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Int. J. Plant Biol., Volume 15, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 17 articles

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13 pages, 1139 KiB  
Article
Liriodenine and Its Probable Role as an Osmolyte during Water Stress in Annona lutescens (Annonaceae)
by Alfredo Cisneros-Andrés, Rocío Cruz-Ortega, Marisol Castro-Moreno and Alma Rosa González-Esquinca
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 429-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020033 - 22 May 2024
Abstract
In tropical deciduous forests (TDFs), plants have developed various strategies to tolerate desiccation during the dry season. One strategy is osmotic adjustment, which includes the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Annona lutescens, a species that inhabits TDFs, increases and accumulates liriodenine alkaloid in [...] Read more.
In tropical deciduous forests (TDFs), plants have developed various strategies to tolerate desiccation during the dry season. One strategy is osmotic adjustment, which includes the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Annona lutescens, a species that inhabits TDFs, increases and accumulates liriodenine alkaloid in its roots during the dry season. In this study, we evaluate the possible role of this molecule as an osmolyte and in pH homeostasis. We performed growth analyses and determined liriodenine concentrations during water stress in Annona lutescens seedlings grown under controlled temperature, water, and light conditions. We also calculated their osmotic adjustment based on pressure–volume curves and performed solubility tests along a pH gradient. Osmotic adjustment was compared between control plants (irrigated) and plants subjected to 15, 25, and 35 days of water stress. Osmotic adjustment was dramatically higher in plants subjected to 35 days of water stress compared to the control. The solubility of liriodenine was 54% at pH 4.5, and when liriodenine was in contact with malic acid solutions, the pH increased slightly. The highest concentration of liriodenine was in the roots, with a significant increase from 540.855 μg g−1 after 15 days of water stress to 1239.897 μg g−1 after 35 days. Our results suggest that liriodenine plays an important role in the response to water stress as an osmolyte and in pH homeostasis. Full article
17 pages, 3305 KiB  
Article
Antagonism and Synergism Characterize the Interactions between Four North American Potato Virus Y Strains
by Prakash M. Niraula, Patricia Baldrich, Junaid A. Cheema, Hashir A. Cheema, Dejah S. Gaiter, Blake C. Meyers and Vincent N. Fondong
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 412-428; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020032 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 179
Abstract
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most important constraints to potato production worldwide. There is an increasing occurrence of recombinant PVY strains PVYNTN and PVYN-Wi and a decline in the incidence of the nonrecombinant PVYO. We hypothesized [...] Read more.
Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most important constraints to potato production worldwide. There is an increasing occurrence of recombinant PVY strains PVYNTN and PVYN-Wi and a decline in the incidence of the nonrecombinant PVYO. We hypothesized that this may be due to the ability of these recombinant strains to antagonize and/or outcompete PVYO in mixed infections. To determine this, we investigated interactions between PVYO and three recombinant PVY strains common in North America: PVYNTN, PVYN-Wi, and PVYN:O. Overall, our study showed that these interactions are tissue-dependent. Specifically, PVYNTN, the main causal agent of potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), was found to be more adaptable than PVYO, especially in potato leaves due, at least in part, to the Ny gene that confers hypersensitive resistance (HR) to PVYO. Furthermore, PVYN-Wi was found to repress PVYO in potato tubers but act synergistically in potato leaves. The PVYO-induced foliage necrosis in cultivar ‘Ranger Russet’ was observed to be more severe in plants co-infected by PVYN-Wi and PVYN:O, respectively, resulting in plant death. Strikingly, this PVYO -induced necrosis was suppressed by PVYNTN in doubly infected plants. These interactions may, at least partially, explain the decreasing incidence of PVYO in United States potato production regions, especially given that many cultivars contain the Ny gene, which likely limits PVYO enabling PVYNTN and PVYN-Wi to outcompete. We also found that replication and cell-to-cell movement of these PVY strains in tubers at 4 °C was similar to levels at ambient temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microbe-Induced Abiotic Stress Alleviation in Plants)
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15 pages, 7782 KiB  
Article
Physiological Response and Comprehensive Resistance Evaluation of East African Endemic Aeollanthus repens under Water and Heat Stress
by Yingying Tu, Jitao Li, Yiying Liao, Yuvenalis Morara Mbuni, Xiaoning Li and Qiyan Khong
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 397-411; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020031 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Aeollanthus repens, native to East Africa, thrives in seasonally dry tropical biomes and boasts qualities ideal for both ornamental and ground cover purposes. However, despite its potential, its current resistance levels remain uncertain. Assessing its adaptability could offer valuable insights for its [...] Read more.
Aeollanthus repens, native to East Africa, thrives in seasonally dry tropical biomes and boasts qualities ideal for both ornamental and ground cover purposes. However, despite its potential, its current resistance levels remain uncertain. Assessing its adaptability could offer valuable insights for its wider adoption and utilization. In this study, researchers employed 3-month-old cuttings of A. repens, subjecting them to six distinct environments by manipulating the temperature (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) and soil moisture levels (100%, 20%, and 40%). Their leaf physiological and photosynthetic indices were assessed at intervals of 5, 10, and 15 days following exposure to stress. The findings unveiled that exposure to prolonged moisture, elevated temperatures, or a combination of both led to an increase in osmoregulatory substances in the leaves. This increase was accompanied by heightened enzyme activity and an increased intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, followed by a subsequent decline. Additionally, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate exhibited a decreasing trend over time. Through a comprehensive assessment of stress tolerance utilizing a composite affiliation function value index, the study concluded that A. repens exhibits optimal growth in a certain high-temperature environments and demonstrates substantial resistance to waterlogging, drought, and simultaneous high-temperature stress. However, the resilience of A. repens appears to diminish under the compounded stresses of high temperature and drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Diversity and Conservation of Flora in Africa)
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22 pages, 1487 KiB  
Review
Plant Tissues as Biomonitoring Tools for Environmental Contaminants
by Mariam Tarish, Rania T. Ali, Muhammad Shan, Zarmeena Amjad, Qingchen Rui, Sayed Abdul Akher and Abdullah Al Mutery
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 375-396; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020030 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
Environmental toxins pose significant threats to ecosystems and human health. Monitoring and assessing these toxins are crucial for effective environmental management and public health protection. Recently, plant species have garnered increasing attention as potential bioindicators for identifying and evaluating ecological toxins. Since plants [...] Read more.
Environmental toxins pose significant threats to ecosystems and human health. Monitoring and assessing these toxins are crucial for effective environmental management and public health protection. Recently, plant species have garnered increasing attention as potential bioindicators for identifying and evaluating ecological toxins. Since plants often come into touch with harmful compounds in soil, water, and the atmosphere, they are particularly valuable for analyzing how human activities influence the terrestrial ecosystem, the aquatic system, and the atmosphere. This review paper emphasizes using plant species as a resource for tracking environmental pollution and analyzing contaminants. We focused on plants because they are significant indicators of soil, water, and air quality changes. Many plants have been used as bio-indicators to assess and predict pollution, toxicity, and environmental changes. These include Allium cepa, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Zea mays, Nicotiana tabacum, lichens, and mosses. The idea of bioindicators is discussed in the current paper, with a focus on plants as possible candidates for bioindicators for toxin assessment and related outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Response to Stresses)
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17 pages, 581 KiB  
Review
Review of Invasive Plant Functional Traits and Management Using Remote Sensing in Sub-Saharan Africa
by Fredrick Ojija, Francesco Petruzzellis and Giovanni Bacaro
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 358-374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020029 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Biodiversity and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are considerably impacted by invasive alien plants (IAPs). Increasing plant invasions in SSA threaten agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and other socioeconomic activities, which in turn put the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in peril. [...] Read more.
Biodiversity and sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are considerably impacted by invasive alien plants (IAPs). Increasing plant invasions in SSA threaten agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and other socioeconomic activities, which in turn put the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in peril. In order to effectively combat IAPs, understanding their functional traits (morphological, physiological, and phenological traits) and integrating them into remote sensing (RS) is vital. While functional traits influence IAPs’ fitness to invade and establish in a new geographical range, RS aids in studying them remotely, delineating and mapping them, and predicting their potential invasions. The information on this study topic was gathered by reviewing various existing studies published between 2000 and 2024. Based on this review, it was deduced that the majority of IAPs are fast-growing (or acquisitive), with a shorter leaf lifespan, bigger leaves, and higher plant height, ultimately resulting in a higher resource acquisition ability. We established further that in SSA, there are limited studies on IAP functional traits and their integration in RS. Many studies conducted in the region focus mostly on IAP distribution. Evidence from prior studies revealed that functional trait remote sensing (FTRS)-based research not only improves detection and mapping but also predicts whether a certain alien plant can become invasive or expand its distribution range. Thus, using the FTRS approach could help IAP management in SSA, ultimately achieving the SDGs. Our review discusses IAP implications in SSA (e.g., Angola, Tanzania, Benin, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Zambia, Burundi, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi, etc.) and for the achievement of SDGs; functional traits and their impact on alien invasions; and the importance of incorporating functional traits into RS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Invasion)
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18 pages, 2052 KiB  
Article
Ectomycorrhizal Diversity and Exploration Types in Salix caprea
by Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz, Bliss Ursula Furtado, Jagoda Szydɫo and Christel Baum
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 340-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020028 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
The tree species Salix caprea shows high adaptability to different habitat conditions and is economically valuable as a woody crop for biomass production. Moreover, S. caprea is dependent on mycorrhizal fungi, which are crucial for its growth and adaptability in different environments. Hence, [...] Read more.
The tree species Salix caprea shows high adaptability to different habitat conditions and is economically valuable as a woody crop for biomass production. Moreover, S. caprea is dependent on mycorrhizal fungi, which are crucial for its growth and adaptability in different environments. Hence, this study explores the ectomycorrhizal diversity of S. caprea by utilizing the taxonomy (morphotyping and a molecular approach using the ITS and LSU regions) and trait diversity (exploration types) at two test sites in Germany and Poland. In total, 19 ectomycorrhizal (EM) morphotypes of S. caprea were characterized. Seven taxa were identified at the species level (Hebeloma populinum, Cortinarius atrocoerulaeus, Inocybe hirtella, Laccaria cf. ochropurpurea, Tuber maculatum, Cenococcum geophilum, and Phialophora finlandia) and twelve at the genus level (Tomentella spp. 1–8, Hebeloma sp. 1, Inocybe sp. 1, and Tuber spp. 1–2). The EM colonization ranged from 14 to 28% of the fine root tips. At both test sites, the largest portion of the total EM colonization consisted of Thelephoraceae. The exploration types were classified as medium-distance smooth (Tomentella sp. 1–8 and L. ochropurpurea) and medium-distance fringe (C. atrocoerulaeus), while the other taxa were short-distance exploration types, highlighting their potential functional role in the adaptation and growth of S. caprea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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20 pages, 20462 KiB  
Article
Analyzing Generalist Plant Species Using Topographic Characteristics of Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carrière Forests in East Asia: From China (Mt. Changbai) to South Korea
by Byeong-Joo Park, Tae-Im Heo and Kwang-Il Cheon
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 320-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020027 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carrière forests are distributed in Korea and China and are crucial for phytogeographical research. Implementing conservation policies encompassing multiple species is necessary to conserve endangered species, particularly monitoring coexisting species and their interactions within an ecological network. Here, [...] Read more.
Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zucc.) Carrière forests are distributed in Korea and China and are crucial for phytogeographical research. Implementing conservation policies encompassing multiple species is necessary to conserve endangered species, particularly monitoring coexisting species and their interactions within an ecological network. Here, we identified plants within P. jezoensis forests in East Asia as generalist species to contribute foundational data for biodiversity conservation. We examined 91 standardized sites through the Braun-Blanquet method, while generalist indices were calculated using Levin’s method. The top 5% of generalists in the P. jezoensis forests were Acer komarovii (0.7409), Betula ermanii (0.7214), Asarum sieboldii (0.7002), Lepisorus ussuriensis (0.6977), Acer pseudosieboldianum (0.6915), Tripterygium regelii (0.6876), Thelypteris phegopteris (0.6771), Dryopteris expansa (0.6745), Sorbus commixta (0.6642), and Rhododendron schlippenbachii (0.6625). Correlation analysis between ecological factors and generalist species revealed that the coverage of Abies spp., Acer spp., and Rhododendron spp. and the species diversity index were influenced by altitude. Convex hull analysis revealed that pteridophytes and broad-leaved plants regenerated through stump sprouts occupy ecological niche spaces, indicating diverse habitats within P. jezoensis forests. This study highlights the importance of the simultaneous monitoring of multiple species to conserve ecosystem health and offers broader implications for ecological understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Ecology and Biodiversity)
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16 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Argemone ochroleuca Phytochemicals and Allelopathic Effect of Their Extracts on Germination of Soybean
by Nezelo T. Mlombo, Zakheleni P. Dube, Fikile N. Makhubu and Hellen Nxumalo
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 304-319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020026 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
Soybean is a high-value food source, and the invasive weeds Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone ochroleuca) could release allelochemicals that inhibit the growth of this crop. The impact of A. ochroleuca on the germination and growth of soybean is not well documented. [...] Read more.
Soybean is a high-value food source, and the invasive weeds Mexican prickly poppy (Argemone ochroleuca) could release allelochemicals that inhibit the growth of this crop. The impact of A. ochroleuca on the germination and growth of soybean is not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the TLC profiles of different extracts of A. ochroleuca and assess the effects of extracts on the germination of soybean seeds. Shoots and roots of A. ochroleuca were weighed and 100 g of each was separately extracted with 1000 mL deionized water, hexane or acetone. Ten concentrations of water extracts ranging from 10 to 100 mL per 100 mL of deionized water and three concentrations of acetone and hexane extracts ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 g/L were separately used for seed germination bioassays. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was used to compare the chemical profiles in the shoot and root water, and in the hexane and acetone extracts of A. ochroleuca. The highest reduction was recorded from the water extract, at 100%. The TLC profiling of A. ochroleuca addressed different classes of compounds, including alkaloids, phenolic acids and flavanoids. There is, however, a need to identify the most active phytochemicals in the suppression of germination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Plant Invasion)
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11 pages, 5432 KiB  
Article
Menthalactone from Mentha piperita L., a Monocot-Selective Bioherbicide
by Adam Soltani, Meirambek Ospanov, Zeyad M. A. Ibrahim, Joanna Bajsa-Hirschel, Charles L. Cantrell, James V. Cizdziel, Ikhlas A. Khan and Mohamed A. Ibrahim
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 293-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020025 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 593
Abstract
The challenge of managing invasive weed species continues to affect the agricultural industry, presenting ecological, economic, and agronomic hurdles that lead to over 100 billion USD in annual crop losses globally. One such concern is the management of Agrostis stolonifera L., commonly known [...] Read more.
The challenge of managing invasive weed species continues to affect the agricultural industry, presenting ecological, economic, and agronomic hurdles that lead to over 100 billion USD in annual crop losses globally. One such concern is the management of Agrostis stolonifera L., commonly known as creeping bentgrass, particularly due to its ability to form hybrids. This scenario underscores the urgent need for innovative, effective, and environmentally sustainable herbicides, steering the focus toward natural substances as potential candidates. We report here a promising natural lactone, commonly known as menthalactone, which is derived from Mentha piperita L. Its phytotoxic activity was assessed against the monocot, bentgrass, and a dicot, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Menthalactone displayed outstanding activity against bentgrass and was further evaluated for phytotoxic characteristics. The germination of A. stolonifera seeds was significantly inhibited with an IC50 value of 4.9 ± 1.2 µM. In contrast to bentgrass seeds, Lemna pausicostata L. plants were less responsive to menthalactone treatment, shown by an IC50 of 293.4 ± 70.6 µM. Both species are monocots, and the results suggest that menthalactone might have effects on seed germination but not on the metabolism of green tissues. The susceptibility of three common, obnoxious weed species, i.e., ryegrass (Lilium perenne), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.), and crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.), to menthalactone was assessed. Menthalactone at 1000 µM completely inhibited the germination of all three species of grasses, while 330 µM inhibited germination by less than 50%. The post-emergence application of menthalactone at 1% did not produce a significant inhibitory effect against ryegrass, barnyard grass, or crabgrass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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12 pages, 765 KiB  
Article
Response of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) to Herbicides and Weed Control
by Thomas Gitsopoulos, Eleni Tsaliki, Nicholas E. Korres, Ioannis Georgoulas, Ioannis Panoras, Despoina Botsoglou, Eirini Vazanelli, Konstantinos Fifis and Konstantinos Zisis
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 281-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020024 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Industrial hemp is a continuously expanding crop; however, there has been limited research on its herbicide selectivity and weed control. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor and aclonifen at 1137.5, 960 and 1800 g a.i. ha−1, respectively, were applied in field experiments in 2022 and [...] Read more.
Industrial hemp is a continuously expanding crop; however, there has been limited research on its herbicide selectivity and weed control. Pendimethalin, s-metolachlor and aclonifen at 1137.5, 960 and 1800 g a.i. ha−1, respectively, were applied in field experiments in 2022 and 2023 in Greece to study the response of industrial hemp to pre-emergence (PRE) herbicides and record their efficacy on weeds. In 2023, each PRE herbicide was followed by the postemergence application of cycloxydim at 200 g a.i. ha−1 due to infestation of Sorghum halepense. In 2022, retardation in hemp growth was recorded by all PRE herbicide treatments, with there being a slight reduction in stand counts by pendimethalin and s-metolachlor and leaf yellowing by aclonifen in one the experiments. In 2023, no reductions in crop establishment and plant height were recorded, whereas leaf discoloration caused by aclonifen was less evident; cycloxydim did not affect hemp and perfectly controlled S. halepense. Despite the herbicide injury, hemp recovered and succeeded in higher biomass in both experiments at Thessaloniki and in higher seed production in the 2023 Thessaloniki experiment. This study showed that pendimethalin, s-metolachlor and aclonifen can be regarded as potential pre-emergence options with precautions in wet and light soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Physiology)
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14 pages, 1423 KiB  
Article
The Genetic Homogeneity of Uganda’s East African Highland Bananas (Mutika/Lujugira) Does Not Match the Extensive Morphological Variation Identified in this Subgroup
by Michael Pillay
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 267-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020023 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 417
Abstract
The East African Highland banana (Mutika/Lujugira subgroup) is composed of triploid (AAA) cooking and beer banana varieties that are adapted to the high-altitude region of the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Banana production is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors. Breeding [...] Read more.
The East African Highland banana (Mutika/Lujugira subgroup) is composed of triploid (AAA) cooking and beer banana varieties that are adapted to the high-altitude region of the Great Lakes region of East Africa. Banana production is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors. Breeding opportunities in bananas are limited due to female sterility and parthenocarpy. The genetic diversity of crops enables breeders to develop new germplasm. Molecular markers have been used widely to dissect crop plants’ genetic diversity. This study assessed the genetic variation in 27 varieties from the Mutika/Lujugira subgroup using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). No genetic variation was observed among the banana varieties, and the 18 ten-mer primers produced monomorphic banding profiles. The genetic homogeneity of this banana subgroup is not congruent with their extensive morphological variation. Domestication and the bottleneck effect are often cited as the cause of reduced diversity in crop plants. On the other hand, several mechanisms, including somatic mutations, transposable elements, polyploidy, genome plasticity, and epigenetic mechanisms, are known to increase plant phenotypic variability. Further in-depth research is needed to explain the puzzle between the genetic and morphological diversity in the Mutika/Lujugira subgroup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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13 pages, 2582 KiB  
Article
N6-benzyladenine (BAP)-Based Seed Preconditioning Enhances the Shoot Regeneration of Seedling-Derived Explants for Subsequent Indirect Gene Transfer in Soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merrill.)
by Esmerald Michel Khomotso Sehaole and Phetole Mangena
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 254-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020022 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 323
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of N6-benzyladenine (BAP) seed preconditioning and seedling-derived explants on in vitro plant regeneration potential in soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merrill.). The findings showed that seed preconditioning with 2.55 mg/L BAP prior to germination significantly influenced [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of N6-benzyladenine (BAP) seed preconditioning and seedling-derived explants on in vitro plant regeneration potential in soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merrill.). The findings showed that seed preconditioning with 2.55 mg/L BAP prior to germination significantly influenced seedling establishment and the development of shoots, shoot elongation, and rooting on MS media supplemented with BAP and TDZ, compared to the negative (MS-NC) and positive (MS-NP) controls. The results also showed significant differences based on the genotypes, with Dundee recording 91.0% germination over a minimum of 5 days, compared to 74.2% with Peking, followed by 87.5% and 80.0% overall shoot induction frequency in these genotypes, respectively. Regenerated shoots were successfully elongated on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP plus 0.6 mg/L GA3 and rooted on hormone-free medium, for 3‒4 weeks, and then hardened in the acclimatization growth room under elevated light levels. Overall, this study revealed that BAP preconditioning of seeds enhances the frequency of bud initiation and shoot proliferation, mostly in whole-seedling and cotyledonary node explants subcultured on MS-E and MS-A media supplemented with BAP in combination with TDZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Reproduction)
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1 pages, 181 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Sharma et al. Rhizophagus irregularis and Azotobacter chroococcum Uphold Eggplant Production and Quality under Low Fertilization. Int. J. Plant Biol. 2022, 13, 601–612
by Meenakshi Sharma, Anil Kumar Delta, Navjot Singh Brar, Alpa Yadav, Parmdeep Singh Dhanda, Marouane Baslam and Prashant Kaushik
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020021 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 226
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
11 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Genomic Prediction of Root Traits via Aerial Traits in Soybean Using Canonical Variables
by Vitor Seiti Sagae, Noé Mitterhofer Eiterer Ponce de Leon da Costa, Matheus Massariol Suela, Dalton de Oliveira Ferreira, Ana Carolina Campana Nascimento, Camila Ferreira Azevedo, Felipe Lopes da Silva and Moysés Nascimento
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 242-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020020 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The phenotypic evaluation of root traits in soybeans presents challenges in breeding due to its high cost and the requirement for experimental plot destruction. Establishing relationships between aerial and root traits is crucial, given the relative ease of phenotypic evaluations for aerial traits. [...] Read more.
The phenotypic evaluation of root traits in soybeans presents challenges in breeding due to its high cost and the requirement for experimental plot destruction. Establishing relationships between aerial and root traits is crucial, given the relative ease of phenotypic evaluations for aerial traits. Therefore, this study aims to utilize the canonical correlation technique to estimate latent variables, subsequently employing GBLUP for the genomic prediction of the root traits (length, volume, surface area, and dry mass) using phenotypic information from aerial part traits (hypocotyl diameter and dry mass). Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique in predicting the root part, even when not directly evaluated. The agreement observed between the top 10% of individuals selected based on the canonical variable and each root trait individually was considered moderate or substantial. This enables the simultaneous selection of genotypes based on both trait groups, providing a valuable approach for soybean breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Reproduction)
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12 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Discriminating among Alternative Dressing Solutions for Cereal Seed Treatment: Effect on Germination and Seedling Vigor of Durum Wheat
by Angelo Rossini, Roberto Ruggeri and Francesco Rossini
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 230-241; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020019 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
A prompt seed germination and emergence coupled with an excellent seedling vigor are highly desired features to ensure perfect crop establishment and subsequent vegetative growth. Seed dressing with pesticides represents the most common technology for enhancing seed performance after sowing, while little is [...] Read more.
A prompt seed germination and emergence coupled with an excellent seedling vigor are highly desired features to ensure perfect crop establishment and subsequent vegetative growth. Seed dressing with pesticides represents the most common technology for enhancing seed performance after sowing, while little is known about biostimulant seed dressing. This practice could play a fundamental role in developing new sustainable starter fertilization for cereals. The enhancement of germination and seedling vigor of durum wheat seeds (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn) was the main target of this research. The experiment took place in a germination cabinet under controlled environmental conditions, settled at the constant temperature of 10 °C and under dark conditions for 8 days. The different seed dressings, sprayed on the seeds, were composed by a combination of a fungicide and different biostimulants. Coleoptile and root length, as well as biomass, were significantly increased by the different biostimulants, compared to the control. As for germination traits, seeds treated with Codium fragile and Opuntia ficus-indica extracts, containing phytohormones and different nutrients, showed a final germination (96%) significantly higher than the one obtained with the control treatment (86%). These results show that treating seeds with a suitable dressing solution can greatly improve the germination features and seedling vigor of durum wheat. This can help the crop to withstand future stresses, especially in early stages, and possibly increase the grain yield with a reduction in agrochemicals. However, the combination of the substances used in the present study rarely showed a synergistic effect on the tested variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Reproduction)
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13 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Eggplant Little Leaf-Associated Phytoplasma Detection in Seedlings under Insect-Proof Conditions
by Mukesh Darabakula, Sri Tej Mateeti, Francesco Pacini, Assunta Bertaccini and Nicoletta Contaldo
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 217-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020018 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Eggplant, or brinjal, is one of the most consumed and important tropical solanaceous vegetable crops grown worldwide. Little leaf is a disease associated with the presence of phytoplasmas especially widespread in brinjal in India. To clarify the epidemiology of this disease, a verification [...] Read more.
Eggplant, or brinjal, is one of the most consumed and important tropical solanaceous vegetable crops grown worldwide. Little leaf is a disease associated with the presence of phytoplasmas especially widespread in brinjal in India. To clarify the epidemiology of this disease, a verification of its transmission through seeds to seedlings and their progeny derived from symptomatic mother plants was performed. Brinjal seeds field-collected in the Dharwad district of Karnataka State, India, were sowed in a greenhouse under insect-proof conditions. DNA was extracted from seedlings and their progeny and from symptomatic plant samples collected in the field. The first- and second-generation seedlings obtained *under these conditions were tested at various time points after germination by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene of phytoplasmas. The amplicons obtained were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and sequencing for the identification of detected phytoplasmas. Ribosomal groups 16SrI, 16SrII, 16SrIII, 16SrV, 16SrVI, and 16SrXII were identified. Moreover, a number of fruits produced from the first-generation seedlings showed precocious seed germination, and the young seedlings resulted as phytoplasma-positive. The seed transmission of phytoplasmas in eggplants for two subsequent generations highlights the risk of additional sources of infection of the disease represented by asymptomatic and infected seedlings in the presence of insect vectors. The seed transmission could explain the continuous presence of epidemic outbreaks of phytoplasmas in brinjal cultivations in several cultivation areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant–Microorganisms Interactions)
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Article
Genetic Variability and Clustering Patterns of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Germplasms with Respect to Sucrose-Related Traits
by Aliya Momotaz, Orlando Coto Arbelo, Vanessa S. Gordon, Bronski Wesley, Sushma G. Sood and Duli Zhao
Int. J. Plant Biol. 2024, 15(2), 203-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijpb15020017 - 26 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Fifty-five sugarcane genotypes from around the world were collected and evaluated for potential use as parental material in the USDA ARS Canal Point (CP) sugarcane breeding program in Florida, USA. The genotypes were planted in a trial with four check cultivars on organic [...] Read more.
Fifty-five sugarcane genotypes from around the world were collected and evaluated for potential use as parental material in the USDA ARS Canal Point (CP) sugarcane breeding program in Florida, USA. The genotypes were planted in a trial with four check cultivars on organic soils with four replications, and data were collected for two years [i.e., plant cane (PC) and first ratoon (FR) crops] to assess sucrose-yield-related traits and the cane-yield-related traits in PC. Using a multivariate analysis, variation was observed in all cane—[i.e., stalk weight, stalk population and cane yield] and sugar-yield-related traits [i.e., Brix, Pol, sucrose content and commercial recoverable sucrose (CRS)]. The mean CRS content was greater in the FR crop than the PC crop. Significant variations were attributed to genotype (G), crop cycles (C) and G × C effects. Variations between crop cycles were highly significant for all sucrose yield components, which could complicate the downstream selection of genotypes for sucrose yield. Based on CRS content, genotypes could be grouped into six distinct clusters. Based on plant cane data, cane yield traits (stalk weight, stalk population and cane yield) were used to estimate the breeding values of parents. Of the 55 genotypes, 8 had significantly greater t-BLUP values for cane yield, along with CP 00-1101. Combined sucrose yield traits, (Brix, Pol and sucrose content) from the two crops were used to estimate the breeding values of parents. Of the 55 genotypes, 10 genotypes had significantly greater t-BLUP values for CRS, along with CP 00-1101, CP 96-1252 and CP 01-2390, and can be considered as elite parents in future breeding efforts. These results provide a foundation for the efficient integration of genetic diversity in developing commercial cultivars, with improved sucrose yields, into the CP sugarcane breeding program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Biochemistry and Genetics)
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