Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 41361

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: mycotoxin bio-degradation; mycotoxin detoxification; feed-food safety; molecular toxicology of dietary mycotoxins
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: feed safety; mycotoxin toxicology; fungistasis

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: mycotoxin; biodegradation of mycotoxin; molecular toxicity of foodstuff contaminants; nutritional, physical, chemical and biological mitigation strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins contamination is a continuing global problem that severely affects animal health and performance, posing great food safety hazards. Eliminating feed mycotoxin contamination and hazards is the industry’s common aspiration.

In recent years, animal mycotoxin poisonings occurrs frequently all over the world. This has brought huge economic losses to the agriculture industry. The potential damage caused by mycotoxin-induced decreased disease resistance in animals and food safety problems is incalculable. There is a long way to go to prevent mycotoxin hazards.

Animals themselves have a certain ability to detoxify mycotoxins, and some bioactive substances like lipoic acid, sporoderm-broken spores of Ganderma lucidum, and quercetin can improve the detoxification ability of animals, so as to reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins. On the other hand, biodegradation is a promising strategy to eliminate mycotoxins as it provides a possible means of transforming mycotoxins into nontoxic or less toxic metabolites under mild conditions, retaining the sensory quality and nutritional value of agricultural commodities.

This Special Issue of Toxins aims to gather contributions of original research or reviews related to novel strategies for biodegradation and detoxification of mycotoxins. Topics of interest will especially include novel mycotoxin-degrading microorganisms and enzymes, fermentation technology to reduce the mycotoxin content in cereal products, and studies on alleviating the mycotoxicosis of livestocks by the addition of bioactive substances or mycotoxin biodegradation agents.

Prof. Dr. Qiugang Ma
Prof. Dr. Desheng Qi
Dr. Lihong Zhao
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Biodegradation
  • Detoxification
  • Enzymes
  • Microorganisms
  • Bioactive substances

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 237 KiB  
Editorial
Novel Strategies for the Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins in Post-Harvest Grain
by Lihong Zhao, Desheng Qi and Qiugang Ma
Toxins 2023, 15(7), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15070445 - 5 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1449
Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi belonging, in particular, to the Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genera [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
Four PQQ-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases Responsible for the Oxidative Detoxification of Deoxynivalenol in a Novel Bacterium Ketogulonicigenium vulgare D3_3 Originated from the Feces of Tenebrio molitor Larvae
by Yang Wang, Donglei Zhao, Wei Zhang, Songshan Wang, Yu Wu, Songxue Wang, Yongtan Yang and Baoyuan Guo
Toxins 2023, 15(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15060367 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1721
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is frequently detected in cereals and cereal-based products and has a negative impact on human and animal health. In this study, an unprecedented DON-degrading bacterial isolate D3_3 was isolated from a sample of Tenebrio molitor larva feces. A 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is frequently detected in cereals and cereal-based products and has a negative impact on human and animal health. In this study, an unprecedented DON-degrading bacterial isolate D3_3 was isolated from a sample of Tenebrio molitor larva feces. A 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis and genome-based average nucleotide identity comparison clearly revealed that strain D3_3 belonged to the species Ketogulonicigenium vulgare. This isolate D3_3 could efficiently degrade 50 mg/L of DON under a broad range of conditions, such as pHs of 7.0–9.0 and temperatures of 18–30 °C, as well as during aerobic or anaerobic cultivation. 3-keto-DON was identified as the sole and finished DON metabolite using mass spectrometry. In vitro toxicity tests revealed that 3-keto-DON had lower cytotoxicity to human gastric epithelial cells and higher phytotoxicity to Lemna minor than its parent mycotoxin DON. Additionally, four genes encoding pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases in the genome of isolate D3_3 were identified as being responsible for the DON oxidation reaction. Overall, as a highly potent DON-degrading microbe, a member of the genus Ketogulonicigenium is reported for the first time in this study. The discovery of this DON-degrading isolate D3_3 and its four dehydrogenases will allow microbial strains and enzyme resources to become available for the future development of DON-detoxifying agents for food and animal feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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16 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Ery4 Laccase: From In Vitro to Contaminated Corn
by Martina Loi, Silvana De Leonardis, Biancamaria Ciasca, Costantino Paciolla, Giuseppina Mulè and Miriam Haidukowski
Toxins 2023, 15(5), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15050310 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. and are found in food and feed as contaminants worldwide. Due to climate change, AFs occurrence is expected to increase also in western Europe. Therefore, to ensure food and feed safety, it is [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. and are found in food and feed as contaminants worldwide. Due to climate change, AFs occurrence is expected to increase also in western Europe. Therefore, to ensure food and feed safety, it is mandatory to develop green technologies for AFs reduction in contaminated matrices. With this regard, enzymatic degradation is an effective and environmentally friendly approach under mild operational conditions and with minor impact on the food and feed matrix. In this work, Ery4 laccase, acetosyringone, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid were investigated in vitro, then applied in artificially contaminated corn for AFB1 reduction. AFB1 (0.1 µg/mL) was completely removed in vitro and reduced by 26% in corn. Several degradation products were detected in vitro by UHPLC-HRMS and likely corresponded to AFQ1, epi-AFQ1, AFB1-diol, or AFB1dialehyde, AFB2a, and AFM1. Protein content was not altered by the enzymatic treatment, while slightly higher levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 were detected. Although further studies are needed to improve AFB1 reduction and reduce the impact of this treatment in corn, the results of this study are promising and suggest that Ery4 laccase can be effectively applied for the reduction in AFB1 in corn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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16 pages, 1613 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Strategies to Counteract Mycotoxins Contamination and Cowpea Weevil in Chickpea Seeds during Post-Harvest
by Claudia Pisuttu, Samuele Risoli, Lorenzo Moncini, Cristina Nali, Elisa Pellegrini and Sabrina Sarrocco
Toxins 2023, 15(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins15010061 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3083
Abstract
Mycotoxins contamination and pest infestation of foods and feeds represent a pivotal threat for food safety and security worldwide, with crucial implications for human and animal health. Controlled atmosphere could be a sustainable strategy to reduce mycotoxins content and counteract the vitality of [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins contamination and pest infestation of foods and feeds represent a pivotal threat for food safety and security worldwide, with crucial implications for human and animal health. Controlled atmosphere could be a sustainable strategy to reduce mycotoxins content and counteract the vitality of deleterious organisms in foodstuff. Ozone treatment (O3, 500 ppb for 30, 60 or 90 min) and high nitrogen concentration (N2, 99% for 21 consecutive days) were tested in the post-harvest management of four batches of Cicer arietinum grains to control the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi and their secondary metabolites, as well as pest (i.e., Callosobruchus maculatus) infestation. At the end of the treatment, O3 significantly decreased the incidence of Penicillium spp. (by an average of −50%, independently to the time of exposure) and reduced the patulin and aflatoxins content after 30 min (−85 and −100%, respectively). High N2 concentrations remarkably reduced mycotoxins contamination (by an average of −94%) and induced pest mortality (at 100% after 5 days of exposure). These results confirm the promising potential of O3 and N2 in post-harvest conservation strategies, leading to further investigations to evaluate the effects on the qualitative characteristics of grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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14 pages, 10906 KiB  
Article
Epigallocatechin Gallate and Glutathione Attenuate Aflatoxin B1-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Ducklings via Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and the Nrf2 Signalling Pathway
by Yanan Wang, Jiayu Wu, Lingfeng Wang, Ping Yang, Zuhong Liu, Shahid Ali Rajput, Mubashar Hassan and Desheng Qi
Toxins 2022, 14(12), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14120876 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exists widely in feed and food with severe hazards, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and glutathione (GSH) have been reported as having anti-oxidative and other functions. The present study aimed [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exists widely in feed and food with severe hazards, posing a serious threat to human and animal health. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and glutathione (GSH) have been reported as having anti-oxidative and other functions. The present study aimed to investigate the detoxification effect of EGCG and GSH alone or in combination on AFB1 exposure in ducklings. Fifty one-day-old male ducklings were randomly assigned into five experimental groups (n = 10): 1. Control (CTR); 2. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 (AFB1); 3. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 100 mg/kg BW EGCG (AFB1 + EGCG); 4. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 30 mg/kg BW GSH (AFB1 + GSH); 5. 0.3 mg/kg BW AFB1 + 100 mg/kg BW EGCG + 30 mg/kg BW GSH (AFB1 + EGCG + GSH). The experiment lasted for seven days. Compared with the CTR group, AFB1 reduced growth performance, total serum protein and albumin content, increased serum enzyme activity (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), and caused pathological damage to the ducklings’ livers. AFB1 exposure increased malondialdehyde content and decreased superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione content in the liver. EGCG and GSH alone or in combination mitigated these adverse effects. Meanwhile, EGCG and GSH attenuate apoptosis of hepatocytes, and regulated AFB1-induced changes in the abundance of genes contained in the Keap1/Nrf2 signalling and apoptotic pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that EGCG and GSH alleviate the hepatocyte injury induced by AFB1 by inhibiting oxidative stress and attenuating excessive mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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16 pages, 2793 KiB  
Article
Dietary Catalase Supplementation Alleviates Deoxynivalenol-Induced Oxidative Stress and Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Broiler Chickens
by Weiwei Wang, Jingqiang Zhu, Qingyun Cao, Changming Zhang, Zemin Dong, Dingyuan Feng, Hui Ye and Jianjun Zuo
Toxins 2022, 14(12), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14120830 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Catalase (CAT) can eliminate oxygen radicals, but it is unclear whether exogenous CAT can protect chickens against deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental CAT on antioxidant property and gut microbiota in DON-exposed broilers. A total of [...] Read more.
Catalase (CAT) can eliminate oxygen radicals, but it is unclear whether exogenous CAT can protect chickens against deoxynivalenol (DON)-induced oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental CAT on antioxidant property and gut microbiota in DON-exposed broilers. A total of 144 one-day-old Lingnan yellow-feathered male broilers were randomly divided into three groups (six replicates/group): control, DON group, and DON + CAT (DONC) group. The control and DON group received a diet without and with DON contamination, respectively, while the DONC group received a DON-contaminated diet with 200 U/kg CAT added. Parameter analysis was performed on d 21. The results showed that DON-induced liver enlargement (p < 0.05) was blocked by CAT addition, which also normalized the increases (p < 0.05) in hepatic oxidative metabolites contents and caspase-9 expression. Additionally, CAT addition increased (p < 0.05) the jejunal CAT and GSH-Px activities coupled with T-AOC in DON-exposed broilers, as well as the normalized DON-induced reductions (p < 0.05) of jejunal villus height (VH) and its ratio for crypt depth. There was a difference (p < 0.05) in gut microbiota among groups. The DON group was enriched (p < 0.05) with some harmful bacteria (e.g., Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriales, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia/Shigella) that elicited negative correlations (p < 0.05) with jejunal CAT activity, and VH. DONC group was differentially enriched (p < 0.05) with certain beneficial bacteria (e.g., Acidobacteriota, Anaerofustis, and Anaerotruncus) that could benefit intestinal antioxidation and morphology. In conclusion, supplemental CAT alleviates DON-induced oxidative stress and intestinal damage in broilers, which can be associated with its ability to improve gut microbiota, aside from its direct oxygen radical-scavenging activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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8 pages, 1622 KiB  
Communication
Inhibition of Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Broth and Poultry Feed
by Bing Han, Guang-Wu Fu and Jin-Quan Wang
Toxins 2022, 14(10), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14100655 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common contaminant in food and feed during storage, does great harm to human and animal health. Five essential oils (thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral) were tested for their inhibition effect against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) in [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common contaminant in food and feed during storage, does great harm to human and animal health. Five essential oils (thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral) were tested for their inhibition effect against Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) in broth and feed. Cinnamaldehyde and citral were proven to be most effective against A. flavus compared to others and have a synergistic effect when used simultaneously. The broth supplemented with cinnamaldehyde and citral was inoculated with A. flavus (106 CFU/mL) by using the checkerboard method, and mold counts and AFB1 production were tested on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 100 g poultry feed supplemented with the mixture of cinnamaldehyde and citral at the ratio 1:1 was also inoculated with A. flavus, and the same parameters were tested on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. In poultry feed, cinnamaldehyde and citral significantly reduced mold counts and AFB1 concentrations (p < 0.05). Results showed that cinnamaldehyde and citral have a positive synergy effect and could both inhibit at least 90% the fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production at 40 μg/mL in broth and poultry feed, and could be an alternative to control aflatoxin contamination in food and feed in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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17 pages, 5406 KiB  
Article
A Newly Isolated Alcaligenes faecalis ANSA176 with the Capability of Alleviating Immune Injury and Inflammation through Efficiently Degrading Ochratoxin A
by Rui Zheng, Hanrui Qing, Qiugang Ma, Xueting Huo, Shimeng Huang, Lihong Zhao, Jianyun Zhang and Cheng Ji
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080569 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins that threatens food and feed safety. Biodegradation of OTA has gained much attention. In this study, an Alcaligenes faecalis strain named ANSA176, with a strong OTA-detoxifying ability, was isolated from donkey intestinal chyme [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins that threatens food and feed safety. Biodegradation of OTA has gained much attention. In this study, an Alcaligenes faecalis strain named ANSA176, with a strong OTA-detoxifying ability, was isolated from donkey intestinal chyme and characterized. The strain ANSA176 could degrade 97.43% of 1 mg/mL OTA into OTα within 12 h, at 37 °C. The optimal levels for bacterial growth were 22–37 °C and pH 6.0–9.0. The effects of ANSA176 on laying hens with an OTA-contaminated diet were further investigated. A total of 36 laying hens were assigned to three dietary treatments: control group, OTA (250 µg/kg) group, and OTA + ANSA176 (6.2 × 108 CFU/kg diet) group. The results showed that OTA decreased the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and egg weight (EW); meanwhile, it increased serum alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), immunoglobulin G (IgG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glutathione reductase (GR). However, the ANSA176 supplementation inhibited or attenuated the OTA-induced damages. Taken together, OTA-degrading strain A. faecalis ANSA176 was able to alleviate the immune injury and inflammation induced by OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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17 pages, 2843 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Stages of Conidia Germination and Associated Genes in Aspergillus flavus: An Essential Role for Redox Genes
by Chong Li, Sifan Jia, Shahid Ali Rajput, Desheng Qi and Shuai Wang
Toxins 2022, 14(8), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14080560 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Aflatoxin is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food and feedstuff, and poses significant global health risks. Aflatoxins are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus. Conidia germination is the first step for A. flavus development. In this study, [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin is a threatening mycotoxin primarily present in the agricultural environment, especially in food and feedstuff, and poses significant global health risks. Aflatoxins are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus. Conidia germination is the first step for A. flavus development. In this study, the transcriptome of A. flavus conidia was analyzed at three different stages of conidia germination, which were characterized by two different microscopes. Dormant conidia grew isotropically with the cell size increasing up to 5 h of after being inoculated in a liquid medium. Conidia changed towards polarized growth from 5 to 10 h of germination, during which germ tubes formed. Moreover, transcriptome analyses revealed that a larger number of genes changed in the isotropic growth stages compared to polarized growth, with 1910 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) up-regulated and 969 DEGs down-regulated in isotropic growth. GO and KEGG pathway analyses and pathway enrichment demonstrated that, in the isotropic growth stage, the top three pathways were translation, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. The ribosome was a key pathway in translation, as RPS28e, RPL53 and RPL36e were the top three DEGs. For polarized growth stage, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism were the top three most active pathways. POX1 from alpha-linolenic acid metabolism was a DEG in lipid metabolism as well. Genes related to the antioxidant system were crucial for conidia germination. Furthermore, RT-PCR results showed the same trends as the transcriptome for redox genes, and essential oils have a significant inhibitory effect on germination rate and redox gene expression. Therefore, redox genes play an important role during germination, and the disruption of redox genes is involved in the mechanism of action of coumalic acid and geraniol against A. flavus spore germination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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14 pages, 2815 KiB  
Article
Patulin Detoxification by Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase from Moniliophthora roreri Expressed by Pichia pastoris
by Shuai Wang, Xiaolu Wang, Leena Penttinen, Huiying Luo, Yuhong Zhang, Bo Liu, Bin Yao, Nina Hakulinen, Wei Zhang and Xiaoyun Su
Toxins 2022, 14(7), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070440 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4171
Abstract
The fungal secondary metabolite patulin is a mycotoxin widespread in foods and beverages which poses a serious threat to human health. However, no enzyme was known to be able to degrade this mycotoxin. For the first time, we discovered that a manganese peroxidase [...] Read more.
The fungal secondary metabolite patulin is a mycotoxin widespread in foods and beverages which poses a serious threat to human health. However, no enzyme was known to be able to degrade this mycotoxin. For the first time, we discovered that a manganese peroxidase (MrMnP) from Moniliophthora roreri can efficiently degrade patulin. The MrMnP gene was cloned into pPICZα(A) and then the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Pichia pastoris X-33. The recombinant strain produced extracellular manganese peroxidase with an activity of up to 3659.5 U/L. The manganese peroxidase MrMnP was able to rapidly degrade patulin, with hydroascladiol appearing as a main degradation product. Five mg/L of pure patulin were completely degraded within 5 h. Moreover, up to 95% of the toxin was eliminated in a simulated patulin-contaminated apple juice after 24 h. Using Escherichia coli as a model, it was demonstrated that the deconstruction of patulin led to detoxification. Collectively, these traits make MrMnP an intriguing candidate useful in enzymatic detoxification of patulin in foods and beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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15 pages, 3936 KiB  
Article
Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Non-Coding RNA Alteration in Porcine Alveolar Macrophage Exposed to Aflatoxin B1
by Huhe Chao, Haohai Ma, Jiadong Sun, Shuai Yuan, Peiyu Dong, Aihong Zhao, Lan Li, Wei Shen and Xifeng Zhang
Toxins 2022, 14(6), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14060373 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and is commonly found in cereals, oils and foodstuffs. In order to understand the toxic effects of AFB1 exposure on Porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/2 cell), the [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of mycotoxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and is commonly found in cereals, oils and foodstuffs. In order to understand the toxic effects of AFB1 exposure on Porcine alveolar macrophages (3D4/2 cell), the 3D4/2 cells were exposed to 40 μg/mL AFB1 for 24 h in vitro, and several methods were used for analysis. Edu and TUNEL analysis showed that the proliferation of 3D4/2 cells was significantly inhibited and the apoptosis of 3D4/2 cells was significantly induced after AFB1 exposure compared with that of the control group. Whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to reveal the non-coding RNA alteration in 3D4/2 cells after AFB1 exposure. It was found that the expression of cell-cycle-related and apoptosis-related genes was altered after AFB1 exposure, and lncRNAs and miRNAs were also significantly different among the experimental groups. In particular, AFB1 exposure affected the expression of lncRNAs associated with cellular senescence signaling pathways, such as MSTRG.24315 and MSTRG.80767, as well as related genes, Cxcl8 and Gadd45g. In addition, AFB1 exposure affected the expression of miRNAs associated with immune-related genes, such as miR-181a, miR-331-3p and miR-342, as well as immune-related genes Nfkb1 and Rras2. Moreover, the regulation networks between mRNA-miRNAs and mRNA-lncRNAs were confirmed by the results of RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence. In conclusion, our results here demonstrate that AFB1 exposure impaired proliferation of 3D4/2 cells via the non-coding RNA-mediated pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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19 pages, 6786 KiB  
Article
Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of a Laccase-Degrading Aflatoxin B1 from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10
by Dongwei Xiong, Jun Wen, Gen Lu, Tianxi Li and Miao Long
Toxins 2022, 14(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14040250 - 31 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3867
Abstract
Aflatoxins, widely found in feed and foodstuffs, are potentially harmful to human and animal health because of their high toxicity. In this study, a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10 with a strong ability to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was screened; it could degrade [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins, widely found in feed and foodstuffs, are potentially harmful to human and animal health because of their high toxicity. In this study, a strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10 with a strong ability to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was screened; it could degrade 2.5 μg/mL of AFB1 within 96 h. The active substances of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10 for the degradation of AFB1 mainly existed in the culture supernatant. A new laccase with AFB1-degrading activity was separated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) and gel filtration chromatography. The results of molecular docking showed that B10 laccase and aflatoxin had a high docking score. The coding sequence of the laccase was successfully amplified from cDNA by PCR and cloned into E. coli. The purified laccase could degrade 79.3% of AFB1 within 36 h. The optimum temperature for AFB1 degradation was 40 °C, and the optimum pH was 6.0–8.0. Notably, Mg2+ and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) could enhance the AFB1-degrading activity of B10 laccase. Mutation of the three key metal combined sites of B10 laccase resulted in the loss of AFB1-degrading activity, indicating that these three metal combined sites of B10 laccase play an essential role in the catalytic degradation of AFB1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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16 pages, 4185 KiB  
Article
Transcriptomics Reveals the Effect of Thymol on the Growth and Toxin Production of Fusarium graminearum
by Lian-Qun Wang, Kun-Tan Wu, Ping Yang, Fang Hou, Shahid Ali Rajput, De-Sheng Qi and Shuai Wang
Toxins 2022, 14(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins14020142 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4056
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum is a harmful pathogen causing head blight in cereals such as wheat and barley, and thymol has been proven to inhibit the growth of many pathogens. This study aims to explore the fungistatic effect of thymol on F. graminearum and its [...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum is a harmful pathogen causing head blight in cereals such as wheat and barley, and thymol has been proven to inhibit the growth of many pathogens. This study aims to explore the fungistatic effect of thymol on F. graminearum and its mechanism. Different concentrations of thymol were used to treat F. graminearum. The results showed that the EC50 concentration of thymol against F. graminearum was 40 μg/mL. Compared with the control group, 40 μg/mL of thymol reduced the production of Deoxynivalenol (DON) and 3-Ac-DON by 70.1% and 78.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that thymol can effectively inhibit the growth and toxin production of F. graminearum and cause an extensive transcriptome response. Transcriptome identified 16,727 non-redundant unigenes and 1653 unigenes that COG did not annotate. The correlation coefficients between samples were all >0.941. When FC was 2.0 times, a total of 3230 differential unigenes were identified, of which 1223 were up-regulated, and 2007 were down-regulated. Through the transcriptome, we confirmed that the expression of many genes involved in F. graminearum growth and synthesis of DON and other secondary metabolites were also changed. The gluconeogenesis/glycolysis pathway may be a potential and important way for thymol to affect the growth of F. graminearum hyphae and the production of DON simultaneously. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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15 pages, 3764 KiB  
Article
The Antagonistic Effect of Glutamine on Zearalenone-Induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in IPEC-J2 Cells
by Tianhu Wang, Jingjing Wang, Tong Zhang, Aixin Gu, Jianping Li and Anshan Shan
Toxins 2021, 13(12), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13120891 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2899
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogen mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi, which inevitably exists in human and animal food or feed. Previous studies indicated that apoptosis seems to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity. This experiment aimed to investigate the protective effects [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogen mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi, which inevitably exists in human and animal food or feed. Previous studies indicated that apoptosis seems to be a key determinant of ZEN-induced toxicity. This experiment aimed to investigate the protective effects of Glutamine (Gln) on ZEN-induced cytotoxicity in IPEC-J2 cells. The experimental results showed that Gln was able to alleviate the decline of cell viability and reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and calcium (Ca2+) induced by ZEN. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase was up-regulated after Gln addition. Subsequently, Gln supplementation resulted in the nuclear fission and Bad-fluorescence distribution of apoptotic cells were weakened, and the mRNA expression and protein expression of pro-apoptotic genes and apoptotic rates were significantly reduced. Moreover, ZEN reduced the phosphorylation Akt, decreased the expression of Bcl-2, and increased the expression of Bax. Gln alleviated the above changes induced by ZEN and the antagonistic effects of Gln were disturbed by PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). To conclude, this study revealed that Gln exhibited significant protective effects on ZEN-induced apoptosis, and this effect may be attributed to the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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13 pages, 3423 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Ameliorative Effects between Probiotic and Biodegradable Bacillus subtilis on Zearalenone Toxicosis in Gilts
by Wenqiang Shen, Yaojun Liu, Xinyue Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Xiaoping Rong, Lihong Zhao, Cheng Ji, Yuanpei Lei, Fengjuan Li, Jing Chen and Qiugang Ma
Toxins 2021, 13(12), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13120882 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3102
Abstract
This study was conducted to compare the potential ameliorative effects between probiotic Bacillus subtilis and biodegradable Bacillus subtilis on zearalenone (ZEN) toxicosis in gilts. Thirty-six Landrace×Yorkshire gilts (average BW = 64 kg) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Normal control diet group [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to compare the potential ameliorative effects between probiotic Bacillus subtilis and biodegradable Bacillus subtilis on zearalenone (ZEN) toxicosis in gilts. Thirty-six Landrace×Yorkshire gilts (average BW = 64 kg) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Normal control diet group (NC) fed the basal diet containing few ZEN (17.5 μg/kg); (2) ZEN contaminated group (ZC) fed the contaminated diet containing an exceeded limit dose of ZEN (about 300 μg/kg); (3) Probiotic agent group (PB) fed the ZC diet with added 5 × 109 CFU/kg of probiotic Bacillus subtilis ANSB010; (4) Biodegradable agent group (DA) fed the ZC diet with added 5 × 109 CFU/kg of biodegradable Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G. Results showed that Bacillus subtilis ANSB010 and ANSB01G isolated from broiler intestinal chyme had similar inhibitory activities against common pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the feed conversion ratio and the vulva size in DA group were significantly lower than ZC group (p < 0.05). The levels of IgG, IgM, IL-2 and TNFα in the ZC group were significantly higher than PB and DA groups (p < 0.05). The levels of estradiol and prolactin in the ZC group was significantly higher than those of the NC and DA groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, the residual ZEN in the feces of the ZC and PB groups were higher than those of the NC and DA groups (p < 0.05). In summary, the ZEN-contaminated diet had a damaging impact on growth performance, plasma immune function and hormone secretion of gilts. Although probiotic and biodegradable Bacillus subtilis have similar antimicrobial capacities, only biodegradable Bacillus subtilis could eliminate these negative effects through its biodegradable property to ZEN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for Biodegradation and Detoxification of Mycotoxins)
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