Creativity, Intelligence, and Collaboration in 21st Century Education: An Interdisciplinary Challenge

A special issue of Journal of Intelligence (ISSN 2079-3200).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 93234

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Inter- and Transdisciplinary Unit, Centre for Children's Rights Studies, University of Geneva, Sion, Switzerland
Interests: creativity; inter- and transdisciplinarity; education; children’s rights studies

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Guest Editor
1. University of Teacher Education, Valais, Switzerland
2. Centre for Children's Rights Studies, University of Geneva, Sion, Switzerland
Interests: education; children’s rights studies; participation; creativity; research with children

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Guest Editor
LaPEA, Université Paris Cité and Univ Gustave Eiffel, F-92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France
Interests: creativity; definition of creativity; measurement of intelligence; measurement of creativity; relationship between intelligence and creativity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Climate change, health crises, changing degrees of disruptive social, political and cultural transformations, etc., are major challenges of the 21st century characterised by their multifactorial and interdependent dimensions, which are natural, biological, social and psychological. These urgent issues can be understood as critical problems whose complexity cannot be grasped by a single discipline, professional or social actor. The analysis, understanding and resolution of these complex problems requires a multiplicity of perspectives that must dialogue, articulate and integrate in an interdisciplinary, intelligent and creative dynamic. Education, at all levels (from kindergarten to university), plays a crucial role in our societies’ ability to meet this challenge of complexity. 

Schools and universities are still generally organised into relatively compartmentalised disciplines, which certainly contribute to providing learners with basic knowledge (reading, writing and counting) and specialised knowledge (in Science, Languages, History, Geography, etc.); however, they cannot solely train the researchers and citizens of today and tomorrow who are increasingly confronted with complex scientific and social issues. The development of inter- and transdisciplinary, creative, transversal, collaborative and psychosocial skills are increasingly on the agenda of study programs, although not without difficulty and resistance. Purely academic intelligence is augmented by new skills (so-called 21st century skills): especially particular learning-related skills (learning and soft skills) such as critical thinking, collaboration, creativity, living together with tolerance empathy, sociability (life skills), digital technologies and information (literacy skills). These skills are cognitive (awareness and self-control, creative problem solving, decision-making), emotional (regulating emotions, managing stress, etc.) and social (communication, group relations, etc.). 

This new aspect in the educational field, a rebalancing between academic and psychosocial skills, raises a number of questions: How can the education system consider and integrate these transdisciplinary skills into its institutional functioning and training programs?; Do education systems nip the desire to develop new creative and interdisciplinary skills in the bud, or are they, in contrast, capable of integrating them and encouraging their development?; Why and how should the classic definition of intelligence and its measurement (the famous IQ test) be rethought, redefined and expanded in order to capture new skills?; How can these be promoted and assessed in a more open, inclusive and sustainable education system?; In which academic, non-academic, public or private contexts, in which types of more or less traditional or alternative schools (Montessori, Steiner, Democratic School, Homeschooling, etc.) would disciplinary skills be likely to combine harmoniously with the development of creativity, collaboration, critical thinking, tolerance, empathy, etc.?

This Special Issue aims to address all these issues and questions from an interdisciplinary perspective. Contributions anchored in this open list of different disciplines and multidisciplinary fields are welcome, including Psychology, Sociology, Educational Sciences, Creativity Studies, Interdisciplinary Studies, Science of Team Science, Neurosciences, Children’s Rights, etc. 

We are interested in papers that deepen or combine the following objectives: 

  1. Based on literature reviews, epistemological reflections and research findings, scientifically inform debates about the complexity of pressing and critical issues and the need for developing new skills in education; 
  2. Rethink and redefine the notion of intelligence in a more integrative perspective and which is open to developing creativity, collaboration and psychosocial skills; 
  3. To question the education systems at all levels of education in their ability to develop academic skills and so-called 21st century skills harmoniously. Consider the potentialities but also the limits/obstacles to the integration, evaluation and enhancement of these skills; 
  4. Rely on various fields of research and experiences in the school and/or university context, public or private, academic or non-academic, more or less traditional or alternative.

Please note that the “Planned Papers” Section on the webpage does not imply that these papers will eventually be accepted; all manuscripts will be subject to the journal’s normal and rigorous peer review process.

Prof. Dr. Frédéric Darbellay
Prof. Dr. Zoe Moody
Prof. Dr. Todd Lubart
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Intelligence is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • creativity
  • intelligence
  • education
  • inter- and transdisciplinarity
  • 21st century skills
  • collaboration

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 674 KiB  
Article
Are STEM Students Creative Thinkers?
by Christabel Borg Preca, Leonie Baldacchino, Marie Briguglio and Margaret Mangion
J. Intell. 2023, 11(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060106 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Scholarly research has increasingly examined the role of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, and that of creativity as a transversal skill. However, far fewer studies have investigated the relationship between the two, particularly in secondary-school contexts, and they have obtained inconsistent [...] Read more.
Scholarly research has increasingly examined the role of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, and that of creativity as a transversal skill. However, far fewer studies have investigated the relationship between the two, particularly in secondary-school contexts, and they have obtained inconsistent results. This paper contributes to the literature by asking: To what extent is studying STEM associated with higher levels of creativity in a secondary-school context? The study utilises a pre-existing dataset gathered in Malta (EU) from some 400 students aged between 11 and 16 years old. It yields information on both the engagement in STEM (measured by exposure to STEM chosen by students as optional subjects, and the enjoyment of STEM considered by students to be their favourite subjects), as well as creativity levels (measured by Divergent Thinking performance on Alternate Uses Tests). Correlation analysis revealed a strong positive link between the two phenomena, lending support to the notion that STEM students tend to be more creative than other students. Using regression analysis, a model is estimated to identify the possible effects of engaging in STEM subjects on creativity, once the other co-determinants of creativity are controlled. The results indicate that both the exposure to STEM subject/s and enjoyment thereof significantly and positively predict creativity, even after controlling for the other possible determinants of creativity (such as age, gender, parental education, and participation in creative activities). These findings offer encouraging insights into 21st century education and for curriculum development as they suggest that, in addition to having value in their own right, STEM subjects can contribute to the development of creativity in young people. Full article
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21 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
Creative Process and Multivariate Factors through a Creative Course “Keep Calm and Be Creative”
by Aleksandra Vuichard, Marion Botella and Isabelle Capron Puozzo
J. Intell. 2023, 11(5), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11050083 - 28 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2550
Abstract
Creativity has been studied for a long time and it has become a more significant topic of research in educational fields in recent decades. The present paper outlines a multivariate approach to creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating the creative process and [...] Read more.
Creativity has been studied for a long time and it has become a more significant topic of research in educational fields in recent decades. The present paper outlines a multivariate approach to creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating the creative process and multivariate factors through a creative course for master’s students at the University of Teacher Education in Switzerland. Our goal is to examine more specifically the stages of the creative process and the emerging multivariate factors in different creative activities. The article reports findings from the analysis of students’ creative report process diaries as well as semi-structured interviews. Drawing on experiential learning, this pilot study was conducted in collaboration with master’s student teachers (n = 10). The results show that the different microlevels of the creative process are the subject of variations from one creative experience to another. Most factors of the multivariate approach emerge from this kind of creative training. The discussion will allow for a review of the research results and also a better understanding of the creative process in the pedagogy of creativity. Full article
17 pages, 359 KiB  
Article
Young Creators: Perceptions of Creativity by Primary School Students in Malta
by Margaret Mangion and Jasmin Antonia Riebel
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030053 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1868
Abstract
Policymakers and employers insist that educational institutions prepare workforce-ready candidates fluent in the application of 21st Century Skills such as creativity. So far, only a few studies have explored the self-perceived creativity of students. This paper addresses this gap in literature by providing [...] Read more.
Policymakers and employers insist that educational institutions prepare workforce-ready candidates fluent in the application of 21st Century Skills such as creativity. So far, only a few studies have explored the self-perceived creativity of students. This paper addresses this gap in literature by providing an understanding of how young students in upper primary feel about themselves as creative beings. Data for the present study was collected through an anonymous online survey that 561 students, aged 9–11 years and residing in Malta (EU), completed. In-depth responses were collected from a subset of the original sample made up of 101 students through an anonymous online form containing a set of questions. Data was analysed using regression analysis for the quantitative component and through thematic analysis for the qualitative part. Results indicate that, overall, students in Year 6 felt less creative than students in Year 5. Furthermore, findings show that the type of school attended impacted the students’ perception of creativity. From a qualitative perspective, findings led to insights into (i) the interpretation of the term creativity and (ii) the impact of the school environment and how timetabling impacted students’ creativity. The findings suggest that the student’s perceived creative personal identity and the concrete manifestations that they engage in are influenced by environmental factors. Full article
20 pages, 26084 KiB  
Article
Effect of Reverse Engineering Pedagogy on Primary School Students’ Computational Thinking Skills in STEM Learning Activities
by Xiaohong Liu, Xiao Wang, Kexue Xu and Xiaoyong Hu
J. Intell. 2023, 11(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11020036 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3004
Abstract
Computational thinking (CT) is important for students because it is one of the 21st century’s skills. Reverse engineering pedagogy (REP) can improve students’ CT due to its ability to develop students’ cooperativity, algorithmic thinking, creativity, and problem-solving in discipline education. Thus, this study [...] Read more.
Computational thinking (CT) is important for students because it is one of the 21st century’s skills. Reverse engineering pedagogy (REP) can improve students’ CT due to its ability to develop students’ cooperativity, algorithmic thinking, creativity, and problem-solving in discipline education. Thus, this study aimed to explore the effect of REP on primary school students’ CT skills in STEM learning activities. A total of 101 fifth graders in a primary school participated in the study for one semester (16 weeks), including 51 students in the experimental group (EG) with REP, and 50 students in the control group (CG) with the demonstration method (DM). The computational thinking scale (CTS) was used to measure the CT skills of students in the pretest and posttest. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. The results verified that REP had a fine effect on the improvement of students’ CT skills compared to the DM. The findings can provide some ideas for researchers to develop students’ CT skills in STEM learning activities. Teachers can use different teaching methods to reasonably arrange teaching activities to develop primary school students’ CT skills. Full article
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9 pages, 336 KiB  
Article
The Future of Education as a Creative Ecosystem: A Sociocultural Framework for the Development of Creativity
by Felipe Zamana
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040099 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2265
Abstract
This article explores the social and educational impact post COVID-19 on education through the perspective of creativity. This is a reflective and forward-thinking piece of how creativity can transform the future of education. The article is structured into five parts. First, the opportunities [...] Read more.
This article explores the social and educational impact post COVID-19 on education through the perspective of creativity. This is a reflective and forward-thinking piece of how creativity can transform the future of education. The article is structured into five parts. First, the opportunities and barriers that COVID-19 offers in preparing students for an uncertain future. Second, the recognition of the vital role of creativity in the future. Third, the article discusses the value of creativity in education. Fourth, the teachers’ role in stimulating creativity and how its practices can be encountered in 21st-century education is commented on. Fifth, the last section presents perspectives for the future of education in an uncertain and complex world, introduces the concept of creative ecosystems for education, and summarizes the key points related to the aspects to which education should devote its efforts in the coming years. The article questions if more creativity-focused education is possible in the future and promotes a deep reflection in this particular context for teachers and educational institutions about the topics that need more attention during this time of change. Full article
32 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Challenges to Student Interdisciplinary Learning Effectiveness: An Empirical Case Study
by Cong Xu, Chih-Fu Wu, Dan-Dan Xu, Wen-Qian Lu and Kai-Yi Wang
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040088 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3575
Abstract
In order to meet industrial demands, some colleges and universities have offered interdisciplinary programs that integrate design, engineering, and business. However, how many changes these programs have brought to students, and whether students participating in these programs have had better interdisciplinary ability than [...] Read more.
In order to meet industrial demands, some colleges and universities have offered interdisciplinary programs that integrate design, engineering, and business. However, how many changes these programs have brought to students, and whether students participating in these programs have had better interdisciplinary ability than students involved in a single discipline study have always been questions that many researchers want to explore. In a university that offers an interdisciplinary program, we found that there is no significant difference in interdisciplinary integration ability between the students participating in the interdisciplinary program and the students involved in a single discipline study through quantitative comparisons of 91 student questionnaires and analyses of interviews with nine teachers of interdisciplinary courses and other related staff members. This may result from the students’ lack of motivation, lack of prior experience, the influence of individual traits, the increase of learning pressure and academic burden, and the interference of disciplinary factors during interdisciplinary learning. The research finding is intended to improve student interdisciplinary learning effectiveness by facilitating interdisciplinary teachers’ understanding of the influencing factors of student interdisciplinary learning, and by providing a reference for interdisciplinary teaching design. Full article
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20 pages, 4890 KiB  
Article
The Creativity Diamond—A Framework to Aid Creativity
by Peter Childs, Ji Han, Liuqing Chen, Pingfei Jiang, Pan Wang, Dongmyung Park, Yuan Yin, Elena Dieckmann and Ignacio Vilanova
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040073 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 12285
Abstract
There are many facets to creativity, and the topic has a profound impact on society. Substantial and sustained study on creativity has been undertaken, and much is now known about the fundamentals and how creativity can be augmented. To draw these elements together, [...] Read more.
There are many facets to creativity, and the topic has a profound impact on society. Substantial and sustained study on creativity has been undertaken, and much is now known about the fundamentals and how creativity can be augmented. To draw these elements together, a framework was developed called the creativity diamond, formulated on the basis of reviews of prior work, as well as the consideration of 20 PhD studies on the topics of creativity, design, innovation, and product development. The framework embodies the principles that quantity of ideas breeds quality through selection, and that a range of creativity tools can provoke additional ideas to augment our innate creativity. The creativity diamond proposed is a tool consisting of a divergent phase associated with the development of many distinctive ideas and a convergent phase associated with the refinement of ideas. The creativity diamond framework can be used to prompt and help select which tool or approach to use in a creative environment for innovative tasks. The framework has now been used by many students and professionals in diverse contexts. Full article
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11 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Creativity and Artificial Intelligence—A Student Perspective
by Rebecca Marrone, Victoria Taddeo and Gillian Hill
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030065 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 16979
Abstract
Creativity is a core 21st-century skill taught globally in education systems. As Artificial Intelligence (AI) is being implemented in classrooms worldwide, a key question is proposed: how do students perceive AI and creativity? Twelve focus groups and eight one-on-one interviews were conducted with [...] Read more.
Creativity is a core 21st-century skill taught globally in education systems. As Artificial Intelligence (AI) is being implemented in classrooms worldwide, a key question is proposed: how do students perceive AI and creativity? Twelve focus groups and eight one-on-one interviews were conducted with secondary school-aged students after they received training in both creativity and AI over eight weeks. An analysis of the interviews highlights that the students view the relationship between AI and creativity as four key concepts: social, affective, technological and learning factors. The students with a higher self-reported understanding of AI reported more positive thoughts about integrating AI into their classrooms. The students with a low understanding of AI tended to be fearful of AI. Most of the students indicated a thorough understanding of creativity and reported that AI could never match human creativity. The implications of the results are presented, along with recommendations for the future, to ensure AI can be effectively integrated into classrooms. Full article
25 pages, 2150 KiB  
Article
Fostering Engagement, Reflexivity, and 21st-Century Skills in Middle School: A Pilot Collaborative Action Research on Identity Formation with Adolescent Co-Researchers
by Pascale Haag, Titouan Fantoni and Stéphanie Dubal
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030064 - 06 Sep 2022
Viewed by 4289
Abstract
Identity construction during adolescence constitutes a primary psychosocial developmental task. A growing body of research has addressed the importance of school education in fostering adolescents’ identity formation and the skills they need to thrive. Although several studies aimed at defining the factors contributing [...] Read more.
Identity construction during adolescence constitutes a primary psychosocial developmental task. A growing body of research has addressed the importance of school education in fostering adolescents’ identity formation and the skills they need to thrive. Although several studies aimed at defining the factors contributing to a coherent, stable, and integrated identity formation, none sought to investigate this question from the adolescents’ perspective. This contribution aimed to explore new ways of fostering 21st-century skills among adolescents through action research. Five adolescents aged 13 to 15 participated in the research process, creating a survey to answer a research problem mainly focused on identity construction in adolescence. A reflexive analysis of the co-research process highlighted the interest in involving adolescents as co-researchers to foster their social and emotional skills. The deployment of the resulting survey in a sample of 1210 adolescents from the general population highlighted the importance of gender diversity for constructing various dimensions of identity. Full article
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16 pages, 768 KiB  
Article
Teacher Creativity: When Professional Coherence Supports Beautiful Risks
by Marie-Hélène Massie, Isabelle Capron Puozzo and Marc Boutet
J. Intell. 2022, 10(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10030062 - 02 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Environmental, cultural, and social issues are becoming increasingly complex, and the educational context is no exception to this trend. The relevance of teachers’ creativity in examining situations from different angles, in imagining new approaches, in adapting to the varied needs of students, and [...] Read more.
Environmental, cultural, and social issues are becoming increasingly complex, and the educational context is no exception to this trend. The relevance of teachers’ creativity in examining situations from different angles, in imagining new approaches, in adapting to the varied needs of students, and in training them so that they too can grasp the teeming complexity seems obvious. However, creativity sometimes seems to be taken for granted among teachers and educational programs leave a gap around this theme. Since the scientific literature tends to show that teachers’ creativity is still little explored in educational contexts, this doctoral research studies its manifestations within a group of teachers enrolled in a professional master’s program in preschool and elementary education (Université de Sherbrooke, Canada). Within the framework of this program, each one elaborates a professional development project over a three-year period. Using a variety of authentic data sources (observations in natural occurring situations, reflective writing by participants, and semi-structured interviews), their creative process is documented and analyzed. This multiple-case study (n = 9) that draws on the concept of creativity as related to that of professional coherence reveals that the pursuit of greater professional coherence not only enables the implementation of creative skills to foster teachers’ professional development, but also elicits beautiful risk-taking. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1152 KiB  
Review
Reconciling Hard Skills and Soft Skills in a Common Framework: The Generic Skills Component Approach
by Jeremy Lamri and Todd Lubart
J. Intell. 2023, 11(6), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11060107 - 01 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 12419
Abstract
The distinction between hard and soft skills has long been a topic of debate in the field of psychology, with hard skills referring to technical or practical abilities, and soft skills relating to interpersonal capabilities. This paper explores the generic composition of any [...] Read more.
The distinction between hard and soft skills has long been a topic of debate in the field of psychology, with hard skills referring to technical or practical abilities, and soft skills relating to interpersonal capabilities. This paper explores the generic composition of any skill, proposing a unified framework that consists of five distinct components: knowledge, active cognition, conation, affection, and sensory-motor abilities. Building upon previous research and theories, such as Hilgard’s “Trilogy of Mind”, the generic skill components approach aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the structure and composition of any skill, whether hard or soft. By examining these components and their interactions, we can gain a more in-depth understanding of the nature of skills and their development. This approach has several potential applications and implications for various fields, including education, training, and workplace productivity. Further research is needed to refine and expand upon the generic skill components theory, exploring the interactions between the different components, as well as the impact of contextual factors on skill development and use. Full article
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32 pages, 1093 KiB  
Review
Creativity, Critical Thinking, Communication, and Collaboration: Assessment, Certification, and Promotion of 21st Century Skills for the Future of Work and Education
by Branden Thornhill-Miller, Anaëlle Camarda, Maxence Mercier, Jean-Marie Burkhardt, Tiffany Morisseau, Samira Bourgeois-Bougrine, Florent Vinchon, Stephanie El Hayek, Myriam Augereau-Landais, Florence Mourey, Cyrille Feybesse, Daniel Sundquist and Todd Lubart
J. Intell. 2023, 11(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence11030054 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 19306
Abstract
This article addresses educational challenges posed by the future of work, examining “21st century skills”, their conception, assessment, and valorization. It focuses in particular on key soft skill competencies known as the “4Cs”: creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. In a section on [...] Read more.
This article addresses educational challenges posed by the future of work, examining “21st century skills”, their conception, assessment, and valorization. It focuses in particular on key soft skill competencies known as the “4Cs”: creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and communication. In a section on each C, we provide an overview of assessment at the level of individual performance, before focusing on the less common assessment of systemic support for the development of the 4Cs that can be measured at the institutional level (i.e., in schools, universities, professional training programs, etc.). We then present the process of official assessment and certification known as “labelization”, suggesting it as a solution both for establishing a publicly trusted assessment of the 4Cs and for promoting their cultural valorization. Next, two variations of the “International Institute for Competency Development’s 21st Century Skills Framework” are presented. The first of these comprehensive systems allows for the assessment and labelization of the extent to which development of the 4Cs is supported by a formal educational program or institution. The second assesses informal educational or training experiences, such as playing a game. We discuss the overlap between the 4Cs and the challenges of teaching and institutionalizing them, both of which may be assisted by adopting a dynamic interactionist model of the 4Cs—playfully entitled “Crea-Critical-Collab-ication”—for pedagogical and policy-promotion purposes. We conclude by briefly discussing opportunities presented by future research and new technologies such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality. Full article
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Other

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15 pages, 520 KiB  
Case Report
Bored, Distracted, and Confused: Emotions That Promote Creativity and Learning in a 28-Month-Old Child Using an iPad
by Shiva Khalaf, Hechmi Kilani, Melissa B. Razo and Elena L. Grigorenko
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040118 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2532
Abstract
Digital technology is increasingly becoming a part of daily life, including the lives of children. Portable digital devices are omnipresent and integrated into activities that did not previously require them. The related skills are often referred to as 21st-century skills, constituting a new [...] Read more.
Digital technology is increasingly becoming a part of daily life, including the lives of children. Portable digital devices are omnipresent and integrated into activities that did not previously require them. The related skills are often referred to as 21st-century skills, constituting a new type of literacy: digital literacy. These devices and skills bring unique, innovative elements to the learning experience; yet, we do not know the extent to which behavior, emotion, and socialization are affected by such experience. For preschool-aged children, interactions with digital devices and games for the purposes of learning can lead to a state of confusion and boredom, an emotional driving force that may generate mind-wandering and exploration, which, in turn, may facilitate learning. Our interdisciplinary observational case study examined the behavioral patterns linked to digital game-based learning (DGBL) by observing how a child’s mind-wandering contributed to iPad use when they were allowed to freely engage with the device and explore independently during the learning process. Building on a previous case study of a 28-month-old boy, “Ryan”, we evaluated the effects of bouts of mind-wandering as he played various DGBL applications (apps) by examining the length of time that Ryan exhibited relevant affective and behavioral states, iPad manipulations, and social interaction during the playtime. Ryan’s interactions with the iPad were video recorded for five weeks, and the video footage was coded using a detailed rubric. The results indicated that negative emotions, such as boredom, distraction, and confusion, if coupled with attentiveness and persistence, led to positive mind-wandering and positive learning outcomes. However, when boredom was coupled with frustration, it led to negative mind-wandering and a lack of learning outcomes. In conclusion, our study presents evidence that DGBL apps may improve learning by capitalizing on positive and avoiding negative mind-wandering. Full article
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13 pages, 534 KiB  
Concept Paper
Accepting the Challenge: Helping Schools Get Smarter about Supporting Students’ Creative Collaboration and Communication in a Changing World
by Ronald A. Beghetto and Ed Madison
J. Intell. 2022, 10(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040080 - 08 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Although the purpose of schools can be (and has been) debated, one common goal that most people agree upon is that schools can and should play a role in preparing young people for the complexities of the future. This goal is somewhat paradoxical [...] Read more.
Although the purpose of schools can be (and has been) debated, one common goal that most people agree upon is that schools can and should play a role in preparing young people for the complexities of the future. This goal is somewhat paradoxical in that the future is unknown. So how might schools prepare young people for the unknowable? The prototypical response has been to design learning experiences based on what is already known in the hope that the knowledge, skills, and experiences in school will be durable enough to equip students for navigating the complexities of the problems they will encounter in the future. Consequently, most of what students learn in schools is predetermined. Although we recognize that some of these experiences can be beneficial for helping students in the future, we assert in this concept paper that schools can (and need to) get smarter about the kinds of educational experiences that students engage with if we are to prepare them for addressing the uncertainty of complex problems that they face now and into the future. More specifically, we open this concept paper by briefly discussing the prototypical curricular experience that schools provide young people and how these experiences sometimes fall short in providing students with the opportunities, experience, and confidence necessary to creatively engage with, resolve, and communicate about their experiences addressing complex problems. We then introduce a collaborative creative curricular experience called Journalistic Legacy Challenges (JLC). JLCs can support students in learning how to identify, address, document and communicate about complex problems that can make a difference in their communities and in their own and others’ lives. The experiences offered by JLCs differ from prototypical learning experiences because they require young people to identify problems that matter to them, collaborate with skilled others to address those problems, develop their creative confidence, and learn how to use journalistic learning to document and communicate about their work to broader audiences. Full article
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11 pages, 319 KiB  
Concept Paper
Lessons from the Conservatory Model as a Basis for Undergraduate Education and the Development of Intelligence
by Robert J. Sternberg, Linda Jarvin and Ophélie Allyssa Desmet
J. Intell. 2022, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10020034 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1901
Abstract
We review the musical conservatory as a model for educators to learn how to enhance admissions, instruction, and assessment in liberal arts collegiate settings. Although conservatories serve primarily students wishing to enter musical careers of various kinds, the model on which they are [...] Read more.
We review the musical conservatory as a model for educators to learn how to enhance admissions, instruction, and assessment in liberal arts collegiate settings. Although conservatories serve primarily students wishing to enter musical careers of various kinds, the model on which they are based can, in many ways, serve any student and any school. We review some of the history of conservatories and describe how they work. Next, we explore how they develop a wide range of technical, cognitive, affective, and conative skills. Finally, we show how the skills they develop are important not just for music students but also for all students who will enter the world of work and face difficult and unexpected adaptive challenges. Full article
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