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Toxins, Volume 14, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 70 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): For the first time, the results of the first systematic review, meta-analysis (PRISMA 2020) and real-world evidence pooled analysis demonstrate with moderate certainty evidence that the combination therapy of onabotulinumtoxinA and anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies affords a better control of chronic headache (in terms of reduction of monthly headache days) with respect to individual treatment. Adequately powered, good-quality studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of combination therapy. View this paper
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34 pages, 3492 KiB  
Review
An Overview of the Anatomical Distribution of Tetrodotoxin in Animals
by Daria I. Melnikova and Timur Yu. Magarlamov
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080576 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 11716
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent paralytic sodium channel blocker, is an intriguing marine toxin. Widely distributed in nature, TTX has attracted attention in various scientific fields, from biomedical studies to environmental safety concerns. Despite a long history of studies, many issues concerning the biosynthesis, [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent paralytic sodium channel blocker, is an intriguing marine toxin. Widely distributed in nature, TTX has attracted attention in various scientific fields, from biomedical studies to environmental safety concerns. Despite a long history of studies, many issues concerning the biosynthesis, origin, and spread of TTX in animals and ecosystems remain. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge on TTX circulation inside TTX-bearing animal bodies. We focus on the advances in TTX detection at the cellular and subcellular levels, providing an expanded picture of intra-organismal TTX migration mechanisms. We believe that this review will help address the gaps in the understanding of the biological function of TTX and facilitate the development of further studies involving TTX-bearing animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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18 pages, 5611 KiB  
Article
Physiological Response of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) to Long-Term Exposure to an Anesthetic Obtained from Heterosigma akashiwo
by Ana Teresa Gonçalves, Alejandra Llanos-Rivera, Miguel Ruano, Veronica Avello, Juan José Gallardo-Rodriguez and Allisson Astuya-Villalón
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 575; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080575 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2122
Abstract
Despite the invaluable role of anesthetics as a tool for ensuring animal welfare in stressful situations, there is currently a lack of anesthetic drugs that meet the requirements of intensive aquaculture. In response to the growing interest in anesthetic substances of natural origin, [...] Read more.
Despite the invaluable role of anesthetics as a tool for ensuring animal welfare in stressful situations, there is currently a lack of anesthetic drugs that meet the requirements of intensive aquaculture. In response to the growing interest in anesthetic substances of natural origin, this study evaluated the physiological and health impact of an anesthetic based on an extract of the microalga Heterosigma akashiwo on juvenile salmon (Salmo salar) exposed for a period of 72 h. To simulate a condition closer to reality where fish are subjected to stimuli (e.g., transport), the animals were exposed to 50 mg L−1 of algal extract and to physical stress. Functional, physiological, and histological parameters were evaluated in blood and tissues at different sampling periods (0, 24, and 72 h). There was no mortality and the induction and recovery times observed were within the established criteria for anesthetic efficacy. The anesthetic extract did not induce any side effects, such as stress or metabolic damage, indicating that this extract is a viable option for supporting fish welfare during deleterious events. This study provides information to support that the anesthetic extract tested, derived from H. akashiwo, is a promising candidate drug for operations requiring sedation (e.g., Salmonid transport). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Microalgae Toxins: Production, Detection, and Application)
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11 pages, 315 KiB  
Review
Aflatoxins in Maize: Can Their Occurrence Be Effectively Managed in Africa in the Face of Climate Change and Food Insecurity?
by Queenta Ngum Nji, Olubukola Oluranti Babalola and Mulunda Mwanza
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 574; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080574 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2991
Abstract
The dangers of population-level mycotoxin exposure have been well documented. Climate-sensitive aflatoxins (AFs) are important food hazards. The continual effects of climate change are projected to impact primary agricultural systems, and consequently food security. This will be due to a reduction in yield [...] Read more.
The dangers of population-level mycotoxin exposure have been well documented. Climate-sensitive aflatoxins (AFs) are important food hazards. The continual effects of climate change are projected to impact primary agricultural systems, and consequently food security. This will be due to a reduction in yield with a negative influence on food safety. The African climate and subsistence farming techniques favour the growth of AF-producing fungal genera particularly in maize, which is a food staple commonly associated with mycotoxin contamination. Predictive models are useful tools in the management of mycotoxin risk. Mycotoxin climate risk predictive models have been successfully developed in Australia, the USA, and Europe, but are still in their infancy in Africa. This review aims to investigate whether AFs’ occurrence in African maize can be effectively mitigated in the face of increasing climate change and food insecurity using climate risk predictive studies. A systematic search is conducted using Google Scholar. The complexities associated with the development of these prediction models vary from statistical tools such as simple regression equations to complex systems such as artificial intelligence models. Africa’s inability to simulate a climate mycotoxin risk model in the past has been attributed to insufficient climate or AF contamination data. Recently, however, advancement in technologies including artificial intelligence modelling has bridged this gap, as climate risk scenarios can now be correctly predicted from missing and unbalanced data. Full article
14 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
Immobilization of Microbes for Biodegradation of Microcystins: A Mini Review
by Jiajia Zhang, Jia Wei, Isaac Yaw Massey, Tangjian Peng and Fei Yang
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080573 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2910
Abstract
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) frequently occur in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Microcystins (MCs) are considered to be the most prominent and toxic metabolites during HCBs. MCs may be harmful to human and animal health through drinking water and recreational water. Biodegradation is eco-friendly, [...] Read more.
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HCBs) frequently occur in eutrophic freshwater ecosystems worldwide. Microcystins (MCs) are considered to be the most prominent and toxic metabolites during HCBs. MCs may be harmful to human and animal health through drinking water and recreational water. Biodegradation is eco-friendly, cost-effective and one of the most effective methods to remove MCs. Many novel MC-degrading bacteria and their potential for MCs degradation have been documented. However, it is a challenge to apply the free MC-degrading bacterial cells in natural environments due to the long-term operational instability and difficult recycling. Immobilization is the process of restricting the mobility of bacteria using carriers, which has several advantages as biocatalysts compared to free bacterial cells. Biological water treatment systems with microbial immobilization technology can potentially be utilized to treat MC-polluted wastewater. In this review article, various types of supporting materials and methods for microbial immobilization and the application of bacterial immobilization technology for the treatment of MCs-contaminated water are discussed. This article may further broaden the application of microbial immobilization technology to the bioremediation of MC-polluted environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Microcystins)
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18 pages, 3602 KiB  
Article
Differences between Two Groups of Burmese Vipers (Viperidae: Azemiops) in the Proteomic Profiles, Immunoreactivity and Biochemical Functions of Their Venoms
by Si-Rui Zheng, Yan Sun, Hong-Yan Zhao, Lin Wen, Xiang Ji and Jian-Fang Gao
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080572 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Two recently revised Azemiops snakes with apparent differences in their external appearances and skeletal morphologies but unclear genetic boundaries have been proposed. Some researchers have refrained from using the newly proposed taxonomy because these two “species” might be two clades corresponding to different [...] Read more.
Two recently revised Azemiops snakes with apparent differences in their external appearances and skeletal morphologies but unclear genetic boundaries have been proposed. Some researchers have refrained from using the newly proposed taxonomy because these two “species” might be two clades corresponding to different geographical populations of Azemiops feae. To improve the understanding of the kinship of these two Burmese viper groups, more of their characteristics should be explored in depth. We performed a comparative analysis of the proteomic profiles and biochemical activities of snake venoms from these two groups (Sichuan A. feae and Zhejiang A. feae) and evaluated the immunorecognition capacity of commercial antivenoms toward them. Eight protein families were identified in venoms from these two groups, while phospholipase B was only detected in venom from Sichuan A. feae. These protein families displayed varying degrees of differences in relative abundance between venoms, and phospholipase A2 (Sichuan A. feae: 57.15%; Zhejiang A. feae: 65.94%) was the predominated component. Gloydius brevicaudus antivenom exhibited the strongest capacity to immunologically recognize these two venoms, but this was mainly limited to components with high molecular masses, some of which differed between venoms. Additionally, Zhejiang A. feae venom was more toxic than Sichuan A. feae venom, and the venoms expressed remarkable differences in enzymatic activities, probably resulting from the variation in the relative abundance of specific protein families. Our findings unveil differences between the two Burmese viper groups in terms of proteomic profiles, immunoreactivity, and the biochemical functions of their venoms. This information will facilitate the management of snakebites caused by these snakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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14 pages, 2216 KiB  
Article
A Long-Read Genome Assembly of a Native Mite in China Pyemotes zhonghuajia Yu, Zhang & He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae) Reveals Gene Expansion in Toxin-Related Gene Families
by Yan-Fei Song, Li-Chen Yu, Mao-Fa Yang, Shuai Ye, Bin Yan, Li-Tao Li, Chen Wu and Jian-Feng Liu
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080571 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Pyemotes zhonghuajia Yu, Zhang & He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae), discovered in China, has been demonstrated as a high-efficient natural enemy in controlling many agricultural and forestry pests. This mite injects toxins into the host (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults), resulting in its paralyzation and [...] Read more.
Pyemotes zhonghuajia Yu, Zhang & He (Prostigmata: Pyemotidae), discovered in China, has been demonstrated as a high-efficient natural enemy in controlling many agricultural and forestry pests. This mite injects toxins into the host (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults), resulting in its paralyzation and then gets nourishment for reproductive development. These toxins have been approved to be mammal-safe, which have the potential to be used as biocontrol pesticides. Toxin proteins have been identified from many insects, especially those from the orders Scorpions and Araneae, some of which are now widely used as efficient biocontrol pesticides. However, toxin proteins in mites are not yet understood. In this study, we assembled the genome of P. zhonghuajia using PacBio technology and then identified toxin-related genes that are likely to be responsible for the paralytic process of P. zhonghuajia. The genome assembly has a size of 71.943 Mb, including 20 contigs with a N50 length of 21.248 Mb and a BUSCO completeness ratio of 90.6% (n = 1367). These contigs were subsequently assigned to three chromosomes. There were 11,183 protein coding genes annotated, which were assessed with 91.2% BUSCO completeness (n = 1066). Neurotoxin and dermonecrotic toxin gene families were significantly expanded within the genus of Pyemotes and they also formed several gene clusters on the chromosomes. Most of the genes from these two families and all of the three agatoxin genes were shown with higher expression in the one-day-old mites compared to the seven-day-pregnant mites, supporting that the one-day-old mites cause paralyzation and even death of the host. The identification of these toxin proteins may provide insights into how to improve the parasitism efficiency of this mite, and the purification of these proteins may be used to develop new biological pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research on Animal Venoms in China)
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11 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Bites by Non-Native Reptiles in France: Species, Circumstances and Outcome
by Gaël Le Roux, Guillaume Grenet, Corinne Schmitt, French Poison Control Centers Research Group, Sébastien Larréché and Alexis Descatha
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080570 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
We aimed to make an exhaustive assessment of circumstances of bites by exotic reptiles bred in France. A retrospective observational study was conducted in all the reported cases from 2000 to 2020 in French poison control centers (PCCs). Two hundred and eighteen cases [...] Read more.
We aimed to make an exhaustive assessment of circumstances of bites by exotic reptiles bred in France. A retrospective observational study was conducted in all the reported cases from 2000 to 2020 in French poison control centers (PCCs). Two hundred and eighteen cases of bites were recorded. The sex ratio (M/F) of the patients was 1.79 and the mean age of the patients was 29.0 ± 15.8 years. Twenty-two cases (10.1%) occurred during the deep night. One hundred and eighty-six bites (85.7%) occurred in a private context; however, there were more cases of high severity when it occurred in a professional setting (60.0% vs. 11.2%, p < 0.01). The feeding/nursing activity accounted for 54.7% cases. Forty-three species of snake were identified; 28 were considered venomous. There were no deaths among the patients in the study. Most of the cases (85.8%) were of mild severity. All of the patients bitten by a venomous reptile were hospitalized: 10 patients received an antivenom; and 2 required surgery. Bites occurred at home and by a small number of popular non-venomous reptile species (pythons and boas, colubrids). These occurred mainly when handling the animals. The rare envenomations were mainly by Asian and American crotalids, followed by elapids. One-third of them were treated with antivenom when available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snakebite and Clinical Toxinology)
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17 pages, 5406 KiB  
Article
A Newly Isolated Alcaligenes faecalis ANSA176 with the Capability of Alleviating Immune Injury and Inflammation through Efficiently Degrading Ochratoxin A
by Rui Zheng, Hanrui Qing, Qiugang Ma, Xueting Huo, Shimeng Huang, Lihong Zhao, Jianyun Zhang and Cheng Ji
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080569 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins that threatens food and feed safety. Biodegradation of OTA has gained much attention. In this study, an Alcaligenes faecalis strain named ANSA176, with a strong OTA-detoxifying ability, was isolated from donkey intestinal chyme [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins that threatens food and feed safety. Biodegradation of OTA has gained much attention. In this study, an Alcaligenes faecalis strain named ANSA176, with a strong OTA-detoxifying ability, was isolated from donkey intestinal chyme and characterized. The strain ANSA176 could degrade 97.43% of 1 mg/mL OTA into OTα within 12 h, at 37 °C. The optimal levels for bacterial growth were 22–37 °C and pH 6.0–9.0. The effects of ANSA176 on laying hens with an OTA-contaminated diet were further investigated. A total of 36 laying hens were assigned to three dietary treatments: control group, OTA (250 µg/kg) group, and OTA + ANSA176 (6.2 × 108 CFU/kg diet) group. The results showed that OTA decreased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and egg weight (EW); meanwhile, it increased serum alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), immunoglobulin G (IgG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione reductase (GR). However, the ANSA176 supplementation inhibited or attenuated the OTA-induced damages. Taken together, OTA-degrading strain A. faecalis ANSA176 was able to alleviate the immune injury and inflammation induced by OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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20 pages, 1586 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Characterization Reveals Variation Potentially Involved in Pathogenicity and Mycotoxins Biosynthesis of Fusarium proliferatum Causing Spikelet Rot Disease in Rice
by Ling Wang, Shuailing Ge, Wenhao Liang, Weiyang Liao, Wen Li, Gui’ai Jiao, Xiangjin Wei, Gaoneng Shao, Lihong Xie, Zhonghua Sheng, Shikai Hu, Shaoqing Tang and Peisong Hu
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080568 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1921
Abstract
Fusarium proliferatum is the primary cause of spikelet rot disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. The pathogen not only infects a wide range of cereals, causing severe yield losses but also contaminates grains by producing various mycotoxins that are hazardous [...] Read more.
Fusarium proliferatum is the primary cause of spikelet rot disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in China. The pathogen not only infects a wide range of cereals, causing severe yield losses but also contaminates grains by producing various mycotoxins that are hazardous to humans and animals. Here, we firstly reported the whole-genome sequence of F. proliferatum strain Fp9 isolated from the rice spikelet. The genome was approximately 43.9 Mb with an average GC content of 48.28%, and it was assembled into 12 scaffolds with an N50 length of 4,402,342 bp. There is a close phylogenetic relationship between F. proliferatum and Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of the bakanae disease of rice. The expansion of genes encoding cell wall-degrading enzymes and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters was observed in F. proliferatum relative to other fungi with different nutritional lifestyles. Species-specific genes responsible for mycotoxins biosynthesis were identified among F. proliferatum and other Fusarium species. The expanded and unique genes were supposed to promote F. proliferatum adaptation and the rapid response to the host’s infection. The high-quality genome of F. proliferatum strain Fp9 provides a valuable resource for deciphering the mechanisms of pathogenicity and secondary metabolism, and therefore shed light on development of the disease management strategies and detoxification of mycotoxins contamination for spikelet rot disease in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity Mechanisms and Management Strategies of Mycotoxin)
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18 pages, 2051 KiB  
Article
The Occurrence and Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Emerging, and Masked Mycotoxins in Rice Bran and Maize from Southeast Asia
by Wipada Siri-anusornsak, Oluwatobi Kolawole, Warapa Mahakarnchanakul, Brett Greer, Awanwee Petchkongkaew, Julie Meneely, Christopher Elliott and Kanithaporn Vangnai
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080567 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2717
Abstract
Raw feed materials are often contaminated with mycotoxins, and co-occurrence of mycotoxins occurs frequently. A total of 250 samples i.e., rice bran and maize from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand were analysed using state-of-the-art liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring the occurrence of [...] Read more.
Raw feed materials are often contaminated with mycotoxins, and co-occurrence of mycotoxins occurs frequently. A total of 250 samples i.e., rice bran and maize from Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand were analysed using state-of-the-art liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for monitoring the occurrence of regulated, emerging, and masked mycotoxins. Seven regulated mycotoxins – aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, HT-2, and T-2 toxin were detected as well as some emerging mycotoxins, such as beauvericin, enniatin type B, stachybotrylactam, sterigmatocystin, and masked mycotoxins, specifically zearalenone-14-glucoside, and zearalenone-16-glucoside. Aspergillus and Fusarium mycotoxins were the most prevalent compounds identified, especially aflatoxins and fumonisin B1 in 100% and 95% of samples, respectively. Of the emerging toxins, beauvericin and enniatin type B showed high occurrences, with more than 90% of rice bran and maize contaminated, whereas zearalenone-14-glucoside and zearalenone-16-glucoside were found in rice bran in the range of 56–60%. Regulated mycotoxins (DON and ZEN) were the most frequent mycotoxin combination with emerging mycotoxins (BEA and ENN type B) in rice bran and maize. This study indicates that mycotoxin occurrence and co-occurrence are common in raw feed materials, and it is critical to monitor mycotoxin levels in ASEAN’s feedstuffs so that mitigation strategies can be developed and implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: Detection and Identification)
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16 pages, 3023 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Characterization and Biological Action of Type-1 Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Tissues of Salsola soda L.
by Nicola Landi, Sara Ragucci, Lucía Citores, Angela Clemente, Hafiza Z. F. Hussain, Rosario Iglesias, José M. Ferreras and Antimo Di Maro
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080566 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2133
Abstract
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are known as RNA N-glycosylases. They depurinate the major rRNA, damaging ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Here, new single-chain (type-1) RIPs named sodins were isolated from the seeds (five proteins), edible leaves (one protein) and roots (one protein) of Salsola [...] Read more.
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are known as RNA N-glycosylases. They depurinate the major rRNA, damaging ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Here, new single-chain (type-1) RIPs named sodins were isolated from the seeds (five proteins), edible leaves (one protein) and roots (one protein) of Salsola soda L. Sodins are able to release Endo’s fragment when incubated with rabbit and yeast ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis in cell-free systems (IC50 = 4.83–79.31 pM). In addition, sodin 5, the major form isolated from seeds, as well as sodin eL and sodin R, isolated from edible leaves and roots, respectively, display polynucleotide:adenosine glycosylase activity and are cytotoxic towards the Hela and COLO 320 cell lines (IC50 = 0.41–1200 nM), inducing apoptosis. The further characterization of sodin 5 reveals that this enzyme shows a secondary structure similar to other type-1 RIPs and a higher melting temperature (Tm = 76.03 ± 0.30 °C) and is non-glycosylated, as other sodins are. Finally, we proved that sodin 5 possesses antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins)
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12 pages, 460 KiB  
Article
The Lack of Systemic and Subclinical Side Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type-A in Patients Affected by Post-Stroke Spasticity: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
by Marco Battaglia, Margherita Beatrice Borg, Lara Torgano, Alberto Loro, Lucia Cosenza, Michele Bertoni, Alessandro Picelli, Andrea Santamato, Marco Invernizzi, Francesca Uberti, Claudio Molinari, Stefano Carda and Alessio Baricich
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080564 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Botulinum Neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) is the treatment of choice for focal post-stroke spasticity (PSS). Due to its mechanism of action and the administration method, some authors raised concern about its possible systemic diffusion leading to contralateral muscle weakness and autonomic nervous system (ANS) [...] Read more.
Botulinum Neurotoxin type-A (BoNT-A) is the treatment of choice for focal post-stroke spasticity (PSS). Due to its mechanism of action and the administration method, some authors raised concern about its possible systemic diffusion leading to contralateral muscle weakness and autonomic nervous system (ANS) alterations. Stroke itself is a cause of motor disability and ANS impairment; therefore, it is mandatory to prevent any source of additional loss of strength and adjunctive ANS disturbance. We enrolled 15 hemiparetic stroke survivors affected by PSS already addressed to BoNT-A treatment. Contralateral handgrip strength and ANS parameters, such as heart rate variability, impedance cardiography values, and respiratory sinus arrythmia, were measured 24 h before (T0) and 10 days after (T1) the ultrasound (US)-guided BoNT-A injection. At T1, neither strength loss nor modification of the basal ANS patterns were found. These findings support recent literature about the safety profile of BoNT-A, endorsing the importance of the US guide for a precise targeting and the sparing of “critical” structures as vessels and nerves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Toxin in the Movement Disorders Clinic: State of the Art)
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14 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
A Retrospective Evaluation of Snake Envenomation in Dogs in South Korea (2004–2021)
by Jeong-Min Lee, Joong-Hyun Song and Kun-Ho Song
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080565 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
Snake envenomation is a medical emergency capable of causing local and systemic complications. However, information on venomous snakebite in dogs in South Korea is scarce. In this study, fifty-nine dogs treated at a private veterinary clinic from 2004 to 2021 were retrospectively studied. [...] Read more.
Snake envenomation is a medical emergency capable of causing local and systemic complications. However, information on venomous snakebite in dogs in South Korea is scarce. In this study, fifty-nine dogs treated at a private veterinary clinic from 2004 to 2021 were retrospectively studied. The aim was to characterize the demographics, elapsed time between snakebite and veterinary clinic presentation, laboratory findings, clinical signs, treatments, adverse reactions to antivenom, and prognosis of venomous snakebite. Snakebite was mostly observed between 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. from April to October. On the days of envenomation, the weather conditions were mostly cloudy, followed by rain/precipitation, and least frequently fair weather. Grassland was the most common incident location, and leashed dog walking was the most frequent activity when snakebite occurred. The main local symptoms were edema, hemorrhagic discharge, cutaneous erythema, ulceration, and necrosis. Major systemic clinical signs were tachypnea, tachycardia, altered mentation, ptyalism, and hypotension. Based on the time interval between snakebite and presentation at the veterinary clinic, two groups were defined: <4 h (Group 1, 49.2%) and ≥4 h (Group 2, 50.8%). Systemic inflammation was more frequently observed in Group 2. The level of C-reactive protein at presentation (p = 0.036) and the highest-level during hospitalization (p = 0.023) were significantly elevated in Group 2 (≥4 h). The dogs in Group 2 displayed more frequent muscle damage (increased creatine kinase) than the dogs in Group 1, and a higher level of creatine kinase was associated with delayed (≥4 h) presentation after snakebite (p = 0.003). All of the dogs were treated symptomatically, and 34 dogs (58%) received antivenom. Treatment with antivenom showed no adverse reactions in this study. All of the treated dogs recovered. One dog was euthanized without any treatment due to respiratory distress, hypotension, and cost constraints. In conclusion, this study provides baseline information on venomous snakebite in dogs in South Korea. The prognosis was excellent, especially when the dogs were treated within 4 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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19 pages, 353 KiB  
Review
Plant-Derived Type I Ribosome Inactivating Protein-Based Targeted Toxins: A Review of the Clinical Experience
by David J. Flavell and Sopsamorn U. Flavell
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080563 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1372
Abstract
Targeted toxins (TT) for cancer treatment are a class of hybrid biologic comprised of a targeting domain coupled chemically or genetically to a proteinaceous toxin payload. The targeting domain of the TT recognises and binds to a defined target molecule on the cancer [...] Read more.
Targeted toxins (TT) for cancer treatment are a class of hybrid biologic comprised of a targeting domain coupled chemically or genetically to a proteinaceous toxin payload. The targeting domain of the TT recognises and binds to a defined target molecule on the cancer cell surface, thereby delivering the toxin that is then required to internalise to an appropriate intracellular compartment in order to kill the target cancer cell. Toxins from several different sources have been investigated over the years, and the two TTs that have so far been licensed for clinical use in humans; both utilise bacterial toxins. Relatively few clinical studies have, however, been undertaken with TTs that utilise single-chain type I ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). This paper reviews the clinical experience that has so far been obtained for a range of TTs based on five different type I RIPs and concludes that the majority studied in early phase trials show significant clinical activity that justifies further clinical investigation. A range of practical issues relating to the further clinical development of TT’s are also covered briefly together with some suggested solutions to outstanding problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotoxin and beyond—Past, Present and Future Perspectives)
29 pages, 2168 KiB  
Review
Adverse Events Associated with the Clinical Use of Bee Venom: A Review
by Jaehee Yoo and Gihyun Lee
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080562 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3090
Abstract
Bee venom is used to treat various diseases but can cause a tickling sensation and anaphylaxis during clinical treatment. Adverse events (AEs) associated with bee venom may vary depending on the dosage, method, route of administration, and the country, region, and user. We [...] Read more.
Bee venom is used to treat various diseases but can cause a tickling sensation and anaphylaxis during clinical treatment. Adverse events (AEs) associated with bee venom may vary depending on the dosage, method, route of administration, and the country, region, and user. We summarized the AEs of bee venom used in various ways, such as by the injection of extracts, venom immunotherapy (VIT), live bee stings, or external preparations. We conducted a search in eight databases up to 28 February 2022. It took one month to set the topic and about 2 weeks to set the search terms and the search formula. We conducted a search in advance on 21 February to see if there were omissions in the search terms and whether the search formula was correct. There were no restrictions on the language or bee venom method used and diseases treated. However, natural stings that were not used for treatment were excluded. A total of 105 studies were selected, of which 67, 26, 8, and 4 were on the injection of extracts, VIT, live bee stings, and external preparation, respectively. Sixty-three studies accurately described AEs, while 42 did not report AEs. Thirty-five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were evaluated for the risk of bias, and most of the studies had low significance. A large-scale clinical RCT that evaluates results based on objective criteria is needed. Strict criteria are needed for the reporting of AEs associated with bee venom Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Frontiers of Toxin in Pharmacology)
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23 pages, 3609 KiB  
Article
Documentation of Phytotoxic Compounds Existing in Parthenium hysterophorus L. Leaf and Their Phytotoxicity on Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. and Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop
by HM Khairul Bashar, Abdul Shukor Juraimi, Muhammad Saiful Ahmad-Hamdani, Md Kamal Uddin, Norhayu Asib, Md. Parvez Anwar, SM Rezaul Karim, Ferdoushi Rahaman, Mohammad Amdadul Haque and Akbar Hossain
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080561 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2004
Abstract
The utilization of the invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. for producing value-added products is novel research for sustaining our environment. Therefore, the current study aims to document the phytotoxic compounds contained in the leaf of parthenium and to examine the phytotoxic effects of [...] Read more.
The utilization of the invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L. for producing value-added products is novel research for sustaining our environment. Therefore, the current study aims to document the phytotoxic compounds contained in the leaf of parthenium and to examine the phytotoxic effects of all those phytochemicals on the seed sprouting and growth of Crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. and Goosegrass Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. The phytotoxic substances of the methanol extract of the P. hysterophorus leaf were analyzed by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS=MS. From the LC-MS study, many compounds, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, amino acids, pseudo guaianolides, and carbohydrate and phenolic acids, were identified. Among them, seven potential phytotoxic compounds (i.e., caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, anisic acid, and parthenin) were documented, those are responsible for plant growth inhibition. The concentration needed to reach 50% growth inhibition in respect to germination (ECg50), root length (ECr50), and shoot length (ECs50) was estimated and the severity of phytotoxicity of the biochemicals was determined by the pooled values (rank value) of three inhibition parameters. The highest growth inhibition was demarcated by caffeic acid, which was confirmed and indicated by cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). In the case of D. sanguinalis, the germination was reduced by 60.02%, root length was reduced by 76.49%, and shoot length was reduced by 71.14% when the chemical was applied at 800 μM concentration, but in the case of E. indica, 100% reduction of seed germination, root length, and shoot length reduction occurred at the same concentration. The lowest rank value was observed from caffeic acids in both E. indica (rank value 684.7) and D. sanguinalis (909.5) caused by parthenin. It means that caffeic acid showed the highest phytotoxicity. As a result, there is a significant chance that the parthenium weed will be used to create bioherbicides in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Research for the Potential Use of Plant Toxins)
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17 pages, 2843 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Stages of Conidia Germination and Associated Genes in Aspergillus flavus: An Essential Role for Redox Genes
by Chong Li, Sifan Jia, Shahid Ali Rajput, Desheng Qi and Shuai Wang
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080560 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Aflatoxin is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food and feedstuff, and poses significant global health risks. Aflatoxins are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus. Conidia germination is the first step for A. flavus development. In this study, [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food and feedstuff, and poses significant global health risks. Aflatoxins are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus. Conidia germination is the first step for A. flavus development. In this study, the transcriptome of A. flavus conidia was analyzed at three different stages of conidia germination, which were characterized by two different microscopes. Dormant conidia grew isotropically with the cell size increasing up to 5 h of after being inoculated in a liquid medium. Conidia changed towards polarized growth from 5 to 10 h of germination, during which germ tubes formed. Moreover, transcriptome analyses revealed that a larger number of genes changed in the isotropic growth stages compared to polarized growth, with 1910 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) up-regulated and 969 DEGs down-regulated in isotropic growth. GO and KEGG pathway analyses and pathway enrichment demonstrated that, in the isotropic growth stage, the top three pathways were translation, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The ribosome was a key pathway in translation, as RPS28e, RPL53 and RPL36e were the top three DEGs. For polarized growth stage, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism were the top three most active pathways. POX1 from alpha-linolenic acid metabolism was a DEG in lipid metabolism as well. Genes related to the antioxidant system were crucial for conidia germination. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed the same trends as the transcriptome for redox genes, and essential oils have a significant inhibitory effect on germination rate and redox gene expression. Therefore, redox genes play an important role during germination, and the disruption of redox genes is involved in the mechanism of action of coumalic acid and geraniol against A. flavus spore germination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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13 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Iridoid Glycosides Isolated from Bellardia trixago Identified as Inhibitors of Orobanche cumana Radicle Growth
by Gabriele Soriano, Antonietta Siciliano, Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, Antonio Cala Peralta, Marco Masi, Antonio Moreno-Robles, Marco Guida and Alessio Cimmino
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080559 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1871
Abstract
Orobanche cumana is an obligate holoparasitic plant with noxious effects in sunflower crops. Bellardia trixago is a facultative hemiparasitic plant that infects ruderal plants without noxious significance in agriculture and is known to produce a wide spectrum of bioactive metabolites. The objective of [...] Read more.
Orobanche cumana is an obligate holoparasitic plant with noxious effects in sunflower crops. Bellardia trixago is a facultative hemiparasitic plant that infects ruderal plants without noxious significance in agriculture and is known to produce a wide spectrum of bioactive metabolites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of B. trixago on the growth of O. cumana seedlings. Three different extracts using solvents of increasing polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were prepared from the flowers, aerial green organs and roots of two populations, a white-flowered and a yellow-flowered population of B. trixago, both collected in southern Spain. Each extract was studied using allelopathic screenings on O. cumana which resulted in the identification of allelopathic activity of the ethyl acetate extracts against Orobanche radicles. Five iridoid glycosides were isolated together with benzoic acid from the ethyl acetate extract of aerial green organs by bio-guided purification. These compounds were identified as bartsioside, melampyroside, mussaenoside, gardoside methyl ester and aucubin. Among them, melampyroside was found to be the most abundant constituent in the extract (44.3% w/w), as well as the most phytotoxic iridoid on O. cumana radicle, showing a 72.6% inhibition of radicle growth. This activity of melampyroside was significantly high when compared with the inhibitory activity of benzoic acid (25.9%), a phenolic acid with known allelopathic activity against weeds. The ecotoxicological profile of melampyroside was evaluated using organisms representing different trophic levels of the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, namely producers (green freshwater algae Raphidocelis subcapitata and macrophyte Lepidium sativum), consumers (water flea Daphnia magna and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans) and decomposers (bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri). The ecotoxicity of melampyroside differed significantly depending on the test organism showing the highest toxicity to daphnia, nematodes and bacteria, and a lower toxicity to algae and macrophytes. The findings of the present study may provide useful information for the generation of green alternatives to synthetic herbicides for the control of O. cumana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities and Potential Applications of Phytotoxins)
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23 pages, 4938 KiB  
Article
Bee Venom Induces Acute Inflammation through a H2O2-Mediated System That Utilizes Superoxide Dismutase
by Kwang-Sik Lee, Bo-Yeon Kim, Min-Ji Park, Yijie Deng, Jin-Myung Kim, Yun-Hui Kim, Eun-Jee Heo, Hyung-Joo Yoon, Kyeong-Yong Lee, Yong-Soo Choi and Byung-Rae Jin
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080558 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Venoms from venomous arthropods, including bees, typically induce an immediate local inflammatory response; however, how venoms acutely elicit inflammatory response and which components induce an inflammatory response remain unknown. Moreover, the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in venom and its functional link to [...] Read more.
Venoms from venomous arthropods, including bees, typically induce an immediate local inflammatory response; however, how venoms acutely elicit inflammatory response and which components induce an inflammatory response remain unknown. Moreover, the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in venom and its functional link to the acute inflammatory response has not been determined to date. Here, we confirmed that SOD3 in bee venom (bvSOD3) acts as an inducer of H2O2 production to promote acute inflammatory responses. In mouse models, exogenous bvSOD3 rapidly induced H2O2 overproduction through superoxides that are endogenously produced by melittin and phospholipase A2, which then upregulated caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory molecule secretion and promoted an acute inflammatory response. We also showed that the relatively severe noxious effect of bvSOD3 elevated a type 2 immune response and bvSOD3 immunization protected against venom-induced inflammation. Our findings provide a novel view of the mechanism underlying bee venom-induced acute inflammation and offer a new approach to therapeutic treatments for bee envenoming and bee venom preparations for venom therapy/immunotherapy. Full article
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9 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
Real-World Longitudinal Experience of Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Parkinson and Essential Tremor
by Olivia Samotus, Yekta Mahdi and Mandar Jog
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080557 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Background: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy for upper-limb tremor has emerged as a promising option. However, it is unclear in real-world practices whether a technology-guided approach can compare with expert clinical assessments (including surface anatomy and palpation) for improving outcomes. This retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) therapy for upper-limb tremor has emerged as a promising option. However, it is unclear in real-world practices whether a technology-guided approach can compare with expert clinical assessments (including surface anatomy and palpation) for improving outcomes. This retrospective study aims to review our clinical outcomes of treating essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) tremor using either clinical- or kinematic-based injection pattern determination methods. Methods: 68 ET and 45 PD patients received at least one injection for their upper-limb tremor (unilateral or bilateral) in the last 7 years. Demographics of patients and BoNT-A injections were collected. A Mann–Whitney U statistical test was used to compare outcome measures between ET and PD cohorts. Results: Mean age (72 ± 9 years), number of injections (5), years receiving therapy (~2 years), clinic- (~57%) or kinematic-based patterns, and self-paying (52%) were similar between both cohorts. BoNT-A as a monotherapy in both upper limbs was received in more ET than PD patients. Double reconstitution of Xeomin® in the wrist flexors/extensors, supinator, biceps, and triceps were most injected. Discontinuation due to no benefit/weakness was not dependent on the injection pattern determination approach. Conclusions: Kinematic-based BoNT-A injections produced similar treatment outcomes to injections based on the clinical expertise of the expert injector. This suggests that kinematics could be used by a non-expert to attain equivalent efficacy potentially improving access to this treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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12 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates Are Associated with Phenol-Soluble Modulin (PSM) Production
by Harshad Lade, Sung Hee Chung, Yeonhee Lee, Hwang-Soo Joo and Jae-Seok Kim
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080556 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are important S. aureus virulence factors that cause cytolysis, mast cell degranulation, and stimulate inflammatory responses. In this study, PSM production by S. aureus clinical isolates was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and correlated with staphylococcal protein A ( [...] Read more.
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are important S. aureus virulence factors that cause cytolysis, mast cell degranulation, and stimulate inflammatory responses. In this study, PSM production by S. aureus clinical isolates was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and correlated with staphylococcal protein A (spa) type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. Of 106 S. aureus clinical isolates, 50 (47.2%) corresponded to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 56 (52.8%) to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). LC-MS analysis revealed no significant difference in average PSMα3, PSMα4, PSMβ2, and δ-toxin production between MSSA and MRSA isolates, but PSMα1, PSMα2, and PSMβ1 production were higher in MSSA than MRSA. This study demonstrated that average PSMα1–α4, PSMβ1–β2, and δ-toxin production by SCCmec type II strains was significantly lower than the IV, IVA, and V strains. Most of the SCCmec type II strains (n = 17/25; 68.0%) did not produce δ-toxin, suggesting a dysfunctional Agr system. The spa type t111 (except one strain) and t2460 (except one strain producing PSM α1–α4) did not produce PSMα1–α4 and δ-toxin, while average PSM production was higher among the t126 and t1784 strains. This study showed that the genotype of S. aureus, specifically the spa and SCCmec types, is important in characterizing the production of PSMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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13 pages, 4104 KiB  
Article
Spaceflight Changes the Production and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites in Beauveria bassiana
by Youdan Zhang, Xiaochen Zhang, Jieming Zhang, Shaukat Ali and Jianhui Wu
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080555 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Studies on microorganism response spaceflight date back to 1960. However, nothing conclusive is known concerning the effects of spaceflight on virulence and environmental tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi; thus, this area of research remains open to further exploration. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus [...] Read more.
Studies on microorganism response spaceflight date back to 1960. However, nothing conclusive is known concerning the effects of spaceflight on virulence and environmental tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi; thus, this area of research remains open to further exploration. In this study, the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain SB010) was exposed to spaceflight (ChangZheng 5 space shuttle during 5 May 2020 to 8 May 2020) as a part of the Key Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, China, in collaboration with the China Space Program. The study revealed significant differences between the secondary metabolite profiles of the wild isolate (SB010) and the spaceflight-exposed isolate (BHT021, BH030, BHT098) of B. bassiana. Some of the secondary metabolites/toxins, including enniatin A2, brevianamide F, macrosporin, aphidicolin, and diacetoxyscirpenol, were only produced by the spaceflight-exposed isolate (BHT021, BHT030). The study revealed increased insecticidal activities for of crude protein extracts of B. bassiana spaceflight mutants (BHT021 and BH030, respectively) against Megalurothrips usitatus 5 days post application when compared crude protein extracts of the wild isolate (SB010). The data obtained support the idea of using space mutation as a tool for development/screening of fungal strains producing higher quantities of secondary metabolites, ultimately leading to increased toxicity/virulence against the target insect host. Full article
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31 pages, 3760 KiB  
Article
Microcalorimetric Investigations of Reversible Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Unfolding
by Susan C. Berry, Odbert A. Triplett, Li-Rong Yu, Mark E. Hart, Lauren S. Jackson and William H. Tolleson
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080554 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2659
Abstract
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a common food-borne illness often associated with contamination during food handling. The genes for Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) isoforms SEA and SEB are frequently detected in human nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates and these toxins are commonly associated with SFP. [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a common food-borne illness often associated with contamination during food handling. The genes for Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) isoforms SEA and SEB are frequently detected in human nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates and these toxins are commonly associated with SFP. Past studies described the resistance of preformed SE proteins to heat inactivation and their reactivation upon cooling in foods. Full thermodynamic analyses for these processes have not been reported, however. The thermal stabilities of SEA, SEB, and SEH and reversibility of unfolding in simple buffers were investigated at pH 4.5 and pH 6.8 using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). SEA and SEB unfolding was irreversible at pH 6.8 and at least partially reversible at pH 4.5 while SEH unfolding was irreversible at pH 4.5 and reversible at pH 6.8. Additional studies showed maximum refolding for SEB at pH 3.5–4.0 and diminished refolding at pH 4.5 with increasing ionic strength. SE-stimulated secretion of interferon-gamma by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was used to assess residual SE biological activity following heat treatments using conditions matching those used for DSC studies. The biological activities of SEB and SEH exhibited greater resistance to heat inactivation than that of SEA. The residual activities of heat-treated SEB and SEH were measurable but diminished further in the presence of reconstituted nonfat dry milk adjusted to pH 4.5 or pH 6.8. To different extents, the pH and ionic strengths typical for foods influenced the thermal stabilities of SEA, SEB, and SEH and their potentials to renature spontaneously after heat treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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18 pages, 1491 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Lanthanum Chloride on Growth Performance, Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Juvenile Clarias gariepinus Catfish Fed Diets Amended with Mixtures of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1
by Bolade Thomas Adeyemo, Ndidi Gloria Enefe, Tanimomo Babatunde Kayode, Augustina Ezekwesili, Olatunde Hamza Olabode, Audu Zakariya, Gbenga Michael Oladele, Samson Eneojo Abalaka, Wesley Daniel Nafarnda and Clement Barikuma Innocent Alawa
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080553 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1542
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary lanthanum chloride on the growth and health performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus when fed diets experimentally contaminated with mixtures of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. A control diet, (mycotoxin free, diet A), mycotoxin contaminated [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary lanthanum chloride on the growth and health performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus when fed diets experimentally contaminated with mixtures of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. A control diet, (mycotoxin free, diet A), mycotoxin contaminated (diet B), and two mycotoxin-contaminated diets amended with lanthanum chloride (200 mg/kg, diet C; and 400 mg/kg, diet D), were fed to 450 fish divided equally into five groups (each with three replicates) for 56 days. The fish were randomly sampled at the time points: day 7, 28 and day 56 for the zootechnical, hematological and serum biochemical evaluations. The fish fed the diets amended with lanthanum chloride exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) better performance indices compared with the fish fed only the mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Lanthanum chloride elicited significant (p < 0.05) increases in erythrocytes and leucocytes count and significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase activities, urea and uric acid concentrations in the fish fed the diets contaminated with mixtures of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. The study indicates that juvenile Clarias gariepinus may be beneficially cultured with mycotoxin-contaminated grains amended with 200 to 400 mg/kg lanthanum chloride. Full article
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16 pages, 2237 KiB  
Article
Mycotoxins in Cattle Feed and Feed Ingredients in Brazil: A Five-Year Survey
by Gabriela L. Biscoto, Lauranne A. Salvato, Érika R. Alvarenga, Raul R. S. Dias, Guilherme R. G. Pinheiro, Mariana P. Rodrigues, Priscila N. Pinto, Rossimiriam P. Freitas and Kelly M. Keller
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080552 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a variety of fungi, which when ingested can cause several deleterious effects to the health of humans and animals. In this work, the detection and quantification of six major mycotoxins (aflatoxins—AFLA, deoxynivalenol—DON, fumonisins—FUMO, ochratoxin A—OTA, T-2 [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a variety of fungi, which when ingested can cause several deleterious effects to the health of humans and animals. In this work, the detection and quantification of six major mycotoxins (aflatoxins—AFLA, deoxynivalenol—DON, fumonisins—FUMO, ochratoxin A—OTA, T-2 toxin—T-2 and zearalenone—ZON) in 1749 samples of feed and feed ingredients for cattle, collected in Brazil between 2017 and 2021, was carried out using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In total, 97% of samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin, yet, very few samples exceeded the lowest European Union guidance values for cattle, and the estimated daily intake also showed a low risk for the animals. However, co-occurrences were widely observed, as 87% of samples contained two or more mycotoxins at the same time, and the presence of more than one mycotoxin at the same time in feed can lead to interactions. In conclusion, the contamination of feed and feed ingredients for cattle with mycotoxins in Brazil is very common. Hence, the monitoring of these mycotoxins is of significant importance for food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed—Occurrence and Risk Assessment)
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16 pages, 2891 KiB  
Article
Insights into the Underlying Mechanism of Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 Using Different Carbon Sources
by Shan Wei, Chaojiang Hu, Ping Nie, Huanchen Zhai, Shuaibing Zhang, Na Li, Yangyong Lv and Yuansen Hu
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080551 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Aspergillus niger produces carcinogenic ochratoxin A (OTA), a serious food safety and human health concern. Here, the ability of A. niger CBS 513.88 to produce OTA using different carbon sources was investigated and the underlying regulatory mechanism was elucidated. The results indicated that [...] Read more.
Aspergillus niger produces carcinogenic ochratoxin A (OTA), a serious food safety and human health concern. Here, the ability of A. niger CBS 513.88 to produce OTA using different carbon sources was investigated and the underlying regulatory mechanism was elucidated. The results indicated that 6% sucrose, glucose, and arabinose could trigger OTA biosynthesis and that 1586 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) overlapped compared to a non-inducing nutritional source, peptone. The genes that participated in OTA and its precursor phenylalanine biosynthesis, including pks, p450, nrps, hal, and bzip, were up-regulated, while the genes involved in oxidant detoxification, such as cat and pod, were down-regulated. Correspondingly, the activities of catalase and peroxidase were also decreased. Notably, the novel Gal4-like transcription factor An12g00840 (AnGal4), which is vital in regulating OTA biosynthesis, was identified. Deletion of AnGal4 elevated the OTA yields by 47.65%, 54.60%, and 309.23% using sucrose, glucose, and arabinose as carbon sources, respectively. Additionally, deletion of AnGal4 increased the superoxide anion and H2O2 contents, as well as the sensitivity to H2O2, using the three carbon sources. These results suggest that these three carbon sources repressed AnGal4, leading to the up-regulation of the OTA biosynthetic genes and alteration of cellular redox homeostasis, ultimately triggering OTA biosynthesis in A. niger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in China (Volume II))
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25 pages, 1884 KiB  
Review
Analysis of Total-Forms of Cyanotoxins Microcystins in Biological Matrices: A Methodological Review
by Pierre Bouteiller, Emilie Lance, Thierry Guérin and Ronel Biré
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080550 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptidic toxins produced by many cyanobacteria. Microcystins can be accumulated in various matrices in two forms: a free cellular fraction and a covalently protein-bound form. To detect and quantify the concentration of microcystins, a panel of techniques on various [...] Read more.
Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptidic toxins produced by many cyanobacteria. Microcystins can be accumulated in various matrices in two forms: a free cellular fraction and a covalently protein-bound form. To detect and quantify the concentration of microcystins, a panel of techniques on various matrices (water, sediments, and animal tissues) is available. The analysis of MCs can concern the free or the total (free plus covalently bound) fractions. Free-form analyses of MCs are the most common and easiest to detect, whereas total-form analyses are much less frequent and more complex to achieve. The objective of this review is to summarize the different methods of extraction and analysis that have been developed for total forms. Four extraction methods were identified: MMPB (2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid) method, deconjugation at basic pH, ozonolysis, and laser irradiation desorption. The study of the bibliography on the methods of extraction and analysis of the total forms of MCs showed that the reference method for the subject remains the MMPB method even if alternative methods and, in particular, deconjugation at basic pH, showed results encouraging the continuation of the methodological development on different matrices and on naturally-contaminated samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prospective Studies in Survey and Biosurvey of Cyanotoxins In Situ)
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12 pages, 2395 KiB  
Article
Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD
by Matthias Koch, Tatjana Mauch and Juliane Riedel
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080549 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up [...] Read more.
Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up to avoid matrix interferences. Therefore, a highly selective extraction and clean-up method based on reversible covalent hydrazine chemistry (RCHC) using hydrazine-functionalized silica was developed. This efficient solid-phase extraction (SPE) involves reversible hydrazone formation of ZEN with the hydrazine moiety covalently bound to a solid phase. Optimal conditions were achieved with 1 mL SPE cartridges filled with 400 mg of hydrazine-functionalized silica. The developed RCHC-SPE method was validated in an interlaboratory comparison study (ILC) with twelve participants analyzing six edible vegetable oils with a focus on maize oils. The derived method parameters (ZEN recovery 83%, repeatability 7.0%, and reproducibility 18%) meet the performance criteria of Commission Regulation (EC) No 401/2006. The developed RCHC-SPE-based HPLC-FLD method allows the reliable quantification of ZEN in the range of 47–494 µg/kg for different types of edible vegetable oils, also for matrix-reach native oils. Due to the high efficiency, the significantly reduced matrix load helps to extend the lifetime of analytical equipment. Furthermore, the re-useability of the RCHC-SPE cartridges contributes to an eco-friendly approach and reduced analysis costs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on ZEN quantification in edible vegetable oils based on manual RCHC-SPE cartridges. Due to its high performance, the developed RCHC-SPE method is a promising alternative to the current European standard method EN 16924:2017 (HPLC-FLD part). Full article
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16 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO
by Hina Shanakhat, Susan P. McCormick, Mark Busman, Joseph O. Rich and Matthew G. Bakker
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080548 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol introduce a health risk to the food supply and are costly to manage or avoid. Technologies for reducing or eliminating the toxicity of deoxynivalenol could be useful in a variety of processes, such as in preserving the value as [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol introduce a health risk to the food supply and are costly to manage or avoid. Technologies for reducing or eliminating the toxicity of deoxynivalenol could be useful in a variety of processes, such as in preserving the value as animal feed of byproducts of ethanol production. We characterized transformation products of deoxynivalenol that were formed by the combination of a fungal laccase paired with the chemical mediator 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol groups at the C3 and C15 positions of deoxynivalenol were oxidized to ketones, and the chemical mediator became covalently linked to the C4 position. Conditions experienced during gas chromatography led to the dissociation of TEMPO, forming 3,15-diketodeoxynivalenol. Understanding the range of possible modifications to deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes is a necessary step toward effective remediation of contaminated grain. Full article
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19 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Risk Assessment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Edible Oils
by Farhat Jubeen, Nida Zahra, Zill-i-Huma Nazli, Muhammad K. Saleemi, Farheen Aslam, Iram Naz, Lamia B. Farhat, Asmaa Saleh, Samar Z. Alshawwa and Munawar Iqbal
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080547 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2818
Abstract
Contamination of edible oils with aflatoxins (AFs) is a universal issue due to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins on human health and the fact that edible oils are a major source of fungal growth, particularly storage fungi (Aspergillus sp.). The objective of [...] Read more.
Contamination of edible oils with aflatoxins (AFs) is a universal issue due to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins on human health and the fact that edible oils are a major source of fungal growth, particularly storage fungi (Aspergillus sp.). The objective of this study was to assess aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in edible oil used in fried food in order to determine the risk of cancer from AFB1 exposure through cooked food using the FAO/WHO’s and EFSA’s margin of exposure (MOE) quantitative liver cancer risk approaches. Using Mycosep 226 columns and HPLC-FLD, 100 samples of cooking oils (soybean, canola, and sunflower oil) from different food points were analyzed for contamination with aflatoxins. Of all the samples tested, 89% were positive for total aflatoxins and AFB1, with 65% indicating AF concentrations beyond permitted levels. Canola oil was found to contain higher levels of AFB1 and AFs than soybean and sunflower oil. Almost 71 percent of canola oil samples (range of 54.4–281.1 µg/kg) were contaminated with AF levels higher than the proposed limits of the European Union (20 µg/kg). The consumption of canola oil samples used in fried foods had MOE values that were significantly lower as compared to sunflower and soybean oils, indicating that risk reduction is feasible. Additionally, compared to soybean and sunflower oil, canola oil exhibited a greater threat of liver cancer cases linked to AFB1 exposure (17.13 per 100,000 males over 35 and 10.93 per 100,000 females over 35). Using a quantitative liver cancer approach, health risk valuation demonstrated that males and females over the age of 35 are at significant risk of developing liver cancer. The health risk assessment exposed that the males and female over the age of 35 are at considerable risk of liver cancer by using a quantitative liver cancer approach. The innovation of this study lies in the fact that no such study is reported related to liver cancer risk evaluation accompanied with AFB1 exposure from consumed edible oil. As a result, a national strategy must be developed to solve this problem so that edible oil products are subjected to severe regulatory examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicology Research on Mycotoxins)
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