CPS, which is assisting to incorporate the world and influencing our ordinary life significantly. In terms of practical utilization of CPS interacting abundant difficulties. Currently, CPS is involved in modern society very vastly with many uptrend perspectives. All the new technologies by using CPS are accelerating our journey of innovation. In this paper, we have explained the research areas of 14 important domains of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) including aircraft transportation systems, battlefield surveillance, chemical production, energy, agriculture (food supply), healthcare, education, industrial automation, manufacturing, mobile devices, robotics, transportation, and vehicular. We also demonstrated the challenges and future direction of each paper of all domains. Almost all articles have limitations on security, data privacy, and safety. Several projects and new dimensions are mentioned where CPS is the key integration. Consequently, the researchers and academicians will be benefited to update the CPS workspace and it will help them with more research on a specific topic of CPS. 158 papers are studied in this survey as well as among these, 98 papers are directly studied with the 14 domains with challenges and future instruction which is the first survey paper as per the knowledge of authors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems and Cybersecurity)
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17 pages, 4353 KiB  
Article
Risk Connectedness among International Stock Markets: Fresh Findings from a Network Approach
by Ki-Hong Choi and Seong-Min Yoon
Systems 2023, 11(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040207 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
In this study, we analyze the upside and downside risk connectedness among international stock markets. We characterize the connectedness among international stock returns using the Diebold and Yilmaz spillover index approach and compute the upside and downside value-at-risk. We document that the connectedness [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyze the upside and downside risk connectedness among international stock markets. We characterize the connectedness among international stock returns using the Diebold and Yilmaz spillover index approach and compute the upside and downside value-at-risk. We document that the connectedness level of the downside risk is higher than that of the upside risk and stock markets are more sensitive when the stock market declines. We also find that specific periods (e.g., the global financial crisis, the European debt crisis, and the COVID-19 turmoil) intensified the spillover effects across international stock markets. Our results demonstrate that DE, UK, EU, and US acted as net transmitters of dynamic connectedness; however, Japan, China, India, and Hong Kong acted as net receivers of dynamic connectedness during the sample period. These findings provide significant new information to policymakers and market participants. Full article
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21 pages, 7451 KiB  
Article
Exploiting Service Design in Service Quality: Escorting the Customer’s Experiential Value in the Journey of a Star-Rated Hotel
by Tsen-Yao Chang and Yu-Chieh Chiu
Systems 2023, 11(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040206 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2381
Abstract
The present research presented a novel model for incorporating service design to create guest experiential value. Taking a star hotel in Taiwan as an example, this study used the KJ method to classify online reviews about hotel services and then created a customer [...] Read more.
The present research presented a novel model for incorporating service design to create guest experiential value. Taking a star hotel in Taiwan as an example, this study used the KJ method to classify online reviews about hotel services and then created a customer journey map (CJM) through participant observation of the entire service process. By deconstructing the service process and identifying key service touchpoints, service design ideas were incorporated into the CJM. A Kano questionnaire was then adopted to accommodate 38 service scape attributes in 4 segments: 1 attribute in the maintenance area, 10 of the high-priority area, 11 of the low-priority area, and 16 of differentiation. The overall research results propose experience design strategies for the hotel industry in terms of the service content and operation processes of star-rated hotels, which can then be adjusted according to their operating conditions to construct their unique service experience content. This is expected to be the basis for subsequent research and serve as a basis and reference for improving hotel service design strategies and competitiveness in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Futures Thinking in Design Systems and Social Transformation)
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28 pages, 3649 KiB  
Article
The Role of Privacy Obstacles in Privacy Paradox: A System Dynamics Analysis
by Ektor Arzoglou, Yki Kortesniemi, Sampsa Ruutu and Tommi Elo
Systems 2023, 11(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040205 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
People use social media to achieve particular gratifications despite expressing concerns about the related privacy risks that may lead to negative consequences. This inconsistency between privacy concerns and actual behaviour has been referred to as the privacy paradox. Although several possible explanations for [...] Read more.
People use social media to achieve particular gratifications despite expressing concerns about the related privacy risks that may lead to negative consequences. This inconsistency between privacy concerns and actual behaviour has been referred to as the privacy paradox. Although several possible explanations for this phenomenon have been provided over the years, they each consider only some of the obstacles that stand in the way of informed and rational privacy decisions, and they usually assume a static situation, thus neglecting the changes taking place over time. To overcome these limitations, this article incorporates all the key privacy obstacles into a qualitative system dynamics model and examines the conditions under which the privacy paradox emerges over time in the context of social media. The results show that the privacy obstacles prevent adequately accounting for the negative consequences by (1) reinforcing gratifications, thus inducing social media adoption and use, while (2) hampering the realisation of (all) negative consequences, thus reducing the motivation for social media discard. Moreover, gratifications kick off early and often seem to dominate even major long-term negative consequences, thereby resulting in users becoming only gradually concerned about privacy, by which time they are usually deeply engaged in the platform to consider discarding, and therefore arriving in a paradoxical situation that seems not viable to escape from (i.e., the boiling frog syndrome). Conversely, major short-term negative consequences are more likely to conflict with gratifications already earlier, thereby resulting in users becoming less engaged, more concerned, and therefore still able to discard the platform, thus resolving the paradoxical situation. Full article
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22 pages, 4737 KiB  
Article
Towards the Senior Resident Social Interaction System: A Case Study of Interactive Gallery
by Cun Li, Linghao Zhang, Xu Lin, Kai Kang, Jun Hu, Bart Hengeveld and Caroline Hummels
Systems 2023, 11(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040204 - 18 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
The number of older adults residing in nursing institutions is increasing, and many of them experience social isolation. The social interaction of older adults constitutes a complex system that involves multiple stakeholders, including fellow residents, caregivers, members of the local community, etc. This [...] Read more.
The number of older adults residing in nursing institutions is increasing, and many of them experience social isolation. The social interaction of older adults constitutes a complex system that involves multiple stakeholders, including fellow residents, caregivers, members of the local community, etc. This paper proposes an Interactive Gallery, comprising a cluster of scenery collectors and an interactive installation resembling a gallery. It aims to promote social interaction among nursing home residents and members of the local community, as well as between senior residents within the nursing home. We conducted a field study that employed behavior observation and semi-structured interviews. Our findings show that the Interactive Gallery had a positive impact on the social interaction of senior participants, and it also stimulated their interest in sharing their experiences with individuals outside of the nursing home. The implications of our field study are significant. We highlight the social interaction system and behavioral characteristics of senior residents, strategies for enhancing social interaction within the nursing home, and strategies for promoting social interaction between senior residents and members of the local community. The Interactive Gallery presents a novel approach to addressing the issue of social isolation among senior residents in nursing homes. Our field study findings demonstrate its potential to improve the quality of life of seniors by promoting social interaction and engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human–Machine Interaction)
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20 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
RETRACTED: Can Digital Financial Inclusion Help Reduce Urban Crime? Evidence from Chinese Criminal Judgment on Theft Cases
by Xianpu Xu and Yuxi Yang
Systems 2023, 11(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040203 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2037 | Retraction
Abstract
The rapid development of digital finance has changed all aspects of human life and has also had a deep impact on the social governance system. This paper constructs an unbalanced panel of data of the theft crime rates for 289 cities in China [...] Read more.
The rapid development of digital finance has changed all aspects of human life and has also had a deep impact on the social governance system. This paper constructs an unbalanced panel of data of the theft crime rates for 289 cities in China during 2014–2019 based on the theft criminal judgments published on China’s Judicial Documents website and explores the impact of digital financial inclusion on urban theft crime. It shows that there is a significantly negative correlation between digital financial inclusion and the urban theft crime rate, indicating that the development of digital financial inclusion can effectively reduce urban theft crime, which is also confirmed by instrumental variable analysis based on the spherical distance between cities and Hangzhou, and that digital financial inclusion mainly reduces theft crime committed by more serious and highly educated individuals. In addition, mechanism analysis shows that digital financial inclusion can reduce the expected benefits of theft by enhancing payment convenience and raise the opportunity cost by promoting employment. Therefore, in the Internet era, it is essential for China to continuously improve social governance tools that adapt to the development of new technologies to achieve high-quality urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Digital Technologies for Urban Resilience)
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21 pages, 2362 KiB  
Article
Leveraging Ethereum Platform for Development of Efficient Tractability System in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
by Muntaha Aslam, Sohail Jabbar, Qaisar Abbas, Mubarak Albathan, Ayyaz Hussain and Umar Raza
Systems 2023, 11(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040202 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2975
Abstract
Consumer knowledge of the goods produced or processed by the numerous suppliers and processors is still relatively low due to the growing complexity of the structure of pharmaceutical supply chains. Information asymmetry in the pharmaceutical sector has an effect on welfare, sustainability, and [...] Read more.
Consumer knowledge of the goods produced or processed by the numerous suppliers and processors is still relatively low due to the growing complexity of the structure of pharmaceutical supply chains. Information asymmetry in the pharmaceutical sector has an effect on welfare, sustainability, and health. (1) Background: In this respect, we wanted to develop a productive structure for a pharmaceutical supply chain that satisfies the consumer information needs and fosters consumer confidence in the pharmacy goods they buy. By using blockchain technology, the main goals were to develop and implement a pharmaceutical supply chain. (2) Objectives: The main objectives of this work were to leverage an Ethereum platform for the development of a tractability system in a pharmaceutical supply chain environment and to analyze the efficiency of MSMAChain with respect to the cost and execution of transactions based on our designed smart contracts. (3) Results: This research looked into a variety of issues related to the value, viability, and effects of blockchain technology for use in supply chain applications. The methods and creations in this environment were monitored and researched. It is vital to identify a number of crucial subjects including future research areas, in order to achieve the widespread acceptance of the supply chain traceability provided by blockchain technology. (4) Conclusions: MSMAChain, an Ethereum blockchain-based approach, leverages smart contracts and decentralized off-chain storage for efficient product traceability in terms of the cost and execution of transaction for a health care supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human–AI Teaming: Synergy, Decision-Making and Interdependency)
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14 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
A Multivariate Deep Learning Model with Coupled Human Intervention Factors for COVID-19 Forecasting
by Zongxi Qu, Beidou Zhang and Hongpeng Wang
Systems 2023, 11(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040201 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology plays a crucial role in infectious disease outbreak prediction and control. Many human interventions can influence the spread of epidemics, including government responses, quarantine, and economic support. However, most previous AI-based models have failed to consider human interventions when [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology plays a crucial role in infectious disease outbreak prediction and control. Many human interventions can influence the spread of epidemics, including government responses, quarantine, and economic support. However, most previous AI-based models have failed to consider human interventions when predicting the trend of infectious diseases. This study selected four human intervention factors that may affect COVID-19 transmission, examined their relationship to epidemic cases, and developed a multivariate long short-term memory network model (M-LSTM) incorporating human intervention factors. Firstly, we analyzed the correlations and lagged effects between four human factors and epidemic cases in three representative countries, and found that these four factors typically delayed the epidemic case data by approximately 15 days. On this basis, a multivariate epidemic prediction model (M-LSTM) was developed. The model prediction results show that coupling human intervention factors generally improves model performance, but adding certain intervention factors also results in lower performance. Overall, a multivariate deep learning model with coupled variable correlation and lag outperformed other comparative models, and thus validated its effectiveness in predicting infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human–AI Teaming: Synergy, Decision-Making and Interdependency)
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21 pages, 4303 KiB  
Article
The Reform of Curricula in the Spanish University System: How Well Matched Are New Bachelor’s Degrees to Jobs
by Manuel Salas-Velasco
Systems 2023, 11(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040200 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
This study looks at how well bachelor’s degree holders in Spain match into jobs five years after graduation. Based on workers’ self-assessment, education–job mismatch is defined as the discrepancy between the formal qualifications that individuals earned at Spanish universities and those that are [...] Read more.
This study looks at how well bachelor’s degree holders in Spain match into jobs five years after graduation. Based on workers’ self-assessment, education–job mismatch is defined as the discrepancy between the formal qualifications that individuals earned at Spanish universities and those that are required by jobs. By estimating a multinomial logit model, this research identifies fields of study that are associated with increased likelihood of a particular educational mismatch status. Results indicate that university graduates from highly specialized bachelor’s degree programs are more likely to work in a graduate job that is related to their field of education. In particular, graduates with degrees that entail specific human capital, such as health sciences degrees and hard science and engineering degrees, are more likely to be well-matched in their current jobs. In contrast, the results show a higher likelihood of over-qualification (recent graduates who are in non-graduate jobs) for social and legal sciences degrees and arts and humanities degrees. Gender appears to play no role in the matching process; however, the subject-specific knowledge that graduates have gained from their time in higher education is important. As a novelty, this study also identifies, for a sub-sample of workers, the process through which a good match is achieved—that is, how individuals self-select to accept jobs in which they can achieve a good match. The regression results are based on micro data from a nationally representative random sample of the first cohort of undergraduates after the Bologna curriculum reform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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29 pages, 5754 KiB  
Article
Reducing Terrorism Casualties: Analyzing Policies Effectiveness under a Systems Perspective
by Thomas De Angelis, Stefano Armenia and Angelo De Angelis
Systems 2023, 11(4), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040199 - 16 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
The present paper seeks to analyze and understand terrorism as a comprehensive process that, through various stages, transforms a “normal” individual with some grievances into a radicalized agent ready and available to be recruited and trained to perform terror attacks that produce casualties. [...] Read more.
The present paper seeks to analyze and understand terrorism as a comprehensive process that, through various stages, transforms a “normal” individual with some grievances into a radicalized agent ready and available to be recruited and trained to perform terror attacks that produce casualties. The goal of this analysis is to produce recommendations regarding the leverage points in which policy interventions may be used to reduce the number of casualties that terror attacks in the west, and specifically in Europe, produce. To this end, the analysis is divided into two main sections. The first section will focus on a careful study of key literature regarding terrorism. A deep analysis is conducted in order to construct a qualitative understanding of radicalization and terrorism, finding common points among what is analyzed and developing a strong overview and understanding of the topic. The second section—the core of the paper—focuses on creating a novel System Dynamics model and on identifying leverage points. In this section, the System Dynamics model is used to construct a simulation model based on the findings from the first section. This model is then simulated on Silico.app® through various scenarios in order to identify leverage points in which policies would be best able to reach the stated goal of reducing casualties. Following these simulations, a few leverage points were evidenced, and some effective policies were also identified. The last section recaps the main findings of the analysis, its limitations and future extensions of the model (so to allow for deeper and more precise policy insight), and it is argued that System Dynamics can constitute a very powerful modeling approach in the context of counter terrorism policy making. Full article
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19 pages, 1121 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Role of Green Logistics Management in Improving SMEs’ Sustainability Performance: Do Circular Economy Practices and Supply Chain Traceability Matter?
by Bo Zhou, Abu Bakkar Siddik, Guang-Wen Zheng and Mohammad Masukujjaman
Systems 2023, 11(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040198 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5399
Abstract
Sustainability has been widely recognized as a pervasive phenomenon that underlies the operations and performance of businesses. Recent research has examined the effect of green logistics management on the sustainability performance of businesses. However, we contend that the relationship between green logistics management [...] Read more.
Sustainability has been widely recognized as a pervasive phenomenon that underlies the operations and performance of businesses. Recent research has examined the effect of green logistics management on the sustainability performance of businesses. However, we contend that the relationship between green logistics management and the sustainability performance of firms is not direct but mediated through circular economy practices. We analyze the direct and indirect effects of green logistics management on business sustainability performance via circular economy practices, using the natural resource-based view and resource dependence theory as our theoretical underpinnings. This study also assesses the moderating effect of supply chain traceability on the associations. Drawing upon the empirical data from 211 Bangladeshi manufacturing SMEs, we performed the PLS-SEM technique to assess the hypotheses. The findings show that green logistics management positively affects organizations’ circular economy practices and sustainability performance. Furthermore, supply chain traceability strongly affects SMEs’ circular economy practice but fails to moderate the linkage between green logistics and sustainability performance. Finally, circular economy practice mediates the linkage between SMEs’ green logistics management and sustainability performance. We also conducted the Sobel test to validate the mediation. Our findings advance the natural resource-based view and resource dependence theory while improving the understanding of green logistics management, circular economy practices, and sustainability performance. Given the dearth of literature assessing the complex interactions among these variables, our findings have pivotal implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enablers and Capabilities for the Digital Supply Chain)
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26 pages, 7765 KiB  
Article
Extensible Business Reporting Language Technology Adoption and Diffusion—A Tripartite Evolutionary Game Perspective
by Ding Pan and Yali Ji
Systems 2023, 11(4), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040197 - 16 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1434
Abstract
The adoption and diffusion level of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) technology among listed enterprises is an important indicator of the capital market‘s openness and efficiency degree. In this study, we established an evolutionary model between the government, listed enterprises, and institutional investors, [...] Read more.
The adoption and diffusion level of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) technology among listed enterprises is an important indicator of the capital market‘s openness and efficiency degree. In this study, we established an evolutionary model between the government, listed enterprises, and institutional investors, analyzed the evolutionary path and evolutionary law of the model, and conducted numerical simulations. In the numerical simulations, we discussed the impact of different parameters change on the strategic choices of the three parties, and the results show that increasing government enforcement and subsidies intensity, reducing the adoption cost for listed enterprises, increasing the incremental benefits of adoption for enterprises, and increasing the participation level of institutional investors all promote the adoption of XBRL technology by listed enterprises. The adoption behavior of listed enterprises is driven by a combination of the government’s policy guidance and institutional investors’ XBRL engagement level. Therefore, this paper is an effective supplement to the innovative technology adoption and diffusion theory and provides policy recommendations and management insights for the government’s efforts in promoting XBRL technology, which is conducive to solving the problem of insufficient motivation for XBRL technology adoption by listed enterprises. Full article
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19 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Using Dual Attention BiLSTM to Predict Vehicle Lane Changing Maneuvers on Highway Dataset
by Farzeen Ashfaq, Rania M. Ghoniem, N. Z. Jhanjhi, Navid Ali Khan and Abeer D. Algarni
Systems 2023, 11(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040196 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
In this research, we address the problem of accurately predicting lane-change maneuvers on highways. Lane-change maneuvers are a critical aspect of highway safety and traffic flow, and the accurate prediction of these maneuvers can have significant implications for both. However, current methods for [...] Read more.
In this research, we address the problem of accurately predicting lane-change maneuvers on highways. Lane-change maneuvers are a critical aspect of highway safety and traffic flow, and the accurate prediction of these maneuvers can have significant implications for both. However, current methods for lane-change prediction are limited in their ability to handle naturalistic driving scenarios and often require large amounts of labeled data. Our proposed model uses a bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) network to analyze naturalistic vehicle trajectories recorded from multiple sensors on German highways. To handle the temporal aspect of vehicle behavior, we utilized a sliding window approach, considering both the preceding and following vehicles’ trajectories. To tackle class imbalances in the data, we introduced rolling mean computed weights. Our extensive feature engineering process resulted in a comprehensive feature set to train the model. The proposed model fills the gap in the state-of-the-art lane change prediction methods and can be applied in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous driving systems. Our results show that the BiLSTM-based approach with the sliding window technique effectively predicts lane changes with 86% test accuracy and a test loss of 0.325 by considering the context of the input data in both the past and future. The F1 score of 0.52, precision of 0.41, recall of 0.75, accuracy of 0.86, and AUC of 0.81 also demonstrate the model’s high ability to distinguish between the two target classes. Furthermore, the model achieved an accuracy of 83.65% with a loss value of 0.3306 on the other half of the data samples, and the validation accuracy was observed to improve over these epochs, reaching the highest validation accuracy of 92.53%. The F1 score of 0.51, precision of 0.36, recall of 0.89, accuracy of 0.82, and AUC of 0.85 on this data sample also demonstrate the model’s strong ability to identify both positive and negative classes. Overall, our proposed approach outperforms existing methods and can significantly contribute to improving highway safety and traffic flow. Full article
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27 pages, 3294 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Presence of Sustainable Development Goals in Digital Teen Series: An Analytical Proposal
by Sara Valenzuela-Monreal, Javier Lozano Delmar and Rafael A. Araque-Padilla
Systems 2023, 11(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040195 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
In 2015, the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals. Several experts on sustainable development have highlighted the need for educational transformation to achieve them on time. Simultaneously, the influence of teen series on the personal and social development of teenagers has been [...] Read more.
In 2015, the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals. Several experts on sustainable development have highlighted the need for educational transformation to achieve them on time. Simultaneously, the influence of teen series on the personal and social development of teenagers has been increasingly demonstrated, especially after their boom through video-on-demand digital platforms. Therefore, it is worth asking how the 2030 Agenda goals are presented in teen series, especially in those of public television, such as the Spanish one, due to its commitment to young people and the SDGs (ratified in its official documents). The aim of this study is to propose an analysis tool and, subsequently, to apply it to a content analysis of the digital teen series Boca Norte. The results of the analysis reveal that social issues are presented in Boca Norte, while environmental ones are not. In addition, the results show limitations in the integration of SDG-related issues, especially because they are focused on social relationships between characters rather than on realities, contexts and consequences. The tools’ findings could impact or be linked to teenagers’ education. These conclusions prove that the proposed tool is useful, even for the development of new series for public television aligned with its public commitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication for the Digital Media Age)
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21 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Can Green Technology Innovation Reduce the Operational Risks of Energy-Intensive Enterprises?
by Huwei Wen, Jiayi Shi and Peng Lu
Systems 2023, 11(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040194 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Many countries have adopted carbon regulatory policies in pursuit of carbon neutrality, which pose great transition risks for energy-intensive sectors. Using the panel data of 186 Chinese listed enterprises in the energy-intensive sector from 2007 to 2019, this study investigates the impact of [...] Read more.
Many countries have adopted carbon regulatory policies in pursuit of carbon neutrality, which pose great transition risks for energy-intensive sectors. Using the panel data of 186 Chinese listed enterprises in the energy-intensive sector from 2007 to 2019, this study investigates the impact of green technology innovation on corporate operation risks. Empirical evidence shows that energy-intensive enterprises can effectively reduce their operational risks by participating in green technology innovation activities. This study also proves the mechanism of obtaining the support of public policies and enhancing investor confidence in the capital market, while the mechanism of improving recognition in the consumer market is insignificant. Climate policy uncertainty weakens the stabilizing effect of green technology innovation on operational risks. In addition, green technology innovation has a weak stabilizing effect on the operational risks of state-owned enterprises, while government subsidy can strengthen the stabilizing effect. Finally, the stabilizing effect of green technology innovation on operational risks varies by region, period, scale and ownership. This study and its findings provide theoretical insights for corporate risk management in energy-intensive industries and theoretical analysis for the realization mechanism of the market value of corporate green behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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24 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
Civil Servant and Expert Perspectives on Drivers, Values, Challenges and Successes in Adopting Systems Thinking in Policy-Making
by Le Khanh Ngan Nguyen, Cecilia Kumar, Marine Bisaro Shah, Andrew Chilvers, Isabella Stevens, Rachel Hardy, Claire J. Sarell and Nici Zimmermann
Systems 2023, 11(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040193 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2370
Abstract
The use of systems thinking (ST) to handle complexity and wicked policy problems is gaining traction in government and the Civil Service, but policy-makers and civil servants can encounter several challenges in practice. How best to support them in understanding and applying ST [...] Read more.
The use of systems thinking (ST) to handle complexity and wicked policy problems is gaining traction in government and the Civil Service, but policy-makers and civil servants can encounter several challenges in practice. How best to support them in understanding and applying ST in policy-making is not well understood. This study aims to explore civil servant and expert perspectives on the drivers and values of ST and the challenges, successes and solutions for its adoption in policy-making. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 civil servants across 17 UK government departments, agencies and public bodies, and 5 experts skilled in supporting ST use in policy-making. Via thematic analysis, we identified the values, challenges and successes interviewees experienced when implementing ST and their definitions of the term systems thinking. Civil servants were drawn into an ST approach by their academic training and exposure to it in their previous role(s), workshops, networking events and apprenticeships and through appreciating its values. Civil servants provided various interpretations of ST concepts and values with a strong emphasis on ‘complexity’ and ‘interrelationship’. Our analysis identified eight challenge themes for the implementation of ST in policy-making, including (i) ST language and interpretation, (ii) the policy landscape, (iii) government structure and operation, (iv) methodology and technical aspects, (v) capacity and expertise, (vi) conceptualisation, expectations and buy-in, (vii) stakeholders, engagement and collaboration and (viii) evaluation and evidence. Despite the high interest in ST among civil servants across different policy areas within the UK government and the Civil Service, implementation is challenging. Recommendations for implementation include ST language in policy, systems leadership, policy-specific capacity development and evaluation processes for collecting evidence of impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Social Science)
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22 pages, 5199 KiB  
Article
An Industry 4.0 Technology Selection Framework for Manufacturing Systems and Firms Using Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS Methods
by Parham Dadash Pour, Aser Alaa Ahmed, Mohammad A. Nazzal and Basil M. Darras
Systems 2023, 11(4), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040192 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1723
Abstract
Characterized by its resilience, connectivity, and real-time data processing capabilities, the fourth industrial revolution, referred to as Industry 4.0, is the main driver of today’s digital transformation. It is crucially important for manufacturing facilities to correctly identify the most suitable Industry 4.0 technologies [...] Read more.
Characterized by its resilience, connectivity, and real-time data processing capabilities, the fourth industrial revolution, referred to as Industry 4.0, is the main driver of today’s digital transformation. It is crucially important for manufacturing facilities to correctly identify the most suitable Industry 4.0 technologies that meet their operational schemes and production targets. Different technology selection frameworks were proposed to tackle this problem, several of which are complex, or require historic data from manufacturing facilities that might not always be available. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel Industry 4.0 selection framework that utilizes Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS) to rank different Industry 4.0 technologies based on their economic, social, and environmental impact. The framework is also implemented on a real-life case study of a manufacturing firm to rank the different Industry 4.0 technologies required for its digital transformation based on their significance to the facility’s key performance indicators. The framework is utilized to select the top three Industry 4.0 technologies from a pool of eight technologies that are deemed important to the manufacturing firm. Results of the case study showed that Cyber-Physical Systems, Big Data analytics, and autonomous/industrial robots are the top three ranked technologies, having closeness coefficient scores of 0.964, 0.928, and 0.601, respectively. Moreover, the framework showed sensitivity towards weight changes. This is an advantage in the developed framework, since its main aim is to provide policymakers with a customized list of technologies based on their importance to the firm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems Practice in Engineering)
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22 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
Organizational Resistance to Automation Success: How Status Quo Bias Influences Organizational Resistance to an Automated Workflow System in a Public Organization
by Ibrahim Almatrodi, Feng Li and Mohammed Alojail
Systems 2023, 11(4), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040191 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3029
Abstract
A number of recent studies have examined the impact of advanced technologies on organizations. However, many (particularly those in developing countries) still face challenges when it comes to the adoption of mature technologies and have also continued to repeat many of the mistakes [...] Read more.
A number of recent studies have examined the impact of advanced technologies on organizations. However, many (particularly those in developing countries) still face challenges when it comes to the adoption of mature technologies and have also continued to repeat many of the mistakes of early adopters, primarily in relation to automated workflow systems. The current paper analyses a case study of a public organization in the developing country of Saudi Arabia, with the aim of understanding its resistance to change brought about by the implementation of a mature technology, i.e., automated workflow systems. The study undertook semi-structured interviews with employees to establish the nature of this resistance, identifying their preference for familiar processes and systems, alongside their unwillingness to embrace the new system. Furthermore, the study highlighted a number of issues experienced during the implementation of automated workflow systems, including job security; changes in laws and rules; an inability to understand, and/or trust, the technology; the perceived risks and costs associated with change; and the transformation of business processes. It also cited factors related to organizational structure and power, and the discomfort involved in making difficult decisions. This study, therefore, aims to assist organizations to create a sound foundation for change prior to the adoption of more advanced technologies. Full article
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19 pages, 6826 KiB  
Article
A Delphi Study on Technical and Socio-Economic Perspectives of Nanotechnology and ICT Industries Relations
by Vinodh Rida Arumugam, Boon-Kwee Ng and Kavintheran Thambiratnam
Systems 2023, 11(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040190 - 08 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
By using the Delphi technique and a case study on Malaysia’s nanotechnology research and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industries, this paper aims to determine the development and convergence of nanotechnology and ICT innovation systems from the perspective of science-industry relations. A total [...] Read more.
By using the Delphi technique and a case study on Malaysia’s nanotechnology research and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industries, this paper aims to determine the development and convergence of nanotechnology and ICT innovation systems from the perspective of science-industry relations. A total of 25 experts have provided their opinions and consensus on the present stage and possible future scenarios of nanotech-ICT development from four dimensions: technology landscape, economic viability, governance, and social acceptance. Results from two survey rounds indicate that the Malaysian ICT innovation system is presently economically viable and easily accepted by the market. The best-case scenario can be achieved with the help of nanotechnology. This would also require the implementation of policies and regulations from government. Although industrial and social adoption and the acceptance of nanotechnology are already strong, government is responsible for creating various programs to ensure greater awareness and development of knowledge. Full article
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18 pages, 12589 KiB  
Article
Integration of SysML and Virtual Reality Environment: A Ground Based Telescope System Example
by Mostafa Lutfi and Ricardo Valerdi
Systems 2023, 11(4), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040189 - 07 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2266
Abstract
In recent years, Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has continued to develop as a standard for designing, managing, and maintaining increasingly complex systems. Unlike the document centric approach, MBSE puts the model at the heart of system design. Among the various MBSE language [...] Read more.
In recent years, Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has continued to develop as a standard for designing, managing, and maintaining increasingly complex systems. Unlike the document centric approach, MBSE puts the model at the heart of system design. Among the various MBSE language development efforts, “Systems Modeling Language (SysML)”, is the most anticipated and broadly utilized in the research and in industrial practice. SysML originated from Unified Modeling Language (UML) and follows the Object-Oriented Systems Engineering Method (OOSEM). SysML diagrams help users create various systems engineering artifacts, including requirements, use cases, operational concepts, system architecture, system behaviors, and parametric analyses of a system model. In the early days of implementation, MBSE languages, including SysML, typically relied on static viewpoints and limited simulation support to depict and analyze a system model. Due the continuous improvement efforts and new implementation approaches by researchers and organizations, SysML has advanced vastly to encompass dynamic viewpoints, in-situ simulation and enable integration with external modeling and simulation (M&S) tools. Virtual Reality (VR) has emerged as a user interactive and immersive visualization technology and can depict reality in a virtual environment at different levels of fidelity. VR can play a crucial role in developing dynamic and interactive viewpoints to improve the MBSE approach. In this research paper, the authors developed and implemented a methodology for integrating SysML and VR, enabling tools to achieve three dimensional viewpoints, an immersive user experience and early design evaluations of the system of interest (SOI). The key components of the methodology being followed in this research paper are the SysML, a VR environment, extracted data and scripting languages. The authors initially developed a SysML for a ground-based telescope system following the four pillars of SysML: Structure, Requirements, Behavior and Parametrics. The SysML diagram components are exported from the model using the velocity template language and then fed into a virtual reality game engine. Then, the SysML diagrams are visualized in the VR environment to enable better comprehension and interaction with users and Digital Twin (DT) technologies. In addition, a VR simulation scenario of space objects is generated based on the input from the SysML, and the simulation result is sent back from the VR tool into the model with the aid of parametric diagram simulation. Hence, by utilizing the developed SysML-VR integration methodology, VR environment scenarios are successfully integrated with the SysML. Finally, the research paper mentions a few limitations of the current implementation and proposes future improvements. Full article
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26 pages, 29573 KiB  
Article
Evolutionary Analysis of the Regulation of Data Abuse in Digital Platforms
by Zhen Wang, Chunhui Yuan and Xiaolong Li
Systems 2023, 11(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040188 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
This study proposes a tripartite evolutionary game model to investigate the interactions among digital platforms, governments, and users to address the negative consequences of data abuse. The paper identifies that the high tax incentives and low penalties set by the government will increase [...] Read more.
This study proposes a tripartite evolutionary game model to investigate the interactions among digital platforms, governments, and users to address the negative consequences of data abuse. The paper identifies that the high tax incentives and low penalties set by the government will increase the incentive for data abuse by platforms of different sizes, and the government can try to set up a tax ladder policy for platforms of different sizes and a dynamic penalty amount based on platform revenue. The study also reveals that user participation in supervision can reduce information asymmetry, and decrease the cost of government regulation. However, the single constraint of users is less effective than government regulation or dual user-government regulation. Additionally, the presence of privacy leakage risks prompts digital platforms to adopt compound engines to implement data abuse. Hence, the relevant government regulatory policies should consider the efficiency and cost of data security technology for timely adjustments. This research contributes to understanding the complex relationships among digital platforms, governments, and users and highlights the need for appropriate measures to mitigate the negative effects of data abuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Data-Driven Group Decision-Making)
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32 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
Improving Acceptability of Cost Savings Allocation in Ridesharing Systems Based on Analysis of Proportional Methods
by Fu-Shiung Hsieh
Systems 2023, 11(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040187 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Due to its potential for cutting down energy consumption, sharing transport costs, and reducing negative impacts on the environment, ridesharing has been adopted as a viable model by many cities all over the world to achieve sustainability goals. Although there have been many [...] Read more.
Due to its potential for cutting down energy consumption, sharing transport costs, and reducing negative impacts on the environment, ridesharing has been adopted as a viable model by many cities all over the world to achieve sustainability goals. Although there have been many studies on ridesharing systems, most of these studies have focused on the optimization of performance directly linked to saving energy consumption costs or travel distance. The methods used to divide the cost savings among the ridesharing participants have been less explored. In practice, proportional methods are commonly used to allocate cost savings in ridesharing systems. However, the effectiveness of proportional methods has not been well studied. The goal of this paper is to study and compare three proportional cost savings allocation methods to provide a guideline for choosing an effective method based on an analysis of the properties and performance in terms of the number of acceptable rides and the number of ridesharing participants. The properties were verified by experimental results. This study showed that how cost savings are divided among ridesharing participants has a significant influence on participants’ willingness to adopt the ridesharing transport mode. The properties and experimental results provide a rule and principle that can be used by policy makers and service providers to move towards their sustainability goals by promoting ridesharing through adopting the right proportional cost savings allocation method in ridesharing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Economy Systems: Design, Use, and Innovation)
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18 pages, 3070 KiB  
Article
Femvertising and COVID-19—What Did Brand Owners Broadcast during the Lockdown?
by Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado, Patricia P. Iglesias-Sánchez, Carlos de las Heras-Pedrosa, Fernando Olivares-Delgado and María T. Benlloch-Osuna
Systems 2023, 11(4), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040186 - 06 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1431
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze, from a gender perspective, advertising broadcasts during a time of crisis. A holistic perspective of the stereotypes, roles, professions, and gender relations represented is offered by utilizing a content analysis of all the advertisements and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze, from a gender perspective, advertising broadcasts during a time of crisis. A holistic perspective of the stereotypes, roles, professions, and gender relations represented is offered by utilizing a content analysis of all the advertisements and their corresponding images during broadcast. Methods: a content analysis of 20 variables was conducted; of these, 7 variables were obtained from under the gender perspective of 1.350 images, corresponding to 71 audiovisual spots on YouTube that were broadcasted during the lockdown. Results: this analysis showed the special sensitivity of advertisers when balancing male and female presences, and in projecting an equitable and co-responsible vision between both genders, with special emphasis on gender professions, teleworking, and childcare. Corporate advertising predominates over commercial advertising, which may explain why the discourse and images blur inequalities and imbalances with respect to official statistics. Conclusions: advertisers seem to have noticed the strategic role of introducing gender perspectives into advertising, thus assuming a more social function that better connects them with today’s society while also supporting the advances and challenges of equal opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication for the Digital Media Age)
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29 pages, 5804 KiB  
Article
Customer Attitude toward Digital Wallet Services
by Galina Ilieva, Tania Yankova, Yulia Dzhabarova, Margarita Ruseva, Delian Angelov and Stanislava Klisarova-Belcheva
Systems 2023, 11(4), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040185 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 11478
Abstract
The goal of this study is to examine and identify the factors influencing customer attitude toward and intention to use digital wallets (electronic wallets, e-wallets) during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 257 correctly fulfilled questionnaires from an online survey were [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to examine and identify the factors influencing customer attitude toward and intention to use digital wallets (electronic wallets, e-wallets) during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 257 correctly fulfilled questionnaires from an online survey were summarized. The main features of e-wallet payment systems were classified with a focus on consumer satisfaction via the integration of classic and modern data analysis methods. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was preferred to reveal the dependencies between the variables from e-wallets users’ perspective. The designed model can discover and explain the underlying relationships that determine the e-wallets’ adoption mechanism. The obtained results lead to specific recommendations to stakeholders in the value chain of payment processing. Financial regulatory authorities could employ the presented results in planning the development of payment systems. E-commerce marketers could utilize the proposed methodology to assess, compare and select an alternative way for order payment. E-wallet service providers could establish a reliable multi-criteria system for the evaluation of digital wallet adoption. Being aware of the most important components of e-wallets value, managers can more effectively run and control payment platforms, enhance customer experience, and thus improve the company’s competitiveness. As the perceived value of customer satisfaction is subjective and dynamic, measurements and data analysis should be conducted periodically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Business Intelligence as a Tool for Business Competitiveness)
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14 pages, 435 KiB  
Article
An Infrastructure Cost and Benefits Evaluation Framework for Blockchain-Based Applications
by Miguel Pincheira, Elena Donini, Massimo Vecchio and Raffaele Giaffreda
Systems 2023, 11(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems11040184 - 05 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Blockchain is currently a core technology for developing new types of decentralized applications. With the unique properties of blockchain, unique challenges and characteristics are introduced to the system. Among these characteristics, the infrastructure costs and benefits of the system are critical to evaluate [...] Read more.
Blockchain is currently a core technology for developing new types of decentralized applications. With the unique properties of blockchain, unique challenges and characteristics are introduced to the system. Among these characteristics, the infrastructure costs and benefits of the system are critical to evaluate the feasibility of any system and have yet to be addressed in the current literature. This work presents a framework for evaluating blockchain applications’ infrastructure costs and benefits. The framework includes a taxonomy to classify the related transactions, a model to evaluate the infrastructure costs and benefits in applications using public or private blockchains, and a methodology to guide the use of the model. The model is based on simple parameters that describe the systems, and the methodology helps to identify and estimate these parameters at any stage of the application life cycle. We quantitatively analyze three real use cases to demonstrate the framework’s merit. The analyses highlight the model’s accuracy by achieving the same results presented in the use cases. Furthermore, the use-case analyses emphasize the framework’s potential to evaluate different scenarios across the entire life cycle of blockchain-based applications. Full article
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