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Int. J. Plant Biol., Volume 15, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 16 articles

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5 pages, 502 KiB  
Commentary
Calcium-Mediated Modulation of GC Switch Regulates Peroxisomal H2O2 Levels in Response to Wounding in Plants
by Ishu, Jyoti Shekhawat and Santosh Kumar Upadhyay
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 198-202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010016 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Ca2+ and H2O2 interact with each other to regulate plant systemic responses. However, their precise mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study revealed that the Ca2+ regulates the glycolate oxidase-catalase (GC) switch-mediated photorespiratory H2O2 [...] Read more.
Ca2+ and H2O2 interact with each other to regulate plant systemic responses. However, their precise mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study revealed that the Ca2+ regulates the glycolate oxidase-catalase (GC) switch-mediated photorespiratory H2O2 during wounding. Glutamate-receptor-like (GLR) Ca2+ channels (GLR 3.3 and GLR3.6) are responsible for Ca2+ influx during injury for regulation of the GC switch. Mechanical injury quickly shifts the GC switch to a highly interactive state in the systemic leaves that ultimately results in the reduced peroxisomal H2O2. However, the mechanism of H2O2 reduction in peroxisome remains elusive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Communication)
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11 pages, 1118 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Growth and Physiological Responses of a Medicinal Plant Phyla nodiflora to Salinity
by Anh Cong Pham, Tuan Chau Vo, Thang Duc Bui, Thi-Thao Hien Van and Dan Quang Tran
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 187-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010015 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Phyla nodiflora is a valuable medicinal plant growing in coastal areas, hypothesizing its adaptability to salinity; however, it has not been investigated. This study, for the first time, elucidated responses in the growth of the shoots and its physiology to different soil salinity [...] Read more.
Phyla nodiflora is a valuable medicinal plant growing in coastal areas, hypothesizing its adaptability to salinity; however, it has not been investigated. This study, for the first time, elucidated responses in the growth of the shoots and its physiology to different soil salinity of 50–400 mM NaCl. The data showed that the shoot’s dry biomass was not affected by the salinity levels up to 100 mM, and it only decreased 33.50–56.33% compared to the control under 200–400 mM NaCl, indicating that P. nodiflora is a salt-tolerant plant that could survive under high salinity. In addition, the plant also had physiological responses which indicated its salt-induced injuries and adaptation to the salt stress. The chlorophyll a content was increased while the chlorophyll b remained unchanged under the salt stress. The proline and salt accumulation increased under the salinity, but the K+ and NO3 accumulation decreased. Moreover, increases in malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage were observed, indicating salt-induced membrane damages. These responses suggested that the plant might evolve adaptive mechanisms to salinity. Our findings are useful information for further research in order to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms and develop this plant for saline agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Tolerance to Drought and Salt Stress in Plants)
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12 pages, 2622 KiB  
Article
Secondary Metabolites and Their Antioxidant Activity Enhance the Tolerance to Water Deficit on Clover Lotus corniculatus L. through Different Seasonal Times
by Luis Angel González-Espíndola, Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval, Gabino García de los Santos, Ricardo Trejo-Calzada, Perpetuo Álvarez-Vázquez and Maria del Rosario Jacobo-Salcedo
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 175-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010014 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a water limitation in different ecotypes and one variety of Lotus corniculatus L. on the production of secondary metabolites and their antioxidant activity in response to a water deficit (WD) through other seasonal times. A [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a water limitation in different ecotypes and one variety of Lotus corniculatus L. on the production of secondary metabolites and their antioxidant activity in response to a water deficit (WD) through other seasonal times. A randomized block experimental design with three replicates was used. Two levels of soil water content and five genotypes were arranged in a factorial way (2 × 5) with ten treatments for replication. The 255301 ecotype showed significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, with a concentration of 86.6 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/gram of fresh weight (gFW); total flavonoids, with a concentration of 63.2 mg Quercetin Equivalent (QE)/gFW); total tannins (71.7 mg GAE/gFW); and radical scavenging activity, with an average of 200 mg Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC)/gFW) in winter under a WD. The 255305 ecotype showed an increase in radical scavenging activity of 230 mg (TEAC)/gFW) and a total tannin concentration of 65.3 mg GAE/gFW in winter and spring, respectively, under a WD. The 255301 ecotype showed an increase in the concentration of total saponins (254.8 mg saponins/gFW) in summer under a WD. All these responses were triggered to mitigate a water deficit and extreme temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Stresses)
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14 pages, 1595 KiB  
Review
Isoprene: An Antioxidant to Guard Plants against Stress
by Perumalla Srikanth, Ann Maxton, Sam A. Masih, Adriano Sofo and Nafees A. Khan
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 161-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010013 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Isoprene, a lipophilic and unstable compound with the chemical formula C5H8, is transported to plant chloroplasts via the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which relies on photosynthesis. Although only about 20% of terrestrial plants can synthesize isoprene, those that emit it are [...] Read more.
Isoprene, a lipophilic and unstable compound with the chemical formula C5H8, is transported to plant chloroplasts via the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, which relies on photosynthesis. Although only about 20% of terrestrial plants can synthesize isoprene, those that emit it are more adaptable to oxidative and thermal stresses. To shed light on the still-elusive protective mechanism of isoprene, numerous investigations have been conducted. Isoprene has been shown to react with and quench various reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (1O2). Its reduced state and conjugated double bonds suggest that it functions as an antioxidant, although this has yet to be conclusively proven. Despite its low abundance relative to other molecules in plant tissues, recent research has explored several potential roles for isoprene including acting as a scavenger of ROS by serving as an antioxidant; strengthening cell membranes; modulating genomic, proteomic and metabolomic profiles; signaling stress responses among neighboring plants compared with other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); regulating metabolic fluxes of hormones produced through the MEP pathway; or even functioning as a free developmental hormone. Future prospective studies, such as identifying the specific receptors for VOCs along with transcription factors (TFs) and other regulatory proteins participating in the signaling pathways and also metabolomic, transcriptomic and physiological analyses could help in comprehending VOC-induced defense responses in plants under stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Communication)
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29 pages, 9655 KiB  
Review
Structure and Trends of Worldwide Research on Durum Wheat by Bibliographic Mapping
by Antonio Blanco
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 132-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010012 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The bibliometric mapping approach is a quantitative methodology to analyze the structure and evolution of research activities in a scientific area or a discipline. The objective of the current study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the worldwide durum wheat literature published [...] Read more.
The bibliometric mapping approach is a quantitative methodology to analyze the structure and evolution of research activities in a scientific area or a discipline. The objective of the current study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the worldwide durum wheat literature published from 1961 to 2022 to identify topics and trends and their evolution over time. A total of 7512 documents were analyzed to generate bibliometric maps illustrating the main research topics. Most of the articles (91.6%) were published in indexed journals, with a low percentage (3.4%) in conference proceedings. The most active journals were the Journal of Cereal Science, Euphytica, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Cereal Research Communications, and Cereal Chemistry. Italy, the USA, Canada, Spain, and France were the countries publishing the most documents. Research interests were focused on mutagenesis, interspecific hybridization, and technological quality in 1961–1980 and moved to conservation farming, molecular genetics, and nutritional quality in the last two decades. Future durum wheat production is facing challenges from climate change, water scarcity, and rising demand for sustainable food production. Advancements in molecular breeding techniques, genome editing, precision agriculture, and conservation farming can expedite wheat improvement and pave the way toward a healthier environment. The analysis of a large amount of bibliographic data provides useful information for researchers and policymakers and represents a starting point for a comprehensive discussion for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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10 pages, 1918 KiB  
Brief Report
Analysis of the Time Course of the Establishment of Systemic Gene Silencing by Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Wheat
by Anshu Garg, Amanda S. Brandt and Steven R. Scofield
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 122-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010011 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Wheat is one of the major sources of protein worldwide. Its hexaploidy significantly complicates the identification of genes that may be crucial for improving wheat production to meet the challenges of an increased world population and climate change. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using [...] Read more.
Wheat is one of the major sources of protein worldwide. Its hexaploidy significantly complicates the identification of genes that may be crucial for improving wheat production to meet the challenges of an increased world population and climate change. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based constructs has proven to be a very useful tool in the analysis of gene function in the hexaploid plant, wheat. However, most published applications of this technique focus on phenotypes that can be observed in the leaves of wheat. A few studies have reported successful VIGS in the spikes of wheat, but this has proven to be more difficult than the seedling leaf assays. This study reports a time course analysis of the movement of BSMV from the site of inoculation into the meristematic region of wheat. It also describes how the photobleaching phenotype resulting from silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS), which is often used as a reporter for VIGS, does not indicate the full extent of where VIGS occurs, and this can mislead scientists as they design silencing studies. These findings provide guidance for more effective VIGS studies to determine the function of genes expressed in the spikes of wheat and may be important for wheat improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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12 pages, 656 KiB  
Article
Effect of Herbicides on Forage Dry Matter Yield and Plant Density in the Old Arable Lands in Communal Area of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
by Wandile Mashece, Solomon Tefera Beyene, Mthunzi Mndela, Gideon Jordaan, Unathi Gulwa and Sive Tokozwayo
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 110-121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010010 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
With the world’s population growing at an alarming rate, there is an urgent need to improve food security. This study aimed to assess forage dry matter yield and plant density under different herbicide treatments at Kubedlana arable lands. The study was carried out [...] Read more.
With the world’s population growing at an alarming rate, there is an urgent need to improve food security. This study aimed to assess forage dry matter yield and plant density under different herbicide treatments at Kubedlana arable lands. The study was carried out using eight treatments consisting of seven herbicide treatments and a control. Seed mixtures of seven legume species were broadcasted in 24 plots of 3 m × 5 m size. Herbicide treatments including Bendioxide (BEN), Glyphosate (GLY), Haloxyfop-R methyl (HAL), Haloxyfop-R methyl and Bendioxide (HBE), Paraquat (PAR), Bendioxide (BRR), and Paraquat (PRR) were applied individually in three plots. Dry matter production and plant densities were determined in five randomly distributed 0.25 m2 quadrats per plot. The results revealed that GLY had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher effect on the DM yield compared with other treatments. Both BRR and HBE significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the DM yield. GLY and HBE significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the grass density in 2017 and BRR significantly affected (p < 0.05) the legume density in May 2017 and May 2018, respectively. These results indicate that the application of GlY and HAL resulted in the reduction of grass density. Furthermore, none of the applied chemicals negatively influenced the legume density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology and Biodiversity)
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8 pages, 1259 KiB  
Technical Note
LeafArea Package: A Tool for Estimating Leaf Area in Andean Fruit Species
by Pedro Alexander Velasquez-Vasconez and Danita Andrade Díaz
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 102-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010009 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 545
Abstract
The LeafArea package is an innovative tool for estimating leaf area in six Andean fruit species, utilizing leaf length and width along with species type for accurate predictions. This research highlights the package’s integration of advanced machine learning algorithms, including GLM, GLMM, Random [...] Read more.
The LeafArea package is an innovative tool for estimating leaf area in six Andean fruit species, utilizing leaf length and width along with species type for accurate predictions. This research highlights the package’s integration of advanced machine learning algorithms, including GLM, GLMM, Random Forest, and XGBoost, which excels in predictive accuracy. XGBoost’s superior performance is evident in its low prediction errors and high R2 value, showcasing the effectiveness of machine learning in leaf area estimation. The LeafArea package, thus, offers significant contributions to the study of plant growth dynamics, providing researchers with a robust and precise tool for informed decision making in resource allocation and crop management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Application of Artificial Intelligence in Plant Biology)
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8 pages, 2809 KiB  
Brief Report
The Response of Botrytis cinerea to Fire in a Coast Redwood Forest
by Damiana S. Rojas and Gregory S. Gilbert
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 94-101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010008 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) are long-lived trees that create deep shade and litter layers, and have limited recruitment from seedlings. Botrytis cinerea is an airborne fungal pathogen that attacks redwood seedlings. B. cinerea lives as a saprotroph in dead plant matter [...] Read more.
Coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) are long-lived trees that create deep shade and litter layers, and have limited recruitment from seedlings. Botrytis cinerea is an airborne fungal pathogen that attacks redwood seedlings. B. cinerea lives as a saprotroph in dead plant matter or as a necrotroph in live tissue. In the coast redwood forest, accumulated leaf litter may provide inoculum for subsequent infections, limiting redwood seedling recruitment. Here, we examine the response of B. cinerea to fire in the coast redwood forest. We measured the abundance of airborne B. cinerea spores in paired burned and unburned plots using a selective and diagnostic medium. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew seedlings in four different treatments: (1) burned soil with no leaf litter, (2) unburned soil with no leaf litter, (3) burned soil with leaf litter collected from the burn plot, (4) unburned soil with leaf litter collected from the unburned plot. Spore trapping showed no difference in the abundance of airborne spores in the paired plots. The seedling experiment showed that disease was greatest and survival lowest when grown in burned soil; leaf litter collected from burned plots reduced survival while leaf litter from not-burned plots increased survival. These results indicate that fire did not affect airborne B. cinerea and post-fire conditions did not provide favorable growth conditions for coast redwood seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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25 pages, 4294 KiB  
Review
Multiple Foliar Fungal Disease Management in Tomatoes: A Comprehensive Approach
by Dilip R. Panthee, Anju Pandey and Rajan Paudel
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 69-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010007 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Foliar diseases are the significant production constraints in tomatoes. Among them, foliar fungal diseases in tomatoes, such as early blight (Alternaria linaria), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici), and late blight (Phytophthora infestans), which is oomycetes, have higher [...] Read more.
Foliar diseases are the significant production constraints in tomatoes. Among them, foliar fungal diseases in tomatoes, such as early blight (Alternaria linaria), Septoria leaf spot (Septoria lycopersici), and late blight (Phytophthora infestans), which is oomycetes, have higher economic significance. This paper will discuss the etiology, host range, distribution, symptoms, and disease cycle to help us understand the biology, followed by management approaches emphasizing the resistance breeding approach for these diseases. We provide an analytical review of crop improvement efforts, including conventional and molecular methods for improving these diseases’ resistance. We discuss the importance of modern breeding tools, including genomics, genetic transformation, and genome editing, to improve the resistance to these diseases in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Reproduction)
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5 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Experimental Botany: Anatomical and Morphological Approaches for Biotechnology and Nature Protection
by Ekaterina N. Baranova
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 64-68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010006 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
As photosynthetic systems, plants are fundamental elements of the Earth’s biosphere, playing key roles in providing energy and resources [...] Full article
10 pages, 2392 KiB  
Article
Propagation of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Using Cross-Cuttings under a Controlled Environment
by Soumaya El Merzougui, Imane Boudadi, Khadija Lachguer, David G. Beleski, Khalid Lagram, Mohamed Lachheb, Mohamed Ben El Caid, Vania M. Pereira, Potshangbam Nongdam, Mohammed Amine Serghini and Wagner A. Vendrame
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 54-63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010005 - 20 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a valuable geophyte plant and one of the most expensive spices in the world. Recently, the demand for saffron spice has increased in worldwide markets owing to its enormous application and value. However, the production of saffron [...] Read more.
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a valuable geophyte plant and one of the most expensive spices in the world. Recently, the demand for saffron spice has increased in worldwide markets owing to its enormous application and value. However, the production of saffron is limited by the vegetative propagation technique and the limited number of high-quality corms planted. Furthermore, climatic changes, notably increasing temperatures, negatively influence saffron multiplication and growth. Thus, it is important to develop alternative cultivation and propagation techniques for saffron under a controlled environment, which could ensure an increase in saffron yield and avoid the negative impact of climatic changes. The present study aimed to develop an alternative method for vegetative propagation of Crocus sativus under controlled conditions. The effect of different cross-cuttings, including basal cuttings (BCs) and top-to-bottom cuttings (CTBs), was evaluated on shoot, leaf, flower, and daughter corm production. All the growth parameters examined were influenced by the cutting treatment applied. The results showed that the highest number of shoots formed was obtained by BCs and CTBs, with an average of 6.68 and 5.47 shoots per corm, respectively, compared to the control with an average of 2.70 shoots per corm. The cutting treatment positively affected the formation of daughter corms in which, the high mean number of corms recorded was obtained by the BC treatment. Meanwhile, the lower size of the daughter corms was obtained after the cross-cutting treatment. This is the first report that provides an alternative propagation for saffron using a controlled environment, which could help to improve the production of saffron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Reproduction)
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8 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
The tgd5 Mutation Affects Plastid Structure and Causes Giant Lipid Droplet Formation in Trichomes of Arabidopsis
by Kanae Matsuoka, Hiroko Kubotera, Rina Miyazaki, Shota Moriyama, Makoto T. Fujiwara and Ryuuichi D. Itoh
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 46-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010004 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Trichomes, epidermal protrusions in terrestrial plants, play diverse roles in plant defense, metabolism, and development. Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with single-celled and non-glandular trichomes, is a valuable system for studying cell differentiation in plants. However, organelle biology in Arabidopsis trichomes is [...] Read more.
Trichomes, epidermal protrusions in terrestrial plants, play diverse roles in plant defense, metabolism, and development. Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with single-celled and non-glandular trichomes, is a valuable system for studying cell differentiation in plants. However, organelle biology in Arabidopsis trichomes is relatively underexplored. Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we investigated the phenotypes of intracellular structures in Arabidopsis trichomes caused by tgd5 mutations, which are known to disrupt lipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to plastids and have a large impact on chloroplast morphology in pavement and guard cells. Significant phenotypic changes in the plastid structure were observed in tgd5 trichome cells, including the absence of plastoglobuli, the emergence of clusters of electron-dense particles in the stroma, and the possibly cup-shaped morphology of plastids. Additionally, the tgd5 mutations triggered the formation of giant, up to 15 µm in diameter, neutral lipid-containing droplets in the trichome cells, as revealed using histochemical staining with lipophilic dyes. These lipid droplets were substantially larger and more frequent in trichome cells than in other types of cells in tgd5. These findings highlight the role of TGD5 in maintaining plastid structure and implicate the unique activity of lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis trichomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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14 pages, 3117 KiB  
Article
Germination and Vegetative Propagation of the Wild Species Cuphea pulchra Moric. (Lythraceae), a Potential Ornamental Crop
by Ana Luísa Corsino, Dulce Alves-da-Silva, Luis Alberto M. Palhares-Melo and Taciana Barbosa Cavalcanti
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 32-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010003 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Cuphea pulchra Moric. is a species native to the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes that grows in environments with high temperatures and low rainfall and can be adapted as an ornamental plant for pots. Tests were carried out on C. pulchra seeds, as well [...] Read more.
Cuphea pulchra Moric. is a species native to the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes that grows in environments with high temperatures and low rainfall and can be adapted as an ornamental plant for pots. Tests were carried out on C. pulchra seeds, as well as the cultivation of plants from both seeds and cuttings in a greenhouse. Seeds at different stages of maturity (green, almost ripe, and mature) were placed on agar and paper for germination tests. The cultivated plants were pruned as necessary. Two cutting tests were carried out according to the age of the donor plant. The flowering period was monitored. Germination was successful with the almost ripe seeds. Drastic pruning was able to produce compact plants in pots. Cutting tests had greater sprouting with younger donor plants. Cuphea pulchra stood out in terms of the length of the flowering period, which lasted up to ten months. Greenhouse cultivation produced viable plants for the ornamental plant market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation and Characterization)
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19 pages, 2756 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Bioactivities of Plants Used against Skin Diseases in the Eastern Free State, South Africa
by Valeria Makhosazana Xaba, Ariyo Lateef Adeniran, Siphamandla Qhubekani Njabuliso Lamula and Lisa Valencia Buwa-Komoreng
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 13-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010002 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Skin diseases are a worldwide issue, accounting for approximately 34% of all occupational illnesses. The aim of this study was to investigate medicinal plants used to treat wounds and skin diseases in the eastern Free State Province of South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey [...] Read more.
Skin diseases are a worldwide issue, accounting for approximately 34% of all occupational illnesses. The aim of this study was to investigate medicinal plants used to treat wounds and skin diseases in the eastern Free State Province of South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to gather information from traditional healers on plants they use to treat human ailments. Plants were collected and then investigated for antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using standard assays. Cotyledon orbiculata, Dioscorea sylvatica, and Lycopodium clavatum had the highest frequency of citation (RFC) values among the 22 plants reported. Saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and tannins were found in the phytochemical examination. L. clavatum had the greatest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.39 mg/mL and 0.098 mg/mL, respectively. C. orbiculata and D. sylvatica extracts showed significant antifungal activity between 0.39 and 1.56 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was found in all extracts. The extracts had significant anti-inflammatory action against the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 0.49 g/mL. The usage of C. orbiculata, D. sylvatica, and L. clavatum in the treatment of skin problems in the Eastern Free State of South Africa was verified in this research. Full article
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12 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Prospection of Nematotoxic Aqueous Seeds Extracts Derived from the Preserved Arachis (Fabaceae) Germplasm Bank
by Bruna Nascimento, Cristiane Brauna, Paula Ferreira, Luis Melo, Paulo Ferreira and Thales Rocha
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15010001 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 786
Abstract
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are the most damaging plant pathogens all over the world. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), considered the most important phytonematodes globally, cause significant agricultural losses. Despite the availability of various strategies to manage these pathogenic agents, excessive use of nematicides poses a [...] Read more.
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are the most damaging plant pathogens all over the world. Root-knot nematodes (RKNs), considered the most important phytonematodes globally, cause significant agricultural losses. Despite the availability of various strategies to manage these pathogenic agents, excessive use of nematicides poses a threat to human health and the environment. Compounds derived from plant sources are proposed as an alternative to new biocides, potentially offering advantages over synthetic components. Several species within the Fabaceae family, including those within the Arachis genus, have demonstrated potential as sources of nematotoxic compounds. As part of a research program aimed at exploring bioactive compounds and valorizing germplasm banks, this study evaluated the nematicidal and nematostatic effects of aqueous crude extracts (ACEs) obtained from nine Arachis species sourced from the Embrapa Active Germplasm Bank against M. incognita’s second-stage juveniles (J2). The results indicate that Arachis stenosperma (ACE1) has promising nematocidal potential, with effectiveness exceeding 95% on dead nematodes for doses above 0.5 mg/mL. ACE1 has also demonstrated thermostability and lower harmful effects on bovine cells. This research provides a fresh outlook on the promising use of preserved germplasms to enhance Germplasm Storage Bank’s value, given the underexplored potential of these biological assets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Genetic Resources: Conservation and Characterization)
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