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J. Intell., Volume 10, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 36 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The most common approach to understanding intelligence has been to investigate what performance on tests of intellect is and is not associated with. In this review, Damian Birney and Jens Beckmann aim to substantiate why this between-person psychometric approach will remain deficient until within-person accounts are incorporated. They highlight how some entrenched psychometric presumptions tend to reinforce the status quo. They discuss the importance of process theories that inform within-person accounts and demonstrate how static and dynamic tasks can be modified to target adaptive processes. Finally, Birney and Beckmann explain how multilevel models are conceptually and psychometrically well-suited to developing within-individual notions of intelligence, which at its core, they argue, is cognitive flexibility. View this paper
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14 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Influence of Teaching Styles on the Learning Academic Confidence of Teachers in Training
by Antonio Granero-Gallegos, Juan Carlos Escaravajal, Ginés David López-García and Raúl Baños
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030071 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5205
Abstract
The objective of this research was to analyze the mediation of academic engagement and the satisfaction of basic needs between teaching styles and academic confidence amongst teachers during initial training. The research design was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and non-randomized. In total, 920 university [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to analyze the mediation of academic engagement and the satisfaction of basic needs between teaching styles and academic confidence amongst teachers during initial training. The research design was observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and non-randomized. In total, 920 university students in initial teacher training participated (61.85% women) (Mage = 24.73; SD = 5.34). The scales of interpersonal teaching styles, the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, academic engagement, and academic confidence were used, and a structural equation analysis with latent variables was carried out. The results highlight the important mediating role played by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs between the autonomous support style and the academic confidence of the trainee teachers. This research also highlights the importance, both for teachers and researchers, of using an autonomous support style, as well as the creation of a context for encouraging the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, to promote academic confidence in initial teacher training programs at university. Full article
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23 pages, 1416 KiB  
Article
Taking a Closer Look: The Relationship between Pre-School Domain General Cognition and School Mathematics Achievement When Controlling for Intelligence
by Antje Ehlert, Nadine Poltz, Sabine Quandte, Juliane Kohn, Karin Kucian, Michael Von Aster and Günter Esser
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030070 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
Intelligence, as well as working memory and attention, affect the acquisition of mathematical competencies. This paper aimed to examine the influence of working memory and attention when taking different mathematical skills into account as a function of children’s intellectual ability. Overall, intelligence, working [...] Read more.
Intelligence, as well as working memory and attention, affect the acquisition of mathematical competencies. This paper aimed to examine the influence of working memory and attention when taking different mathematical skills into account as a function of children’s intellectual ability. Overall, intelligence, working memory, attention and numerical skills were assessed twice in 1868 German pre-school children (t1, t2) and again at 2nd grade (t3). We defined three intellectual ability groups based on the results of intellectual assessment at t1 and t2. Group comparisons revealed significant differences between the three intellectual ability groups. Over time, children with low intellectual ability showed the lowest achievement in domain-general and numerical and mathematical skills compared to children of average intellectual ability. The highest achievement on the aforementioned variables was found for children of high intellectual ability. Additionally, path modelling revealed that, depending on the intellectual ability, different models of varying complexity could be generated. These models differed with regard to the relevance of the predictors (t2) and the future mathematical skills (t3). Causes and conclusions of these findings are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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12 pages, 465 KiB  
Article
Metacognition, Mind Wandering, and Cognitive Flexibility: Understanding Creativity
by David D. Preiss
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030069 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4524
Abstract
The goal of this article is to review work on mind wandering, metacognition and creativity in order to consider their relationship with cognitive flexibility. I introduce a model of the role that mind wandering and metacognition have in the generation and exploration of [...] Read more.
The goal of this article is to review work on mind wandering, metacognition and creativity in order to consider their relationship with cognitive flexibility. I introduce a model of the role that mind wandering and metacognition have in the generation and exploration of novel ideas and products in the creative process. I argue that managing the interaction between metacognition and mind wandering is the main role of cognitive flexibility in creativity. Furthermore, I claim that balancing the influence of metacognition during the generation and exploration of pre-inventive structures is a quintessential part of creativity, probably in almost any domain. Thus, I advance a general framework that can be applied to understanding how creators monitor and think about their own cognition when they engage in the generation and exploration of ideas. Additionally, I discuss the evolution of controlled and spontaneous cognition and metacognitive judgements during the development of a creative person. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Flexibility: Concepts, Issues and Assessment)
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18 pages, 374 KiB  
Article
The Impact of an Enrichment Program on the Emirati Verbally Gifted Children
by Hala Elhoweris, Najwa Alhosani, Negmeldin Alsheikh, Rhoda-Myra Garces Bacsal and Eleni Bonti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030068 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
Most researchers agree that verbally gifted learners should be provided with differentiated curriculum experiences that will allow them to reach their full potential. However, research is scarce in the field. The present study examined the impact of a reading enrichment program on fourth-grade [...] Read more.
Most researchers agree that verbally gifted learners should be provided with differentiated curriculum experiences that will allow them to reach their full potential. However, research is scarce in the field. The present study examined the impact of a reading enrichment program on fourth-grade students’ critical reading abilities. The program was based on the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM). The sample consisted of forty fourth-grade verbally gifted students from a school in Dubai, who were randomly assigned to either an experimental instruction condition or a traditional instruction condition and completed pre and post-tests of language arts. A pre-and post-experimental design was used. The overall results indicated the efficacy of the differentiated enrichment program in enhancing Emirati gifted learners’ critical reading abilities. The study also provides a framework for better provision and teacher training planning regarding gifted education in the UAE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psycho-Educational Assessments: Theory and Practice)
12 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Person Ability under Rapid and Effortful Responding
by Georgios Sideridis and Maisa Alahmadi
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030067 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
The goal of the present study was to extend earlier work on the estimation of person theta using maximum likelihood estimation in R by accounting for rapid guessing. This paper provides a modified R function that accommodates person thetas using the Rasch or [...] Read more.
The goal of the present study was to extend earlier work on the estimation of person theta using maximum likelihood estimation in R by accounting for rapid guessing. This paper provides a modified R function that accommodates person thetas using the Rasch or 2PL models and implements corrections for the presence of rapid guessing or informed guessing behaviors. Initially, a sample of 200 participants was generated using Mplus in order to demonstrate the use of the function with the full sample and a single participant in particular. Subsequently, the function was applied to data from the General Aptitude Test (GAT) and the measurement of cognitive ability. Using a sample of 8500 participants, the present R function was demonstrated. An illustrative example of a single participant, assumed to be either a rapid responder or a successful guesser, is provided using MLE and BME. It was concluded that the present function can contribute to a more valid estimation of person ability. Full article
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19 pages, 440 KiB  
Article
School Readiness Test and Intelligence in Preschool as Predictors of Middle School Success: Result of an Eight-Year Longitudinal Study
by Krisztián Józsa, Stephen Amukune, Gabriella Zentai and Karen Caplovitz Barrett
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030066 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
Research has shown that the development of cognitive and social skills in preschool predicts school readiness in kindergarten. However, most longitudinal studies are short-term, tracking children’s development only through the early elementary school years. This study aims to investigate the long-term impact of [...] Read more.
Research has shown that the development of cognitive and social skills in preschool predicts school readiness in kindergarten. However, most longitudinal studies are short-term, tracking children’s development only through the early elementary school years. This study aims to investigate the long-term impact of preschool predictors, intelligence, and mothers’ education on grade six school performance. This study presents the results of an eight-year-long longitudinal study. The sample includes 202 Hungarian children (89 boys) from a disadvantaged region of southeastern Hungary. The independent variables were the preschool measures: DIFER (Diagnostic System for Assessing Development), a widely used, standardized school readiness test that measures cognitive and social skills; the Raven intelligence test; and socioeconomic status. The dependent variables in grade six were: National Standardized tests in math and reading (NABC, National Assessment of Basic Competencies) and school grades (GPA). Cronbach’s alpha reliability of each test is above 0.76. Correlations and a series of multiple regressions were used for analysis. All three independent variables have significant predictive power for school performance in sixth grade. DIFER skills were the best predictors for reading achievement, intelligence for math achievement, and GPA was best predicted by mothers’ education. The results show that developing preschool skills, mothers’ education and IQ in preschool are essential to long-term learning success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
11 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Creativity and Artificial Intelligence—A Student Perspective
by Rebecca Marrone, Victoria Taddeo and Gillian Hill
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030065 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 19419
Abstract
Creativity is a core 21st-century skill taught globally in education systems. As Artificial Intelligence (AI) is being implemented in classrooms worldwide, a key question is proposed: how do students perceive AI and creativity? Twelve focus groups and eight one-on-one interviews were conducted with [...] Read more.
Creativity is a core 21st-century skill taught globally in education systems. As Artificial Intelligence (AI) is being implemented in classrooms worldwide, a key question is proposed: how do students perceive AI and creativity? Twelve focus groups and eight one-on-one interviews were conducted with secondary school-aged students after they received training in both creativity and AI over eight weeks. An analysis of the interviews highlights that the students view the relationship between AI and creativity as four key concepts: social, affective, technological and learning factors. The students with a higher self-reported understanding of AI reported more positive thoughts about integrating AI into their classrooms. The students with a low understanding of AI tended to be fearful of AI. Most of the students indicated a thorough understanding of creativity and reported that AI could never match human creativity. The implications of the results are presented, along with recommendations for the future, to ensure AI can be effectively integrated into classrooms. Full article
25 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Fostering Engagement, Reflexivity, and 21st-Century Skills in Middle School: A Pilot Collaborative Action Research on Identity Formation with Adolescent Co-Researchers
by Pascale Haag, Titouan Fantoni and Stéphanie Dubal
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030064 - 6 Sep 2022
Viewed by 4582
Abstract
Identity construction during adolescence constitutes a primary psychosocial developmental task. A growing body of research has addressed the importance of school education in fostering adolescents’ identity formation and the skills they need to thrive. Although several studies aimed at defining the factors contributing [...] Read more.
Identity construction during adolescence constitutes a primary psychosocial developmental task. A growing body of research has addressed the importance of school education in fostering adolescents’ identity formation and the skills they need to thrive. Although several studies aimed at defining the factors contributing to a coherent, stable, and integrated identity formation, none sought to investigate this question from the adolescents’ perspective. This contribution aimed to explore new ways of fostering 21st-century skills among adolescents through action research. Five adolescents aged 13 to 15 participated in the research process, creating a survey to answer a research problem mainly focused on identity construction in adolescence. A reflexive analysis of the co-research process highlighted the interest in involving adolescents as co-researchers to foster their social and emotional skills. The deployment of the resulting survey in a sample of 1210 adolescents from the general population highlighted the importance of gender diversity for constructing various dimensions of identity. Full article
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39 pages, 2334 KiB  
Article
The Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory (BESSI): Psychometric Properties of a German-Language Adaptation, Temporal Stabilities of the Skills, and Associations with Personality and Intelligence
by Clemens M. Lechner, Thomas Knopf, Christopher M. Napolitano, Beatrice Rammstedt, Brent W. Roberts, Christopher J. Soto and Marion Spengler
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030063 - 5 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6101
Abstract
Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) skills comprise a broad set of abilities that are essential for building and maintaining relationships, regulating emotions, selecting and pursuing goals, or exploring novel stimuli. Toward an improved SEB skill assessment, Soto and colleagues recently introduced the Behavioral, [...] Read more.
Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) skills comprise a broad set of abilities that are essential for building and maintaining relationships, regulating emotions, selecting and pursuing goals, or exploring novel stimuli. Toward an improved SEB skill assessment, Soto and colleagues recently introduced the Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory (BESSI). Measuring 32 facets from 5 domains with 192 items (assessment duration: ~15 min), BESSI constitutes the most extensive SEB inventory to date. However, so far, BESSI exists only in English. In three studies, we comprehensively validated a novel German-language adaptation, BESSI-G. Moreover, we expanded evidence on BESSI in three ways by (1) assessing the psychometric properties of the 32 individual skill facets, in addition to their domain-level structure; (2) providing first insights into the temporal stabilities of the 32 facets over 1.5 and 8 months; and (3) investigating the domains’ and facets’ associations with intelligence, in addition to personality traits. Results show that BESSI-G exhibits good psychometric properties (unidimensionality, reliability, factorial validity). Its domain-level structure is highly similar to that of the English-language source version. The facets show high temporal stabilities, convergent validity with personality traits, and discriminant validity with fluid and crystallized intelligence. We discuss implications for research on SEB skills. Full article
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16 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Teacher Creativity: When Professional Coherence Supports Beautiful Risks
by Marie-Hélène Massie, Isabelle Capron Puozzo and Marc Boutet
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030062 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
Environmental, cultural, and social issues are becoming increasingly complex, and the educational context is no exception to this trend. The relevance of teachers’ creativity in examining situations from different angles, in imagining new approaches, in adapting to the varied needs of students, and [...] Read more.
Environmental, cultural, and social issues are becoming increasingly complex, and the educational context is no exception to this trend. The relevance of teachers’ creativity in examining situations from different angles, in imagining new approaches, in adapting to the varied needs of students, and in training them so that they too can grasp the teeming complexity seems obvious. However, creativity sometimes seems to be taken for granted among teachers and educational programs leave a gap around this theme. Since the scientific literature tends to show that teachers’ creativity is still little explored in educational contexts, this doctoral research studies its manifestations within a group of teachers enrolled in a professional master’s program in preschool and elementary education (Université de Sherbrooke, Canada). Within the framework of this program, each one elaborates a professional development project over a three-year period. Using a variety of authentic data sources (observations in natural occurring situations, reflective writing by participants, and semi-structured interviews), their creative process is documented and analyzed. This multiple-case study (n = 9) that draws on the concept of creativity as related to that of professional coherence reveals that the pursuit of greater professional coherence not only enables the implementation of creative skills to foster teachers’ professional development, but also elicits beautiful risk-taking. Full article
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16 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Contrasting Profiles of Low-Performing Mathematics Students in Public and Private Schools in the Philippines: Insights from Machine Learning
by Allan B. I. Bernardo, Macario O. Cordel II, Minie Rose C. Lapinid, Jude Michael M. Teves, Sashmir A. Yap and Unisse C. Chua
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030061 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 10047
Abstract
Filipino students performed poorly in the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics assessment, with more than 50% obtaining scores below the lowest proficiency level. Students from public schools also performed worse compared to their private school counterparts. We used machine learning [...] Read more.
Filipino students performed poorly in the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics assessment, with more than 50% obtaining scores below the lowest proficiency level. Students from public schools also performed worse compared to their private school counterparts. We used machine learning approaches, specifically binary classification methods, to model the variables that best identified the poor performing students (below Level 1) vs. better performing students (Levels 1 to 6) using the PISA data from a nationally representative sample of 15-year-old Filipino students. We analyzed data from students in private and public schools separately. Several binary classification methods were applied, and the best classification model for both private and public school groups was the Random Forest classifier. The ten variables with the highest impact on the model were identified for the private and public school groups. Five variables were similarly important in the private and public school models. However, there were other distinct variables that relate to students’ motivations, family and school experiences that were important in identifying the poor performing students in each school type. The results are discussed in relation to the social and social cognitive experiences of students that relate to socioeconomic contexts that differ between public and private schools. Full article
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11 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Association between Non-Verbal Intelligence and Academic Performance of Schoolchildren from Taza, Eastern Morocco
by Said Bouchefra, Amal Azeroual, Hassan Boudassamout, Khalid Ahaji, Abdelhakim Ech-chaouy and Abdellatif Bour
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030060 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2580
Abstract
Interest in identifying factors influencing educational success is growing. It is often observed that a group of students share the same external variables (school environment) yet have different results, which states that individual variables have more impact on the determination of academic performance. [...] Read more.
Interest in identifying factors influencing educational success is growing. It is often observed that a group of students share the same external variables (school environment) yet have different results, which states that individual variables have more impact on the determination of academic performance. Therefore, the present study aimed to substantiate this fact by investigating the association between non-verbal fluid intelligence and academic performance in a population of schoolchildren in Eastern Morocco. The investigation was a cross-sectional study based on a self-administered questionnaire. Items included the standard Raven’s progressive matrices. Students’ grades were collected from the administrative offices of the visited schools. Significant and positive correlations between the non-verbal intelligence scores and the school results were found: for the general average, the correlation was 0.574; for the school subject French, the correlation coefficient was 0.475; and for mathematics, we found a relatively low coefficient of 0.381. Non-verbal fluid intelligence significantly and positively predicted academic performance (β = .574, p = .000). These results call for policymakers to implement the use of intelligence tests with school directors and teachers as a diagnostic tool to guide support efforts for low-achieving children and even to create pilot classes for the best-performing students. Full article
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20 pages, 3014 KiB  
Article
Online Assessment and Game-Based Development of Inductive Reasoning
by Attila Pásztor, Andrea Magyar, Anita Pásztor-Kovács and Attila Rausch
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030059 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
The aims of the study were (1) to develop a domain-general computer-based assessment tool for inductive reasoning and to empirically test the theoretical models of Klauer and Christou and Papageorgiou; and (2) to develop an online game to foster inductive reasoning through mathematical [...] Read more.
The aims of the study were (1) to develop a domain-general computer-based assessment tool for inductive reasoning and to empirically test the theoretical models of Klauer and Christou and Papageorgiou; and (2) to develop an online game to foster inductive reasoning through mathematical content and to investigate its effectiveness. The sample was drawn from fifth-grade students for the assessment (N = 267) along with the intervention study (N = 122). The online figurative test consisted of 54 items: nine items were developed for each of the six inductive reasoning processes. The digital game-based training program included 120 learning tasks embedded in mathematical content with differential feedback and instructional support. The test had good psychometric properties regarding reliabilities, means, and standard deviations. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six processes of inductive reasoning and the three latent factors of Similarity, Dissimilarity, and Integration could be empirically confirmed. The training program was effective in general (corrected effect size = .38); however, the process of cross-classification was not developed significantly. Findings could contribute to a more detailed understanding of the structure and the modifiability of inductive reasoning processes and could reveal further insights into the nature of fluid intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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18 pages, 2076 KiB  
Article
Computer-Based Intervention Closes Learning Gap in Maths Accumulated in Remote Learning
by Réka Ökördi and Gyöngyvér Molnár
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030058 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3181
Abstract
Remote learning has reduced the mathematical performance of students. Mathematical reasoning is the critical skill that enables students to make use of all other mathematical skills. The aim of the present study was (1) to develop the mathematical reasoning skills of underachieving students [...] Read more.
Remote learning has reduced the mathematical performance of students. Mathematical reasoning is the critical skill that enables students to make use of all other mathematical skills. The aim of the present study was (1) to develop the mathematical reasoning skills of underachieving students and (2) to explore the application options, benefits and limitations of an online game-based intervention programme among third- and fourth-grade pupils (aged 9–11, N = 810). The content of the programme was designed to strengthen their basic maths skills in line with the curriculum. Beyond assigning the tasks, the digital intervention programme also performed the motivational, differentiation- and feedback-related tasks of the teacher. The reliability indices for pre-, post and follow-up test results proved to be high (Cronbach’s alpha = .90, .91 and .92, respectively). The effect size of the programme proved to be significant in both grades (d = .22 and .38, respectively). The results confirm the potential of the intervention programme to close, or at least significantly reduce the Covid learning gap in basic maths skills, without the need for additional teacher work—which is an important aspect of successful implementation—in areas which are the most challenging for 9-to-11-year-old pupils in the domain of mathematics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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18 pages, 393 KiB  
Concept Paper
Criterion-Referenced Assessment of Intelligence as Adaptation to the Environment: Is It Possible, Plausible, or Practical?
by Robert J. Sternberg, Aakash Chowkase, Fabio Andres Parra-Martinez and Jenna Landy
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030057 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2879
Abstract
Criterion-referenced testing is usually applied to the assessment of achievement. In this article, we suggest how it can also be applied to the assessment of adaptive intelligence, that is, intelligence as adaptation to the environment. In the era of the Anthropocene, we argue [...] Read more.
Criterion-referenced testing is usually applied to the assessment of achievement. In this article, we suggest how it can also be applied to the assessment of adaptive intelligence, that is, intelligence as adaptation to the environment. In the era of the Anthropocene, we argue that adaptive intelligence is what is most important not only for individual success, but also for success in terms of preservation of the world as we know it. We define criterion-referenced testing and compare it to norm-referenced testing. We then discuss two kinds of scoring of criterion-referenced testing, namely, with respect to external criteria and with respect to internal (theory-based) criteria. We then discuss past research on intelligence that could be viewed as criterion-referenced. Finally, we suggest how criterion-referencing could be applied to the assessment of adaptive intelligence. Full article
20 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Personal Intelligence Is Evident in the Sophistication of People’s Narratives about Personality
by Jayne L. Allen and John D. Mayer
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030056 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1919
Abstract
Personal intelligence concerns the ability to understand personality in oneself and others—including the understanding of motives, socioemotional traits, and abilities. We examined if people’s scores on the ability-based Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI) would be reflected in their narratives about someone whose personality [...] Read more.
Personal intelligence concerns the ability to understand personality in oneself and others—including the understanding of motives, socioemotional traits, and abilities. We examined if people’s scores on the ability-based Test of Personal Intelligence (TOPI) would be reflected in their narratives about someone whose personality they had learned about. In a Preliminary Study (N = 220), we collected narratives and open-ended descriptions about their learning. In Study 1 (N = 212), experts rated the respondents’ open-ended narratives for their sophistication about personality, defined as their knowledge and complexity of thought around the topic. Respondents also filled out checklists concerning what they learned and their relationship outcomes. Study 2 (N = 299) was a replication and extension in which we added the TOPI. Participants who scored higher on the TOPI produced narratives higher in Sophistication, even after statistical controls for Word Count and Vocabulary (the measures also were largely independent of the Big Five). The findings here may have applications for both testing and training. Full article
18 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
Academic Achievement: Influences of University Students’ Self-Management and Perceived Self-Efficacy
by Mohammed Hasan Ali Al-Abyadh and Hani Abdel Hafeez Abdel Azeem
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030055 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 12436
Abstract
Successful students are more than just those who have more effective and efficient learning techniques for acquiring and applying information. They can also motivate, evaluate, and adjust their behavior if they are not learning properly. Thus, the objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Successful students are more than just those who have more effective and efficient learning techniques for acquiring and applying information. They can also motivate, evaluate, and adjust their behavior if they are not learning properly. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of university students’ self-management during their learning experience and their self-efficacy on their academic achievement. Additionally, the study investigated the differences between the Egyptian and Saudi students’ perceptions of self-management skills and self-efficacy in their academic achievement within the two countries. A total of 889 students from two different Arab countries took part in the study (Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The sample was given an online questionnaire to evaluate their self-management abilities, perceived self-efficacy, and academic achievement. A quantitative approach using SmartPLS-SEM was deployed. The findings demonstrate that self-management and self-efficacy have positive influences on students’ academic achievement in both countries. Further, self-management skills have been proven to influence self-efficacy, which in turn highly influences academic achievement. Moreover, the findings of the Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) did not report significant differences between the Egyptian and Saudi students in terms of their perception of self-management, self-efficacy, and academic achievement. Full article
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19 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Cultural Intelligence: What Is It and How Can It Effectively Be Measured?
by Robert J. Sternberg, Ilaria Siriner, Jaime Oh and Chak Haang Wong
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030054 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4403
Abstract
We administered both maximum-performance and typical-performance assessments of cultural intelligence to 114 undergraduates in a selective university in the Northeast of the United States. We found that cultural intelligence could be measured by both maximum-performance and typical-performance tests of cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence [...] Read more.
We administered both maximum-performance and typical-performance assessments of cultural intelligence to 114 undergraduates in a selective university in the Northeast of the United States. We found that cultural intelligence could be measured by both maximum-performance and typical-performance tests of cultural intelligence. Cultural intelligence as assessed by a maximum-performance measure is largely distinct from the construct as assessed by a typical-performance measure. The maximum-performance test, the Sternberg Test of Cultural Intelligence (SCIT), showed high internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Sections with problems from two content domains—Business (SCIT-B) and Leisure (SCIT-L) activities—were highly intercorrelated, suggesting they measured largely the same construct. The SCIT showed substantial correlations with another maximum-performance measure of cultural intelligence, Views-on-Culture. It also was correlated, at more modest levels, with fluid intelligence and personal intelligence tests. Factorially, the (a) maximum-performance cultural intelligence tests, (b) typical-performance cultural intelligence test and a test of openness to experience, and (c) fluid intelligence tests formed three separate factors. Full article
18 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Metacognitive and Non-Metacognitive Processes in Arithmetic Performance: Can There Be More than One Meta-Level?
by Csaba Csíkos
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030053 - 4 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2866
Abstract
The nature of the development of arithmetic performance has long been intensively studied, and available scientific evidence can be evaluated and synthesized in light of Nelson and Narens’ model of metacognition. According to the Nelson–Narens model, human cognition can be split into two [...] Read more.
The nature of the development of arithmetic performance has long been intensively studied, and available scientific evidence can be evaluated and synthesized in light of Nelson and Narens’ model of metacognition. According to the Nelson–Narens model, human cognition can be split into two or more interrelated levels. Obviously, in the case of more than two levels, cognitive processes from at least one level can be described as both meta- and object-level processes. The question arises whether it is possible that the very same cognitive processes are both controlled and controlling. The feasibility of owning the same cognitive processes—which are considered the same from an external point of view of assessment—as both meta- and object-level processes within the same individual opens the possibility of investigating the transition from meta-level to object-level. Modeling cognitive development by means of a series of such transitions calls forth an understanding of possible developmental phases in a given domain of learning. The developmental phases of arithmetic performance are described as a series of transitions from arithmetical facts to strategies of arithmetic word problem solving. For school learning and instruction, the role of metacognitive scaffolding as a powerful educational approach is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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14 pages, 370 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Early Word Reading, Phonological Awareness, Early Music Reading and Musical Aptitude
by Márta Janurik, Noémi Surján and Krisztián Józsa
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030050 - 3 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2319
Abstract
A wide range of evidence has demonstrated the impact of music learning on phonological awareness and the development of reading. Music reading, its relationship with linguistic abilities and reading skills are all highly researched areas. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship [...] Read more.
A wide range of evidence has demonstrated the impact of music learning on phonological awareness and the development of reading. Music reading, its relationship with linguistic abilities and reading skills are all highly researched areas. However, limited information is available regarding the relationship between early text reading and early music reading. This study examined the relationship between word reading and music reading, musical aptitude and phonological awareness. The sample consisted of 119 Hungarian grade 1 elementary school students, who were at the beginning of both their text-reading and music-reading studies. They had commenced their studies just nine months before the point of assessment. Phonological awareness, musical aptitude and music reading were the independent variables in the linear-regression model, whilst word reading was the dependent variable. Together, the independent variables explained 50% of the level of development of word reading. The findings suggest a link between early word reading and early music reading. Moreover, further research as well as transfer research may benefit from looking at the possible effects of acquiring and practicing symbol reading, a process most frequently accompanying music learning, on the development of text reading. Full article
15 pages, 1201 KiB  
Article
Age-Related Changes and Reorganization of Creativity and Intelligence Indices in Schoolchildren and University Students
by Olga Razumnikova and Maxim Bakaev
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030052 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Despite the lasting interest towards the relationship between intelligence and creativity, comparably less attention is paid to its age-related changes. Our paper considers the organization of fluid intelligence and psychometric indicators of creativity and is based on the experimental data obtained for children [...] Read more.
Despite the lasting interest towards the relationship between intelligence and creativity, comparably less attention is paid to its age-related changes. Our paper considers the organization of fluid intelligence and psychometric indicators of creativity and is based on the experimental data obtained for children aged 11 (n = 99) and for young adults (n = 77). We used two figural and verbal tasks with and without time limit. We found that the age-related differences in creativity are dependent on the context and the type of testing. The young adults were different from the children, having higher indicators of verbal and figurative creativity, except for the originality of the drawings created within the Incomplete Figures test, and having considerably higher test results for fluid intelligence. These age-related differences, together with the discovered closer relationship between the creativity indicators in the young adults group compared to the children, might suggest insufficient contribution of the components of the executive control of information selection (inhibition, shifting, and updating), which had not fully formed in eleven-year-olds. The comparison of the various indicators of creativity suggests that the most complex task for the children was the composition of an original sentence by joining nouns from various semantic categories. Full article
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18 pages, 557 KiB  
Article
Fluid Intelligence Emerges from Representing Relations
by Adam Chuderski
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030051 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
Based on recent findings in cognitive neuroscience and psychology as well as computational models of working memory and reasoning, I argue that fluid intelligence (fluid reasoning) can amount to representing in the mind the key relation(s) for the task at hand. Effective representation [...] Read more.
Based on recent findings in cognitive neuroscience and psychology as well as computational models of working memory and reasoning, I argue that fluid intelligence (fluid reasoning) can amount to representing in the mind the key relation(s) for the task at hand. Effective representation of relations allows for enormous flexibility of thinking but depends on the validity and robustness of the dynamic patterns of argument–object (role–filler) bindings, which encode relations in the brain. Such a reconceptualization of the fluid intelligence construct allows for the simplification and purification of its models, tests, and potential brain mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Flexibility: Concepts, Issues and Assessment)
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29 pages, 2064 KiB  
Article
Intelligence IS Cognitive Flexibility: Why Multilevel Models of Within-Individual Processes Are Needed to Realise This
by Damian P. Birney and Jens F. Beckmann
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030049 - 1 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
Despite substantial evidence for the link between an individual’s intelligence and successful life outcomes, questions about what defines intelligence have remained the focus of heated dispute. The most common approach to understanding intelligence has been to investigate what performance on tests of intellect [...] Read more.
Despite substantial evidence for the link between an individual’s intelligence and successful life outcomes, questions about what defines intelligence have remained the focus of heated dispute. The most common approach to understanding intelligence has been to investigate what performance on tests of intellect is and is not associated with. This psychometric approach, based on correlations and factor analysis is deficient. In this review, we aim to substantiate why classic psychometrics which focus on between-person accounts will necessarily provide a limited account of intelligence until theoretical considerations of within-person accounts are incorporated. First, we consider the impact of entrenched psychometric presumptions that support the status quo and impede alternative views. Second, we review the importance of process-theories, which are critical for any serious attempt to build a within-person account of intelligence. Third, features of dynamic tasks are reviewed, and we outline how static tasks can be modified to target within-person processes. Finally, we explain how multilevel models are conceptually and psychometrically well-suited to building and testing within-individual notions of intelligence, which at its core, we argue is cognitive flexibility. We conclude by describing an application of these ideas in the context of microworlds as a case study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Flexibility: Concepts, Issues and Assessment)
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16 pages, 399 KiB  
Article
Predicting Actual Social Skill Expression from Personality and Skill Self-Concepts
by Simon M. Breil, Ina Mielke, Helmut Ahrens, Thomas Geldmacher, Janina Sensmeier, Bernhard Marschall and Mitja D. Back
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030048 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Social skills are of key importance in everyday and work life. However, the way in which they are typically assessed via self-report questionnaires has one potential downside; self-reports assess individuals’ global self-concepts, which do not necessarily reflect individuals’ actual social behaviors. In this [...] Read more.
Social skills are of key importance in everyday and work life. However, the way in which they are typically assessed via self-report questionnaires has one potential downside; self-reports assess individuals’ global self-concepts, which do not necessarily reflect individuals’ actual social behaviors. In this research, we aimed to investigate how self-concepts assessed via questionnaires relate to skill expression assessed via behavioral observations after short interpersonal simulations. For this, we used an alternative behavior-based skill assessment approach designed to capture expressions of predefined social skills. Self- and observer ratings were collected to assess three different social skills: agency (i.e., getting ahead in social situations), communion (i.e., getting along in social situations), and interpersonal resilience (i.e., staying calm in social situations). We explored how these skills were related to self-concepts by differentiating between a classic personality measure (i.e., Big Five Inventory 2; BFI-2) and a novel skill questionnaire (i.e., Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Skills Inventory; BESSI). The results (N = 137) showed that both personality and skill self-concepts predicted self-rated skill expression, with the BESSI showing incremental validity. For both personality and skills self-concepts, the relationships with observer-rated skill expression were significant for agency but not for communion or interpersonal resilience. We discuss these results and highlight the theoretical and practical importance of differentiating between skill self-concepts and actual skill expression. Full article
19 pages, 1700 KiB  
Article
Online Assessment of Morphological Awareness in Grades 2–4: Its Development and Relation to Reading Comprehension
by Szilvia Varga, Attila Pásztor and János Stekács
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030047 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
The aims of the study are to construct an online instrument to assess different aspects of morphological awareness and to examine its development and its relation to reading comprehension in grades 2–4 in Hungarian children. Altogether, 4134 students were tested. The online test [...] Read more.
The aims of the study are to construct an online instrument to assess different aspects of morphological awareness and to examine its development and its relation to reading comprehension in grades 2–4 in Hungarian children. Altogether, 4134 students were tested. The online test evaluated inflectional, derivational, and compound morphological skills with five subtests. The instrument proved to be reliable. CFA examinations revealed that the five subtests were empirically distinguishable dimensions. Inflectional, derivational, and compound morphology as the three main dimensions of morphological awareness were also empirically supported by our data. Morphological awareness skills improved significantly and developed in parallel with reading skills throughout grades 2–4. The increase in the development of morphological awareness from grade 2 to grade 3 tends to be faster than the growth between grade 3 and 4. Positive moderate correlations were found between morphological skills and reading comprehension and the relationships seem to be stable throughout the three grades. The most significant predictor of reading comprehension is the Affix Identification for Nonwords subtest. Our study showed that morphological awareness could be assessed efficiently through online media and drew attention to the importance of morphological awareness in the development of reading comprehension and linguistic intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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17 pages, 3046 KiB  
Article
Analysing Complex Problem-Solving Strategies from a Cognitive Perspective: The Role of Thinking Skills
by Hao Wu and Gyöngyvér Molnár
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030046 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3159
Abstract
Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered to be one of the most important skills for successful learning. In an effort to explore the nature of CPS, this study aims to investigate the role of inductive reasoning (IR) and combinatorial reasoning (CR) in the [...] Read more.
Complex problem solving (CPS) is considered to be one of the most important skills for successful learning. In an effort to explore the nature of CPS, this study aims to investigate the role of inductive reasoning (IR) and combinatorial reasoning (CR) in the problem-solving process of students using statistically distinguishable exploration strategies in the CPS environment. The sample was drawn from a group of university students (N = 1343). The tests were delivered via the eDia online assessment platform. Latent class analyses were employed to seek students whose problem-solving strategies showed similar patterns. Four qualitatively different class profiles were identified: (1) 84.3% of the students were proficient strategy users, (2) 6.2% were rapid learners, (3) 3.1% were non-persistent explorers, and (4) 6.5% were non-performing explorers. Better exploration strategy users showed greater development in thinking skills, and the roles of IR and CR in the CPS process were varied for each type of strategy user. To sum up, the analysis identified students’ problem-solving behaviours in respect of exploration strategy in the CPS environment and detected a number of remarkable differences in terms of the use of thinking skills between students with different exploration strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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20 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Developmental Assessment of Visual Communication Skills in Primary Education
by Tünde Simon, Ildikó Biró and Andrea Kárpáti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030045 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
In this paper, we describe subskills of visual communication based on the skill structure outlined in the Common European Framework of Visual Literacy. We have developed this Framework further through assessing the development of subskills related to visual communication in the “produce” and [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe subskills of visual communication based on the skill structure outlined in the Common European Framework of Visual Literacy. We have developed this Framework further through assessing the development of subskills related to visual communication in the “produce” and “respond” domains of CEFR-VC in primary school grades. We developed and validated online digital assessment tools to facilitate the introduction of authentic assessment as a standard practice in curriculum development. The results of this study include the definition of its components, development of innovative tools for their assessment, and description of the development of its subskills in the “produce” and “respond” domains. Our tests for the “respond” domain of the visual literacy framework were administered in the eDia interactive diagnostic testing environment in Grades 4–6 (ages 10–12 years) of the Hungarian primary school system. The tools for the second experiment about the “create” domain of visual communication were developed in the GeoGebra free educational software environment and tested major components of the “produce” domain of visual communication in primary Grades 5–8 (ages 11–14 years). Results show increasing attainment in subskills through the age groups in the “produce” domain and less significant or no development in the “respond” domain, which is underrepresented in Hungarian art education curricula. Development is unrelated to school achievement in non-art disciplines, showing the distinctiveness of the visual domain, and is weakly related to gender and digital literacy. Using our subskill descriptions and the assessment tools, teachers may select those subskills that they find most important to develop during the limited teaching time for visual arts. The paper ends with suggestions to enhance visual communication as a cross-curricular competency that develops visual-spatial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Instruction)
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17 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Adversity Quotient Promotes Teachers’ Professional Competence More Strongly Than Emotional Intelligence: Evidence from Indonesia
by Widodo Widodo, Irvandi Gustari and Chandrawaty Chandrawaty
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030044 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3836
Abstract
Teachers’ professional competence has become a popular issue since the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study investigates teachers’ professional competence, in terms of emotional intelligence (EI), adversity quotient (AQ), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), when teachers need to deal with abnormal situations, such as [...] Read more.
Teachers’ professional competence has become a popular issue since the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study investigates teachers’ professional competence, in terms of emotional intelligence (EI), adversity quotient (AQ), and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), when teachers need to deal with abnormal situations, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, this study also seeks to explore the relationship of EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence mediated by OCB. The research data were collected through a questionnaire using a Likert scale from 589 participants: elementary school teachers in Indonesia were chosen through accidental sampling. The data analysis used structural equation modeling (SEM), complemented by common method bias, correlational, and descriptive analysis. The result shows that EI, AQ, and OCB have a significant relationship with teachers’ professional competence. However, AQ more strongly promotes teachers’ OCB and professional competence than EI does. In addition, OCB mediates the relationship between EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence. Accordingly, a new model regarding the relationship of EI and AQ with teachers’ professional competence mediated by OCB was confirmed. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers’ professional competence can increase through EI, AQ, and OCB. Hence, the new empirical model deserves to be discussed, adapted, and even adopted by practitioners and researchers to develop the professional competence of teachers in the future. Full article
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21 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
Interest–Ability Profiles: An Integrative Approach to Knowledge Acquisition
by William E. Hyland, Kevin A. Hoff and James Rounds
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030043 - 16 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Cognitive abilities and interests both play an important role in guiding knowledge acquisition, but most previous studies have examined them separately. The current study used a large and representative dataset to integrate interests and abilities using a person-centered approach that examines how distinct [...] Read more.
Cognitive abilities and interests both play an important role in guiding knowledge acquisition, but most previous studies have examined them separately. The current study used a large and representative dataset to integrate interests and abilities using a person-centered approach that examines how distinct profiles of interests and abilities relate to individual strengths and weaknesses in knowledge. Two key findings emerged. First, eight interest–ability profiles were generated from Latent Profile Analysis (LPA), which replicated and extended the interrelations of interests and abilities found in previous studies using variable-centered approaches. Second, each profile’s strongest knowledge scores corresponded to their strongest abilities and interests, highlighting the importance of interest–ability profiles for guiding the development of knowledge. Importantly, in some domains, the lower ability profiles were actually more knowledgeable than higher ability profiles. Overall, these findings suggest that people learn best when given opportunities to acquire knowledge relevant to both their interests and abilities. We discuss how interest–ability profiles inform integrative theories of psychological development and present implications for education and career development. Full article
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18 pages, 682 KiB  
Article
Language and Intelligence: A Relationship Supporting the Embodied Cognition Hypothesis
by Attà Negri, Marco Castiglioni, Cristina Liviana Caldiroli and Arianna Barazzetti
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030042 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4445
Abstract
Cognitive science has gathered robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive processes do not occur in an amodal format but take shape through the activation of the sensorimotor systems of the agent body, which works as simulation system upon which concepts, words, and [...] Read more.
Cognitive science has gathered robust evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive processes do not occur in an amodal format but take shape through the activation of the sensorimotor systems of the agent body, which works as simulation system upon which concepts, words, and thought are based. However, studies that have investigated the relationship between language and cognitive processes, as both embedded processes, are very rare. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intelligence is associated with referential competence, conceived as the ability to find words to refer to our subjective and perceptual experience, and to evoke understanding of this experience in the listener. We administered the WAIS-IV test to 32 nonclinical subjects and collected autobiographical narratives from them through the Relationship Anecdotes Paradigm Interview. The narratives were analyzed linguistically by applying computerized measures of referential competence. Intelligence scores were found to correlate with the use in narratives of words related to somatic and sensory sensations, while they were not associated with other measures of referential competence related to more abstract domains of experience or based on vivid or reflective dimensions of language style. The results support the hypothesis that sensorimotor schemas have an intrinsic role in language and cognition. Full article
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