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Behav. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2023) – 88 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper presents a conceptual exploration of the intersection between the Quality of Life Supports Model (QOLSM) and the Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD), with a specific focus on people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). By establishing this connection, the paper emphasizes the significance of measuring the rights of people with IDD, underscoring the importance of their inclusion and empowerment. To facilitate the recognition and communication of rights for individuals with IDD, the #Rights4MeToo Scale is introduced as a valuable tool. By emphasizing the interplay between the QOLSM, CRPD, and the #Rights4MeToo Scale, the paper contributes to advancing the rights and quality of life for people with IDD, while guiding future research and informing best practices in the field. View this paper
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15 pages, 1109 KiB  
Article
The Importance of Measuring Mental Wellbeing in the Context of Psychological Distress: Using a Theoretical Framework to Test the Dual-Continua Model of Mental Health
by Jackson Mason Stephens, Matthew Iasiello, Kathina Ali, Joep van Agteren and Daniel B. Fassnacht
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050436 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
The dual-continua model of mental health suggests that psychological distress and mental wellbeing operate on two distinct yet related continua, both uniquely contributing to overall mental health. Previous literature provides support for the dual-continua model; however, inconsistent methodologies lacking a common theoretical underpinning [...] Read more.
The dual-continua model of mental health suggests that psychological distress and mental wellbeing operate on two distinct yet related continua, both uniquely contributing to overall mental health. Previous literature provides support for the dual-continua model; however, inconsistent methodologies lacking a common theoretical underpinning have led to findings that are difficult to compare across studies. Using archival data, this study aimed to test the following three theoretically derived criteria proposed to accurately examine the dual-continua model: (1) confirming independent existence, (2) disconfirming bipolarity, and (3) quantifying functional independence. Method: In total, 2065 participants (female n = 1193; 57.8%) completed two online assessments (minimum 30 days apart) measuring psychological distress, mental wellbeing, and demographic information. Results: In total, 1.1% of participants experienced high distress as well as mental wellbeing confirming that psychological distress and mental wellbeing exist independently (Criterion 1). Bipolarity (Criterion 2) was partly disconfirmed: mental wellbeing consistently decreased as symptom severity increased for depression; however, anxiety and stress did not meet bipolarity requirements. Functional independence (Criterion 3) was established: longitudinal analysis found that participants reliably and simultaneously increased (2.7%) or decreased (4.2%) in distress and mental wellbeing, while cross-sectional analysis showed that psychological distress only explained 38% of the variance in mental wellbeing. Discussion: Findings provide further support for the dual-continua model through analysis of the proposed assessment criteria, suggesting a further need to measure the dual-continua model at the subdomain level, e.g., depression, anxiety, and stress, as opposed to global psychological distress. Validation for the proposed assessment criteria provides important methodological foundations for future studies. Full article
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9 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of the Father-Love Absence Scale for Adolescents
by Yanhui Xiang and Yue Zhou
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050435 - 22 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1802
Abstract
Although father love is vital for the positive growth of the child, there is currently no reliable tool to assess the psychological absence of fathers. Therefore, the current study aims to develop an instrument to measure adolescents’ experiences of father-love absence from a [...] Read more.
Although father love is vital for the positive growth of the child, there is currently no reliable tool to assess the psychological absence of fathers. Therefore, the current study aims to develop an instrument to measure adolescents’ experiences of father-love absence from a psychological absence perspective. According to the fundamental psychological diathesis assumption, the father-love absence scale (FLAS) was developed based on expert panel discussions. A total of 2592 junior high school student participants were surveyed, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the items for the formal scale. The results showed that the 18-item FLAS consisted of four factors, which were emotional absence (EA), cognitive absence (CA), behavioral absence (BA), and volitional absence (VA). In conclusion, the FLAS demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity, and this scale is a valuable tool for assessing father-love absence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Adversity and Addiction Behaviors among Adolescents)
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20 pages, 4816 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Interactive Features of Virtual Partner on Individual Exercise Level and Exercise Perception
by Yinghao Wang, Mengsi Zhang, Jianfeng Wu, Haonan Zhang, Hongchun Yang, Songyang Guo, Zishuo Lin and Chunfu Lu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050434 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Background: We designed an exercise system in which the user is accompanied by a virtual partner (VP) and tested bodyweight squat performance with different interactive VP features to explore the comprehensive impact of these VP features on the individual’s exercise level (EL) and [...] Read more.
Background: We designed an exercise system in which the user is accompanied by a virtual partner (VP) and tested bodyweight squat performance with different interactive VP features to explore the comprehensive impact of these VP features on the individual’s exercise level (EL) and exercise perception. Methods: This experiment used three interactive features of VP, including body movement (BM), eye gaze (EG), and sports performance (SP), as independent variables, and the exercise level (EL), subjective exercise enjoyment, attitude toward the team formed with the VP, and local muscle fatigue degree of the exerciser as observational indicators. We designed a 2 (with or without VP’s BM) × 2 (with or without VP’s EG) × 2 (with or without VP’s SP) within-participants factorial experiment. A total of 40 college students were invited to complete 320 groups of experiments. Results: (1) Regarding EL, the main effects of BM and SP were significant (p < 0.001). The pairwise interaction effects of the three independent variables on EL were all significant (p < 0.05). (2) Regarding exercise perception, the main effects of BM (p < 0.001) and EG (p < 0.001) on subjective exercise enjoyment were significant. The main effect of BM on the attitude toward the sports team formed with the VP was significant (p < 0.001). The interaction effect of BM and SP on the attitude toward the sports team formed with the VP was significant (p < 0.001). (3) Regarding the degree of local muscle fatigue, the main effects of BM, EG, and SP and their interaction effects were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: BM and EG from the VP elevate EL and exercise perception during squat exercises, while the VP with SP inhibited the EL and harmed exercise perception. The conclusions of this study can provide references to guide the interactive design of VP-accompanied exercise systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health: Social Psychology Perspective)
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9 pages, 1186 KiB  
Brief Report
The Role of Sex in the Effect of Vocal Attractiveness on Ultimatum Game Decisions
by Junchen Shang and Chang Hong Liu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050433 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
The present research investigated the role of sex in the effect of vocal attractiveness on fairness judgment in a two-person Ultimatum Game. Each participant in the game decided whether to accept offers from a proposer who was either associated with an attractive or [...] Read more.
The present research investigated the role of sex in the effect of vocal attractiveness on fairness judgment in a two-person Ultimatum Game. Each participant in the game decided whether to accept offers from a proposer who was either associated with an attractive or unattractive voice. The results showed that while participants were more likely to accept fair offers, they would also accept some unfair offers that were associated with an attractive voice. This effect of vocal attractiveness was more clearly shown by female participants, although all male and female participants took longer to make a decision when an attractive voice was associated with an offer, regardless of whether the voice was from the same sex or the opposite sex. Overall, the results inform the role of sex in the effect of vocal attractiveness and further confirm the beauty premium effect on economic bargaining, where people with an attractive voice would benefit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Decision Making Behaviors in Management and Marketing)
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15 pages, 1014 KiB  
Article
Mirror Therapy in Patients with Somatoform Pain Disorders—A Pilot Study
by Steffen Philipp Ruf, Larissa Hetterich, Nazar Mazurak, Caroline Rometsch, Anna-Maria Jurjut, Stephan Ott, Anne Herrmann-Werner, Stephan Zipfel and Andreas Stengel
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050432 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
Patients with chronic pain report reduced quality of life and high symptom burden while often responding insufficiently to treatment options. Mirror therapy has been proven to be effective in treating phantom limb pain and other conditions such as CRPS. This study was designed [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic pain report reduced quality of life and high symptom burden while often responding insufficiently to treatment options. Mirror therapy has been proven to be effective in treating phantom limb pain and other conditions such as CRPS. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of mirror therapy in patients with somatoform pain disorders on symptom severity and associated physiological parameters. Fifteen patients with persistent somatoform pain disorder (F45.40) or chronic pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (F45.41) participated and received four weeks of tablet-based mirror therapy. Symptom severity was measured with established questionnaires, and their thermal detection, pain thresholds, and heart rate variability (HRV) were also assessed. After mirror therapy, pain intensity was reduced (z = −2.878, p = 0.004), and pain thresholds for cold stimuli were also diminished, i.e., the subjects became more sensitive to cold stimuli (z = −2.040, p = 0.041). In addition, a reduction of absolute power in the low-frequency band of HRV (t(13) = 2.536, p = 0.025) was detected. These findings indicate that this intervention may reduce pain intensity and modulate associated physiological parameters. As these results are limited by several factors, e.g., a small sample size and no control group, they should be validated in further studies investigating this novel intervention in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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8 pages, 377 KiB  
Communication
You Are Not Alone: A Serial Mediation of Social Attraction, Privacy Concerns, and Satisfaction in Voice AI Use
by Tae Rang Choi and Jung Hwa Choi
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050431 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
The popularity of voice-activated artificial intelligence (voice AI) has grown rapidly as people continue to use smart speakers such as Amazon Alexa and Google Home to support everyday tasks. However, little is known about how loneliness relates to voice AI use, or the [...] Read more.
The popularity of voice-activated artificial intelligence (voice AI) has grown rapidly as people continue to use smart speakers such as Amazon Alexa and Google Home to support everyday tasks. However, little is known about how loneliness relates to voice AI use, or the potential mediators in this association. This study investigates the mediating roles of users’ perceptions (i.e., social attraction, privacy concerns, and satisfaction) in the relationship between users’ social loneliness and intentions to continue using voice AI. A serial mediation model based on survey data from current voice AI users showed that users’ perceptions were positively associated with behavioral intentions. Several full serial mediations were observed: people who felt lonely perceived (1) voice AI as a more socially attractive agent and (2) had fewer privacy concerns. These aspects were each tied to satisfaction and subsequent usage intention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Alternative Means of Informed Consent in Cardiology: Strategies and Effectiveness in a Group of Italian Patients
by Ines Testoni, Lucia Ronconi, Francesca Lampis, Erika Iacona, Josephine Zammarrelli, Sara Pompele, Roberto Valle, Gabriele Boscolo and Diego De Leo
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050430 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Informed consent practices in healthcare represent a fundamental element of patient-centred care; however, the traditional use of a written, paper-based description of the medical procedure to obtain informed consent presents many limitations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of an alternative modality [...] Read more.
Informed consent practices in healthcare represent a fundamental element of patient-centred care; however, the traditional use of a written, paper-based description of the medical procedure to obtain informed consent presents many limitations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of an alternative modality of obtaining informed consent using a brief informative video for patients waiting to undergo a coronary angiography procedure in Italy. The study involved 40 participants—28 males and 12 females (mean age: 68.55, SD = 13.03)—divided equally into two groups: one group received the video-based informed consent and the other received a traditional paper-based form. Each group was asked to fill in two questionnaires; one was created by the researchers to measure the patient’s level of understanding of the given information and the perception of usefulness of the informed consent, and the other was the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), which evaluates levels of anxiety, depression and stress. A comparison of the results of the two groups showed that video-based informed consent allowed participants to better understand the given information, to feel more confident concerning their subjective comprehension of it and to perceive the video-based informed consent as more useful than the traditional one. The video-based informed consent did not lead to higher levels of anxiety, depression or stress among the participants. It can be hypothesized that video-based formats may represent a more useful, understandable and safe alternative to traditional paper-based informed consent in healthcare. Full article
14 pages, 961 KiB  
Article
Information Available to Parents Seeking Education about Infant Play, Milestones, and Development from Popular Sources
by Julie M. Orlando, Andrea B. Cunha, Zainab Alghamdi and Michele A. Lobo
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050429 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Parents commonly seek information about infant development and play, yet it is unclear what information parents find when looking in popular sources. Play, Milestone, and Development Searches in Google identified 313 sources for content analysis by trained researchers using a standardized coding scheme. [...] Read more.
Parents commonly seek information about infant development and play, yet it is unclear what information parents find when looking in popular sources. Play, Milestone, and Development Searches in Google identified 313 sources for content analysis by trained researchers using a standardized coding scheme. Sources included websites, books, and apps created by professional organizations, commercial entities, individuals, the popular press, and government organizations/agencies. The results showed that for popular sources: (1) author information (i.e., qualifications, credentials, education/experience) is not consistently provided, nor is information about the developmental process, parents’ role in development, or determining an infant’s readiness to play; (2) milestones comprise a majority of the content overall; (3) search terminology impacts the information parents receive; (4) sources from the Milestone and Development Searches emphasized a passive approach of observing developmental milestones rather than suggesting activities to actively facilitate learning and milestone development. These findings highlight the need to discuss parents’ online information-gathering process and findings. They also highlight the need for innovative universal parent-education programs that focus on activities to facilitate early development. This type of education has potential to benefit all families, with particular benefits for families with children who have unidentified or untreated developmental delays. Full article
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13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
The Role of Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations in Students’ Feedback Engagement in English Learning
by Zhengdong Gan, Fulan Liu and Honghan Nang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050428 - 19 May 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3786
Abstract
Drawing on Wigfield and Eccles’s motivational theory, which is acclaimed for explaining individual behavioral intentions, this study investigated the extent to which different forms of motivation (i.e., self-efficacy, task value, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivations) predicted student behavioral feedback engagement (i.e., action on [...] Read more.
Drawing on Wigfield and Eccles’s motivational theory, which is acclaimed for explaining individual behavioral intentions, this study investigated the extent to which different forms of motivation (i.e., self-efficacy, task value, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivations) predicted student behavioral feedback engagement (i.e., action on teacher feedback and feedback seeking) in English learning. The participants were 276 male and female students who were enrolled in a second-year full-time English language and literature program at two Chinese universities. Multiple regression analyses showed that task value emerged as the only motivational variable that significantly predicted both students’ action on teacher feedback and feedback seeking. Intrinsic motivation significantly predicted action on teacher feedback, whereas extrinsic motivation and self-efficacy significantly predicted feedback seeking. Pedagogical implications for endeavors to support students in their engagement with feedback in learning English as a foreign language in China are discussed. Full article
25 pages, 2846 KiB  
Article
Predicting Alcohol-Related Memory Problems in Older Adults: A Machine Learning Study with Multi-Domain Features
by Chella Kamarajan, Ashwini K. Pandey, David B. Chorlian, Jacquelyn L. Meyers, Sivan Kinreich, Gayathri Pandey, Stacey Subbie-Saenz de Viteri, Jian Zhang, Weipeng Kuang, Peter B. Barr, Fazil Aliev, Andrey P. Anokhin, Martin H. Plawecki, Samuel Kuperman, Laura Almasy, Alison Merikangas, Sarah J. Brislin, Lance Bauer, Victor Hesselbrock, Grace Chan, John Kramer, Dongbing Lai, Sarah Hartz, Laura J. Bierut, Vivia V. McCutcheon, Kathleen K. Bucholz, Danielle M. Dick, Marc A. Schuckit, Howard J. Edenberg and Bernice Porjeszadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050427 - 18 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1661
Abstract
Memory problems are common among older adults with a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Employing a machine learning framework, the current study investigates the use of multi-domain features to classify individuals with and without alcohol-induced memory problems. A group of 94 individuals [...] Read more.
Memory problems are common among older adults with a history of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Employing a machine learning framework, the current study investigates the use of multi-domain features to classify individuals with and without alcohol-induced memory problems. A group of 94 individuals (ages 50–81 years) with alcohol-induced memory problems (the memory group) were compared with a matched control group who did not have memory problems. The random forests model identified specific features from each domain that contributed to the classification of the memory group vs. the control group (AUC = 88.29%). Specifically, individuals from the memory group manifested a predominant pattern of hyperconnectivity across the default mode network regions except for some connections involving the anterior cingulate cortex, which were predominantly hypoconnected. Other significant contributing features were: (i) polygenic risk scores for AUD, (ii) alcohol consumption and related health consequences during the past five years, such as health problems, past negative experiences, withdrawal symptoms, and the largest number of drinks in a day during the past twelve months, and (iii) elevated neuroticism and increased harm avoidance, and fewer positive “uplift” life events. At the neural systems level, hyperconnectivity across the default mode network regions, including the connections across the hippocampal hub regions, in individuals with memory problems may indicate dysregulation in neural information processing. Overall, the study outlines the importance of utilizing multidomain features, consisting of resting-state brain connectivity data collected ~18 years ago, together with personality, life experiences, polygenic risk, and alcohol consumption and related consequences, to predict the alcohol-related memory problems that arise in later life. Full article
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12 pages, 1485 KiB  
Article
Working-Memory-Guided Attention Competes with Exogenous Attention but Not with Endogenous Attention
by Ping Zhu, Qingqing Yang, Luo Chen, Chenxiao Guan, Jifan Zhou, Mowei Shen and Hui Chen
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050426 - 18 May 2023
Viewed by 1519
Abstract
Recent research has extensively investigated working memory (WM)-guided attention, which is the phenomenon of attention being directed towards information in the external environment that matches the content stored in WM. While prior studies have focused on the potential influencing factors of WM-guided attention, [...] Read more.
Recent research has extensively investigated working memory (WM)-guided attention, which is the phenomenon of attention being directed towards information in the external environment that matches the content stored in WM. While prior studies have focused on the potential influencing factors of WM-guided attention, little is known about the nature of it. This attention system exhibits characteristics of two classical distinct attention systems: exogenous attention and endogenous attention, as it can operate automatically like exogenous attention yet persist for a long time and be modulated by cognitive resources like endogenous attention. Thus, the current study aimed to explore the mechanism of WM-guided attention by testing whether it competed with exogenous attention, endogenous attention, or both. Two experiments were conducted within a classic WM-guided attention paradigm. Experiment 1 included an exogenous cue and revealed an interaction between WM-guided attention and exogenous attention. Experiment 2 replaced the exogenous cue with an endogenous cue and demonstrated that endogenous attention had no impact on WM-guided attention. These findings indicate that WM-guided attention shares mechanisms with exogenous attention to some extent while operating in parallel with endogenous attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cognition)
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17 pages, 781 KiB  
Article
Retirement Planning and Financial Anxiety among Nigerian Civil Servants: Insights from Social Comparison Theory
by Lawrence Ejike Ugwu and Erhabor Sunday Idemudia
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050425 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The psychological implication of retirement is underemphasised. This study examined the relationship between proactive personality, social comparison, and retirement anxiety among Nigerian civil servants. The study is a cross-sectional design, using proactive personality, social comparison orientation, and Nigerian pre-retirement anxiety scales. Five hundred [...] Read more.
The psychological implication of retirement is underemphasised. This study examined the relationship between proactive personality, social comparison, and retirement anxiety among Nigerian civil servants. The study is a cross-sectional design, using proactive personality, social comparison orientation, and Nigerian pre-retirement anxiety scales. Five hundred and eight staff members in government-owned tertiary institutions with five years or less to go until retirement, and at a mean age of 57.47 (SD = 3.02), were surveyed. The study established that a proactive personality negatively predicted retirement anxiety and that civil servants engage in diverse forms of intrapreneurship/entrepreneurship to augment their savings. The study also revealed that social comparison (opinion) mediated the relationship between proactive personality and retirement anxiety (financial preparedness and social alienation). In addition, the study found that social comparison (opinion and ability) mediated the relationship between proactive personality and retirement anxiety (financial preparedness) in a sequential order. The findings suggest that retirees in Nigeria face complex challenges, including financial unpreparedness, social alienation, and uncertainty. The study highlights the importance of understanding the relationship between personality traits, social comparison, and retirement anxiety in order to develop effective interventions and policies that support retirees in Nigeria. Full article
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16 pages, 921 KiB  
Article
Antecedents of Compliance Intention and Its Impact on Waste Separation Behavior: Based on Rational Choice Theory and Deterrence Theory
by Sohee Kim
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050424 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
With the rapid growth of the urban population, the development of production and consumption, and improved living standards, waste generation has increased over time. The first positive step to solve the problem of household waste is waste separation behavior. Studying the determinants that [...] Read more.
With the rapid growth of the urban population, the development of production and consumption, and improved living standards, waste generation has increased over time. The first positive step to solve the problem of household waste is waste separation behavior. Studying the determinants that prompt individuals to comply with waste separation policy (WSP) is worthwhile. The author aims to offer an integrated view of individuals’ compliance with waste separation policy based on rational choice and deterrence theories. Survey data collected from 306 households in South Korea are used to test the research model using partial least squares analysis. The study shows that WSP compliance intention is motivated by the perceived benefit and perceived effectiveness of WSP. Furthermore, the results show that perceived deterrent severity and perceived deterrent certainty positively influence WSP compliance intention. The implications for theory and policymakers are discussed to facilitate waste separation behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout and the Quality of Personal, Working and Social Life)
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14 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Institutional Courage in Healthcare: An Improvement Project Exploring the Perspectives of Veterans Exposed to Airborne Hazards
by Katharine Bloeser, Mikayla McAdams, Kelly K. McCarron, Samantha Varon, Lisa Pickett and Iman Johnson
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050423 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Background: Military environmental exposures and care for subsequent health concerns have been associated with institutional betrayal, or a perception on the part of veterans that the US government has failed to adequately prevent, acknowledge, and treat these conditions and in doing so has [...] Read more.
Background: Military environmental exposures and care for subsequent health concerns have been associated with institutional betrayal, or a perception on the part of veterans that the US government has failed to adequately prevent, acknowledge, and treat these conditions and in doing so has betrayed its promise to veterans. Institutional courage is a term developed to describe organizations that proactively protect and care for their members. While institutional courage may be useful in mitigating institutional betrayal, there is a lack of definitions of institutional courage in healthcare from the patient perspective. Methods: Using qualitative methods, we sought to explore the notions of institutional betrayal and institutional courage among veterans exposed to airborne hazards (i.e., airborne particulate matter such as open burn pits; N = 13) to inform and improve clinical practice. We performed initial interviews and follow-up interviews with veterans. Results: Veterans’ depictions of courageous institutions contained key themes of being accountable, proactive, and mindful of unique experiences, supporting advocacy, addressing stigma related to public benefits, and offering safety. Veterans described institutional courage as including both individual-level traits and systems or organizational-level characteristics. Conclusions: Several existing VA initiatives already address many themes identified in describing courageous institutions (e.g., accountability and advocacy). Other themes, especially views of public benefits and being proactive, hold particular value for building trauma-informed healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Trauma-Responsive Care)
20 pages, 382 KiB  
Article
Mental Health and Well-Being of Migrant Populations in Portugal Two Years after the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Violeta Alarcão, Pedro Candeias, Miodraga Stefanovska-Petkovska, Sónia Pintassilgo, Fernando Luís Machado, Ana Virgolino and Osvaldo Santos
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050422 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
In Portugal, like in other European countries, the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated the risk of poverty and social exclusion faced by migrants. This study aimed to assess mental health and well-being, and their social determinants, among Brazilian and Cape Verdean immigrant populations two years [...] Read more.
In Portugal, like in other European countries, the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated the risk of poverty and social exclusion faced by migrants. This study aimed to assess mental health and well-being, and their social determinants, among Brazilian and Cape Verdean immigrant populations two years after the COVID-19 pandemic while exploring the role of positive psychological factors such as resilience and perceived social support. We conducted a cross-sectional survey combining online and face-to-face questionnaires for data collection between February and November 2022 on dimensions of mental health considered potentially relevant to the post-pandemic context: psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. Overall, 604 immigrants were included (322 Brazilian and 282 Cape Verdean); 58.5% of those surveyed were women and 41.5% were men. The results revealed that gender (being a woman) was associated with both psychological distress and depression, higher education was associated with anxiety, and that, for the three mental health dimensions under analysis, the perception of discrimination and resilience were negative and positive predictors, respectively. Findings can inform the design and implementation of relevant public mental health promotion programs with a focus on equity targeted to the general population. Such programs would help to address the psychological and social impacts of this long-term, insidious global pandemic that has challenged governments, health care systems, health care professionals, individuals, families, and communities worldwide. Full article
13 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Lower Emotional Exhaustion among Employees Is Associated with Intentional Incorporation of Animals into Residential Care Settings
by Kimberly I. Tumlin, Elizabeth N. Riley, Olga Vsevolozhskaya and Michael Cull
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050421 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Secondary effects of animal-integrated programming on residential care center (RCC) staff and organizational culture are not well understood. We explored emotional exhaustion among RCC employees both in facilities that incorporated animals and those that did not incorporate animals into the therapeutic environment. We [...] Read more.
Secondary effects of animal-integrated programming on residential care center (RCC) staff and organizational culture are not well understood. We explored emotional exhaustion among RCC employees both in facilities that incorporated animals and those that did not incorporate animals into the therapeutic environment. We conducted a survey throughout a large midwestern RCC system in the United States to determine relationships between organizational culture, emotional exhaustion, and the intentionality by which animals were incorporated into programming. Data were analyzed by examining associations between variables of interest using chi-square or t-tests, and linear mixed-effects modeling was used to identify potential confounding effects due to differences in children served within RCCs. Staff from RCCs that used animals intentionally reported lower emotional exhaustion (p = 0.006), and higher average workplace safety (p = 0.024) and psychological safety (p < 0.001). Integrating animals into RCC programming is associated with elements of a strong organizational culture. It is possible that animal-integrated programming has a positive impact on the facility culture and workforce, and/or that RCCs with strong pre-existing cultures are more likely to use animal-integrated programming. Full article
13 pages, 918 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Repeated Attachment Security Priming on Social Anxiety and Attention Bias: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Shuang Zhang, Yanqiang Tao, Yunxiang Chen, Peng Zhang and Xiangping Liu
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050420 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Background: Although the clinical utility of attachment security priming has been suggested in recent years, the effect of attachment security priming on social anxiety and its core symptoms (i.e., attention bias) remains unspecified. Therefore, the present study explored the potential effectiveness of repeated [...] Read more.
Background: Although the clinical utility of attachment security priming has been suggested in recent years, the effect of attachment security priming on social anxiety and its core symptoms (i.e., attention bias) remains unspecified. Therefore, the present study explored the potential effectiveness of repeated attachment security priming in alleviating social anxiety and attention bias among Chinese college students. Methods: Fifty-six college students with high social anxiety were randomly assigned to the attachment security priming group (n = 30) or control group (n = 26). The priming group completed seven attachment security priming sessions over 2 weeks (every 2 days), and the control group was assigned to a waitlist for 2 weeks. Results: The results revealed that individuals in the priming group reported less social anxiety after 2 weeks of security attachment priming, and those in the control group did not change significantly. The results also showed that there was no significant change in the attention bias of individuals with social anxiety before and after the intervention. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that attachment security priming is a promising alternative intervention option for social anxiety. The potential clinical implications of security attachment priming are discussed. Full article
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23 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Influential Factors of Personal Media Bloggers on Followers’ Continuous Following Intention Based on Relationship Marketing Theory
by Wenjie Qian and Jianhua Mao
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050416 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3457
Abstract
The use of personal media has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, gaining and retaining followers has become increasingly challenging, given the fierce competition among bloggers and the constant changes in personal media. In this context, this study aims to explore the [...] Read more.
The use of personal media has become increasingly popular in recent years. However, gaining and retaining followers has become increasingly challenging, given the fierce competition among bloggers and the constant changes in personal media. In this context, this study aims to explore the factors that influence followers’ continued usage intentions toward personal media bloggers and strategies to improve their loyalty. Drawing upon the theory of relationship marketing, a structural model is constructed to examine the impacts and mechanisms of personal media bloggers’ attributes and communication on social presence, fanship, intention to use, and word of mouth. This research focuses on two dimensions of personal media bloggers’ attributes: expertise and attractiveness. A sample of 155 highly active personal media users in China was collected through a questionnaire for analysis and validation. The findings reveal that expertise and communication have positive impacts on followers’ intentions to continue following a blogger, while attractiveness has a significant, positive, and direct impact on word of mouth. Furthermore, this study shows that social presence and fanship play mediating roles in the effects of expertise and communication on followers’ usage intentions and word of mouth. The research results provide valuable insights for personal media operators and marketers seeking to improve followers’ loyalty and encourage potential users to become more loyal fans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disruptive Economy, Digital Technologies and Consumption)
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27 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
On the Technological Acceptance of Moodle by Higher Education Faculty—A Nationwide Study Based on UTAUT2
by Gabriel García-Murillo, Pavel Novoa-Hernández and Rocío Serrano Rodríguez
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050419 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Moodle is an open-source learning management system that is widely used today, especially in higher education settings. Although its technological acceptance by undergraduate students has been extensively studied in the past, very little is known about its acceptance by university professors. In particular, [...] Read more.
Moodle is an open-source learning management system that is widely used today, especially in higher education settings. Although its technological acceptance by undergraduate students has been extensively studied in the past, very little is known about its acceptance by university professors. In particular, as far as we know, the literature contains no previous experiences related to South American teachers. This paper aims to bridge this gap by quantifying and analyzing the drivers of Moodle’s technological acceptance among Ecuadorian academic staff. Considering the responses of 538 teachers and taking a modified UTAUT2 model as a theoretical basis, we found that Ecuadorian teachers have high levels of acceptance of Moodle, regardless of their age, gender, ethnicity, or discipline. However, this acceptance is significantly higher in teachers with high levels of education and with considerable previous experience with e-learning systems. The main determinants of this acceptance are attitude strength, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, and facilitating conditions. We found no moderating effects in relation to the age, gender, or previous experience of the participants (including second- and third-order interactions derived from these variables). We conclude that, albeit moderately (e.g., adjusted R2=0.588), the model tested confirms the predictive power of the part of UTAUT2 that was inherited from UTAUT. Full article
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13 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Approaches to Learning of Preschool Children in China: A Comparison between Only Children and Non-Only Children
by Xiumin Hong, Qianqian Liu and Sijie Zhao
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050418 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Preschool children are at the initial stage of individual development and at a critical period in cultivating their approaches to learning. In the context of China’s frequently adjusted birth policies, further research is necessary on children’s approaches to learning in families of different [...] Read more.
Preschool children are at the initial stage of individual development and at a critical period in cultivating their approaches to learning. In the context of China’s frequently adjusted birth policies, further research is necessary on children’s approaches to learning in families of different sizes. A questionnaire survey was administered to 5454 only child and 4632 non-only child parents from the east, middle, and west of China. The study found that children’s approaches to learning generally developed well, but non-only children’s approaches to learning was significantly lower than those of only children. There are four profiles of approaches to learning for both the only children and the non-only children. This study also found that gender, social skills, family income, and type of preschool exert significant influences on children’s approaches to learning. Parents’ educational background had a significant influence on only children’s approaches to learning but had no significant influence on non-only children’s approaches to learning. We provide practical implications for promoting children’s approaches to learning in families of different sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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13 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Fertility Intentions of the Women in Bosnia and Herzegovina—An Example from the Semberija Region
by Rada Golub, Andjelija Ivkov-Dzigurski and Vlado Simeunović
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050417 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to analyze the socio-demographic determinants of fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina that affect the number of live births in Semberija. The paper focuses on work and educational statuses, economic crisis and unemployment, and other relevant factors that [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to analyze the socio-demographic determinants of fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina that affect the number of live births in Semberija. The paper focuses on work and educational statuses, economic crisis and unemployment, and other relevant factors that affect desired family sizes and lead to negative demographic trends. The relevant data were collected through a survey questionnaire filled by a verified sample of 1000 women in their reproductive period (aged 15–49). In order to evaluate the role of each research variable in predicting fertility intentions, the arithmetic mean, frequency of responses in percentage, Pearson’s coefficient, and a logistic regression model were used to explore the related factors of fertility behaviors among women in this population. The results showed that employment status, poor housing conditions, and financial support from the state statistically significantly impact future birth trends. Those socio-demographic factors affect desired family sizes and have proven essential to future fertile behavior. Full article
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23 pages, 764 KiB  
Systematic Review
Psychoeducation for Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systematic Review of Emotional, Clinical and Functional Related-Outcomes
by Carmen M. Galvez-Sánchez and Casandra I. Montoro
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050415 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition of widespread pain accompanied by several symptoms such as stiffness, fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. To date, there is no specific treatment for FMS. The European League Against Rheumatism, and the majority of [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition of widespread pain accompanied by several symptoms such as stiffness, fatigue, sleep problems, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. To date, there is no specific treatment for FMS. The European League Against Rheumatism, and the majority of the international recommendations for managing FMS, has claimed psychoeducational intervention as the first step in FMS treatment for adequate symptoms management. However, scientific studies in this regard are scarce, diverse, and with contradictory findings. Results integration from analogous studies could provide a clear presentation of the real clinical value of psychoeducation in FMS. Therefore, the current systematic review aims at exploring the effect of psychoeducation on emotional, clinical, and functional symptoms of FMS patients and encourages researchers towards psychoeducation’s procedure optimization and systematization. The systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration and PRISMA statements. The selected articles were evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) assessment tool. The selected articles were extracted from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. The literature search identified 11 studies eligible for the systematic review. The ROB evaluation revealed that 2 of the 11 studies showed a low quality, the other 2 had a moderate quality, and the remaining 7 studies exhibited a high quality. Results showed that psychoeducation is generally included as an important first therapeutic step in multicomponent treatments for FMS. Moreover, psychoeducation generally seems to be quite beneficial in reducing emotional (i.e., number of days feeling emotionally well, general anxiety, depression levels, etc.) and clinical symptoms (levels of fatigue, morning stiffness, pain intensity, etc.), as well as increasing functional status (i.e., general physical function, morning fatigue, stiffness, etc.). Despite that psychoeducation´s clinical benefits are highlighted, there is scarce amount of research on psychoeducation beyond its usefulness as part of multicomponent treatments. Full article
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26 pages, 6594 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Relationship between Supervisors and Post-Graduates Based on Differential Game Theory
by Fangfang Liu, Ning Fan, Jiangjun Zhu, Chaoping Li and Shaobo Xie
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050414 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1182
Abstract
A healthy relationship between supervisors and postgraduates is critical for their academic achievements and personal development. This paper quantitatively discusses such a relationship from the viewpoint of differential game theory. First, a mathematic model was established to describe the evolutionary dynamics of the [...] Read more.
A healthy relationship between supervisors and postgraduates is critical for their academic achievements and personal development. This paper quantitatively discusses such a relationship from the viewpoint of differential game theory. First, a mathematic model was established to describe the evolutionary dynamics of the academic level of the supervisor-postgraduate community, which is related to the two parties’ positive and negative efforts. Then, the objective function aimed at maximizing the individual and total benefit of the community was constructed. After that, the differential game relationships in the non-cooperative, cooperative and Stackelberg scenarios were formulated and solved. A comparison of the three game scenarios showed that the optimal academic level and total benefit of the community were 22% higher in the cooperative scenario than in the non-cooperative and Stackelberg game scenarios. Moreover, the influence of model parameters on the game results was analyzed. The results indicate that, for the supervisor-led Stackelberg game, when the sharing cost ratio is increased to a specific level, the supervisor’s optimal benefit will not be further improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
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19 pages, 4813 KiB  
Article
Outcomes Associated with a Single Joystick-Operated Ride-on-Toy Navigation Training Incorporated into a Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Program: A Pilot Feasibility Study
by Sudha Srinivasan, Nidhi Amonkar, Patrick Kumavor, Kristin Morgan and Deborah Bubela
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050413 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Our research aims to evaluate the utility of joystick-operated ride-on-toys (ROTs) as therapeutic adjuncts to improve upper extremity (UE) function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). This study assessed changes in affected UE use and function following a three-week ROT navigation training [...] Read more.
Our research aims to evaluate the utility of joystick-operated ride-on-toys (ROTs) as therapeutic adjuncts to improve upper extremity (UE) function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). This study assessed changes in affected UE use and function following a three-week ROT navigation training incorporated into an existing constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) camp in 11 children (3–14 years old) with HCP. We report changes in scores on the standardized Shriners Hospital Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE) from pretest-to-posttest and changes from early-to-late sessions in percent time spent by the affected arm in: (a) “moderate-to-vigorous activity”, “light activity” and “no activity” bouts based on accelerometer data and (b) “independent”, “assisted”, and “no activity” bouts based on video data. We also explored relationships between standardized measures and training-specific measures of affected UE activity. We found small-to-medium improvements in the SHUEE scores. Between 90 and 100% of children also showed medium-to-large improvements in affected UE activity from early-to-late sessions using accelerometers and small improvements via video-based assessments. Exploratory analyses suggested trends for relationships between pretest-posttest and training-specific objective and subjective measures of arm use and function. Our pilot data suggest that single joystick-operated ROTs may serve as motivating, child-friendly tools that can augment conventional therapies such as CIMT to boost treatment dosing, promote affected UE movement practice during real-world navigation tasks, and ultimately improve functional outcomes in children with HCP. Full article
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12 pages, 611 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Social Networking Site Use on Depression in Graduate Students: The Mediating Role of Negative Social Comparison and Moderating Role of Implicit Personality Theories
by Zhenzhen Chen, Yang Wu, Hongyu Ma, Gengfeng Niu and Weixin Wang
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050412 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of SNS use on graduate students’ depression and further explored the effect of negative social comparison and an individual’s implicit personality theory. Methods: Scales for Social Networking Site Use Intensity, the Negative Social Comparison [...] Read more.
Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of SNS use on graduate students’ depression and further explored the effect of negative social comparison and an individual’s implicit personality theory. Methods: Scales for Social Networking Site Use Intensity, the Negative Social Comparison Measure, the Implicit Personality Theory Inventory, and CES-D were used to investigate 1792 graduate students from a full-time university in Wuhan. Result: (1) Social networking site use was positively correlated with negative social comparison and depression; (2) the mediating effect of negative social comparison was significant in social networking site use’s influence on depression; (3) after controlling for negative social comparison, graduate students’ use of SNS could negatively predict depression; and (4) the mediation effect of negative social comparison was moderated by an individual’s implicit personality theory. Specifically, the mediation effect was more pronounced among the entity theorists, while the graduate students’ incremental implicit personality theory may buffer the depressive effect of negative social comparison. Conclusions: Negative social comparison mediates the relationship between SNS use and depression; in addition, individual differences in implicit personality theory (the entity theorist vs. incremental theorist) moderate the link between negative social comparison and depression. Full article
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2 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Behaviors in Educational Settings during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Xin Dong and Yi Ding
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050411 - 15 May 2023
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
This editorial is an introduction to the Special Issue “Behaviors in Educational Setting” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Behaviors in Educational Settings)
13 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Handgrip Strength, Timed Up-and-Go, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older People during COVID-19 Pandemic Restrictions
by Jiranan Griffiths, Mathuramat Seesen, Wachiranun Sirikul and Penprapa Siviroj
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050410 - 14 May 2023
Viewed by 1483
Abstract
The COVID-19 lockdown restrictions affected physical performance and cognitive function in older people as they were confined to their homes. There is an association between physical and cognitive functions. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a condition that risks progressing to dementia. This study [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 lockdown restrictions affected physical performance and cognitive function in older people as they were confined to their homes. There is an association between physical and cognitive functions. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a condition that risks progressing to dementia. This study aimed to identify the relationship between handgrip strength (HGS), Timed Up-and-Go (TUG), and MCI in older people during the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The cross-sectional study recruited 464 eligible participants for an interview and anthropometric measurement. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B), HGS, and TUG were measured in addition to demographic and health characteristics. A total of 398 participants (85.8%) were found to have MCI when screened with the MoCA-B. Their mean age was 71.09 ± 5.81 years. Forward multiple regression analysis demonstrated that HGS (β = 0.032, p < 0.001), education level (β = 2.801, p < 0.001), TUG (β = −0.022, p = 0.013), Thai Geriatric Depression Score, TGDS (β = −0.248, p = 0.011), and age (β = −1.677, p = 0.019) were associated with MCI. A decrease in HGS and an increased TUG might allow for the early detection of MCI and promote physical training in order to reduce the risk of MCI. Further studies can investigate multidomain indicators for MCI, for example, fine motor skills and pinch strength as components of the motor abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Subjective Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease)
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13 pages, 709 KiB  
Article
Parents’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Their Chronically Ill Children
by Susann Kobus, Alexandra M. Buehne, Simone Kathemann, Anja K. Buescher and Elke Lainka
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050409 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
Chronic disease in a child, with the associated hospital stays, places considerable demands on the child and their family. The aim of this study was to investigate the parents’ perceptions of the music therapy used with their child during a hospital stay and [...] Read more.
Chronic disease in a child, with the associated hospital stays, places considerable demands on the child and their family. The aim of this study was to investigate the parents’ perceptions of the music therapy used with their child during a hospital stay and to determine whether they felt that it reduced the child’s anxiety and stress generated by hospital admission. We hypothesized that the use of live music therapy from a music therapist would positively support these patients in everyday clinical practice, promote their wellbeing, and have positive impacts on their vital signs and blood pressure. Children with chronic gastroenterological and nephrological diseases included in this prospective study received live music therapy with a median duration of 41 min (range from 12 to 70 min) two to four times per week until discharged from the hospital. At the time of discharge, the parents were asked to complete a Likert-style questionnaire to evaluate the music therapy. Seven items were related to general questions about the patients and sessions, and eleven items evaluated the personal perceptions of the parents. Music therapy was conducted in 83 children, with a median age of 3 years (range from 1 month to 18 years). All parents (100%) completed the questionnaire at the time of discharge. Seventy-nine percent of the parents stated that their children were able to enjoy the music therapy sessions without being stressed. In addition, 98% of the respondents said that they were grateful for the music therapy their children received (97% fully agreed and 1% rather agreed). All parents considered music therapy to be beneficial for their child. The parents’ responses reflected the view that music therapy is beneficial to patients. According to the parents, music therapy can be integrated effectively in the inpatient clinical setting and can support children with chronic illnesses during their hospital stay. Full article
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12 pages, 1181 KiB  
Article
Playing Closer: Using Virtual Reality to Measure Approach Bias of Internet Gaming Disorder
by Wen Wei, Qi Wang, Ruyi Ding, Rui Dong and Shiguang Ni
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050408 - 14 May 2023
Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Playing online games is gradually becoming mainstream entertainment, but some people may develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Like other behavioral addictive diseases, one of the main characteristics of IGD is a craving for games, which also makes people tend to approach game-related clues. [...] Read more.
Playing online games is gradually becoming mainstream entertainment, but some people may develop Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Like other behavioral addictive diseases, one of the main characteristics of IGD is a craving for games, which also makes people tend to approach game-related clues. Recently, a few researchers have started to use the approach–avoidance task (AAT) paradigm to study the approach bias of IGD, and they also think it is an essential characteristic of IGD. However, the traditional AAT cannot provide realistic approach–avoidance behavior to stimuli, and virtual reality has been proven to provide a highly ecological environment to measure approach bias. Therefore, this study innovatively integrates virtual reality and the AAT paradigm to measure the approach bias of IGD. We found that compared with neutral stimuli, IGD spent less time approaching game-related stimuli, which indicates that it is difficult for IGD to avoid game-related situations in the virtual environment. This study also revealed that game-related content stimuli in virtual reality alone did not increase the IGD group’s craving for games. These results proved that AAT in VR could cause the approach bias of IGD and provide high ecological validity and an effective tool for the intervention of IGD in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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12 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
Sleep and Lifestyle Habits of Medical and Non-Medical Students during the COVID-19 Lockdown
by Ivana Pavlinac Dodig, Linda Lusic Kalcina, Sijana Demirovic, Renata Pecotic, Maja Valic and Zoran Dogas
Behav. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs13050407 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
It has been shown that the measures of social distancing and lockdown might have had negative effects on the physical and mental health of the population. We aim to investigate the sleep and lifestyle habits as well as the mood of Croatian medical [...] Read more.
It has been shown that the measures of social distancing and lockdown might have had negative effects on the physical and mental health of the population. We aim to investigate the sleep and lifestyle habits as well as the mood of Croatian medical (MS) and non-medical students (NMS) during the COVID-19 lockdown. The cross-sectional study included 1163 students (21.6% male), whose lifestyle and sleep habits and mood before and during the lockdown were assessed with an online questionnaire. The shift towards later bedtimes was more pronounced among NMS (~65 min) compared to MS (~38 min), while the shift toward later wake-up times was similar in both MS (~111 min) and NMS (~112 min). All students reported more frequent difficulty in falling asleep, night-time awakenings and insomnia (p < 0.001) during lockdown. A higher proportion of MS reported being less tired and less anxious during lockdown compared to pre-lockdown (p < 0.001). Both student groups experienced unpleasant moods and were less content during lockdown compared to the pre-lockdown period (p < 0.001). Our results emphasize the need for the promotion of healthy habits in the youth population. However, the co-appearance of prolonged and delayed sleep times along with decreased tiredness and anxiety among MS during lockdown reveals their significant workload during pre-lockdown and that even subtle changes in their day schedule might contribute to the well-being of MS. Full article
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