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Nutraceuticals, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 8 articles

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10 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Fomentariol, a Fomes fomentarius Compound, Exhibits Anti-Diabetic Effects in Fungal Material: An In Vitro Analysis
by Matjaž Ravnikar, Borut Štrukelj, Biljana Otašević and Mateja Sirše
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 273-282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020017 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The present study screened various fungal species for inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and DPP-4, enzymes that are crucial in carbohydrate metabolism. Ethanolic extracts exhibited superior inhibitory activity compared to water extracts, suggesting their potential as sources of anti-diabetic agents. Further fractionation revealed fomentariol [...] Read more.
The present study screened various fungal species for inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, and DPP-4, enzymes that are crucial in carbohydrate metabolism. Ethanolic extracts exhibited superior inhibitory activity compared to water extracts, suggesting their potential as sources of anti-diabetic agents. Further fractionation revealed fomentariol from Fomes fomentarius as a potent inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase and DPP-4, with higher activity against alpha-glucosidase than acarbose. Fomentariol presents a novel avenue for diabetes management, demonstrating the simultaneous inhibition of key enzymes in glucose metabolism. However, comprehensive clinical studies are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy in humans. Full article
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13 pages, 1941 KiB  
Article
Melatonin Modulates Lipid Metabolism and Reduces Cardiovascular Risk in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice Fed a Western Diet
by Guillermo Santos-Sánchez, Ana Isabel Álvarez-López, Eduardo Ponce-España, Ana Isabel Álvarez-Ríos, Patricia Judith Lardone, Antonio Carrillo-Vico and Ivan Cruz-Chamorro
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 260-272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020016 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Melatonin (MLT), a natural compound found in the animal and vegetable kingdom, participates in several physiological processes. MLT exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, among others, but information about its action on lipid metabolism is still scarce. For this reason, mice deficient in apolipoprotein [...] Read more.
Melatonin (MLT), a natural compound found in the animal and vegetable kingdom, participates in several physiological processes. MLT exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, among others, but information about its action on lipid metabolism is still scarce. For this reason, mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE−/−) fed a Western diet (WD) were intragastrically treated with different concentrations of MLT (2 and 9 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. The lipid parameters were quantified, and, since links between cardiovascular risk and immune function and oxidative stress have been established, we also analyzed the population of leukocytes and the oxidative stress status. Although there was no change in the weight of the mice, a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was observed in mice treated with the higher concentration of MLT tested in this study. Additionally, an improvement in cardiovascular risk indexes was observed. A reduction in the hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels was also observed in the treated mice. Finally, a decrease in leukocytes and lymphocytes in particular, as well as an increase in the antioxidant status, were shown in MLT-treated mice. In conclusion, MLT is a promising candidate that could be considered as a possible functional ingredient capable of preventing cardiovascular risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy 2.0)
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19 pages, 949 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Oral GABA on the Nervous System: Potential for Therapeutic Intervention
by Shahad Almutairi, Amaya Sivadas and Andrea Kwakowsky
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 241-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020015 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), plays a pivotal role in maintaining the delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Dysregulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance is implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, emphasizing the critical [...] Read more.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS), plays a pivotal role in maintaining the delicate balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Dysregulation of the excitatory/inhibitory balance is implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, emphasizing the critical role of GABA in disease-free brain function. The review examines the intricate interplay between the gut–brain axis and CNS function. The potential impact of dietary GABA on the brain, either by traversing the blood–brain barrier (BBB) or indirectly through the gut–brain axis, is explored. While traditional beliefs questioned GABA’s ability to cross the BBB, recent research challenges this notion, proposing specific transporter systems facilitating GABA passage. Animal studies provide some evidence that small amounts of GABA can cross the BBB but there is a lack of human data to support the role of transporter-mediated GABA entry into the brain. This review also explores GABA-containing food supplements, investigating their impact on brain activity and functions. The potential benefits of GABA supplementation on pain management and sleep quality are highlighted, supported by alterations in electroencephalography (EEG) brain responses following oral GABA intake. The comprehensive overview encompasses GABA’s sources in the diet, including brown rice, soy, adzuki beans, and fermented foods. GABA’s presence in various foods and supplements, its association with gut microbiota, and its potential as a therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders are thoroughly examined. The articles were retrieved through a systematic review of the databases: OVID, SCOPUS, and PubMed (keywords “GABA”, “oral GABA“, “sleep”, “cognition”, “neurodegenerative”, “blood-brain barrier”, “gut microbiota”, “supplements” and “therapeutic”, and by searching reference sections from identified studies and review articles). This review presents the relevant literature available on the topic and discusses the mechanisms, effects, and hypotheses that suggest oral GABA benefits range from neuroprotection to blood pressure control. The literature suggests that oral intake of GABA affects the brain illustrated by changes in EEG scans and cognitive performance, with evidence showing that GABA can have beneficial effects for multiple age groups and conditions. The potential clinical and research implications of utilizing GABA supplementation are vast, spanning a spectrum of diseases ranging from neurodegeneration to blood pressure regulation. Importantly, recommendations for the use of oral GABA should consider the dosage, formulation, and duration of treatment as well as potential side effects. Effects of GABA need to be more thoroughly investigated in robust clinical trials to validate efficacy to progress the development of alternative treatments for a variety of disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutraceuticals in Central Nervous System Disorders)
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9 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Acute Ketone Supplementation on Time to Fatigue in NCAA Division I Cross-Country Athletes
by Marcos Gonzalez, Caroline Jachino, Blake Murphy, Kaitlyn Heinemann, Mitchel A. Magrini, Eric C. Bredahl, Joan M. Eckerson and Jacob A. Siedlik
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 232-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020014 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 367
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of a commercially available ketone supplement on heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate, glucose, and ketone concentrations, along with time to fatigue (TTF) during a running task to voluntary fatigue. Twelve NCAA Division I cross-country athletes [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of a commercially available ketone supplement on heart rate (HR), perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate, glucose, and ketone concentrations, along with time to fatigue (TTF) during a running task to voluntary fatigue. Twelve NCAA Division I cross-country athletes took part in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Bayesian methodologies were employed for all statistical analyses, and point estimates were determined to be statistically significant if the 95% highest-density intervals (HDI) excluded zero. TTF was not significantly different between conditions with a Meandiff = 48.7 ± 6.3 s (95% HDI: −335, 424) and a 0.39 probability derived from the posterior distribution, indicating the likelihood that the supplement would increase TTF compared to the placebo control. Lactate concentrations immediately post-exercise were significantly lower in the supplement trial relative to placebo with an estimated Meandiff = −4.6 ± 1.9 mmol; 95% HDI: −8.3, −0.9. There were no significant interaction effects observed for either blood glucose or ketone concentrations nor HR or RPE. These findings imply that the acute ingestion of ketones before running at lactate threshold pace has a low probability of increasing TTF in highly trained Division I runners. Full article
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42 pages, 2359 KiB  
Review
Nutraceutical Aspects of Selected Wild Edible Plants of the Italian Central Apennines
by Francesca Fantasma, Vadym Samukha, Gabriella Saviano, Maria Giovanna Chini, Maria Iorizzi and Claudio Caprari
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 190-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020013 - 9 Apr 2024
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Abstract
All over the world, wild edible plants are an essential source of chemical components that justify their use in folk medicine. The aim of this review is to document and summarize the knowledge of ten wild plants analyzed in a previous study for [...] Read more.
All over the world, wild edible plants are an essential source of chemical components that justify their use in folk medicine. The aim of this review is to document and summarize the knowledge of ten wild plants analyzed in a previous study for their ethnomedical significance. Achillea millefolium, Borago officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, Gentiana lutea, Juniperus communis, Laurus nobilis, Malva sylvestris, Satureja montana, Silybum marianum and Urtica dioica were the subjects of our study. They are commonly found in the central Italian Apennines and the Mediterranean basin. Phytochemicals contained in wild plants, such as phenols, polyphenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins, carotenoids, etc., are receiving increasing attention, as they exert a wide range of biological activities with resulting benefits for human health. Based on the 353 studies we reviewed, we focused our study on the following: (a) the ethnobotanical practices and bioactive phytochemicals; (b) the composition of polyphenols and their role as antioxidants; (c) the methodologies commonly used to assess antioxidant activity; (d) the most advanced spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques used to visualize and characterize all components (metabolomic fingerprinting). The potential of pure compounds and extracts to be used as nutraceuticals has also been highlighted through a supposed mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy 2.0)
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9 pages, 557 KiB  
Review
The Marine Alga Sargassum horneri Is a Functional Food with High Bioactivity
by Masayoshi Yamaguchi
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 181-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020012 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
Functional food factors can play a preventive and therapeutic role in several human diseases. The marine alga Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) has restorative effects in several types of metabolic disorders, including osteoporosis, diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and cancer cell growth. Osteoporosis is [...] Read more.
Functional food factors can play a preventive and therapeutic role in several human diseases. The marine alga Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) has restorative effects in several types of metabolic disorders, including osteoporosis, diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and cancer cell growth. Osteoporosis is widely recognized as a major public health problem. Bone loss associated with ageing and diabetic states was prevented through the intake of bioactive compounds from S. horneri water extract in vivo by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. The intake of S. horneri water extract was found to have preventive effects on diabetic findings with an increase in serum glucose and lipid components. Furthermore, the S. horneri component has been shown to suppress adipogenesis from rat bone marrow cells and inflammatory conditions in vitro. Notably, the growth of bone metastatic human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which induce bone loss with osteolytic effects, was suppressed through culturing with the S. horneri water extract component in vitro. The S. horneri component, which has a molecular weight of less than 1000, was found to suppress the activation of NF-κB signaling by tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine associated with inflammation, in osteoblastic cells and macrophage RAW264.7 cells in vitro, suggesting a molecular mechanism. The bioactive component of S. horneri may play a multifunctional role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. This review outlines the advanced knowledge of the biological activity of the aqueous extract components of S. horneri and discusses the development of health supplements using this material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy 2.0)
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16 pages, 1892 KiB  
Review
Resveratrol and Neuroinflammation: Total-Scale Analysis of the Scientific Literature
by Michele Goulart dos Santos, Diele Bopsin da Luz, Fernanda Barros de Miranda, Rafael Felipe de Aguiar, Anna Maria Siebel, Bruno Dutra Arbo and Mariana Appel Hort
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 165-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020011 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the development of various neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, leading to significant neuronal dysfunction. Current treatments involve the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids; however, they are associated with serious adverse effects, limiting their efficacy. Exploring [...] Read more.
Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the development of various neurological diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, leading to significant neuronal dysfunction. Current treatments involve the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids; however, they are associated with serious adverse effects, limiting their efficacy. Exploring natural products with anti-inflammatory properties appears promising, with resveratrol, a polyphenol found in various plants, standing out for its potential benefits. Studies on resveratrol and its anti-inflammatory properties have been increasing in recent years, and analyzing the profile of this knowledge area can bring benefits to the scientific community. Therefore, this study conducted bibliometric analyses, using “resveratrol AND neuroinflammation” as search terms in the Web of Science Core Collection database. The analysis, performed with VOSviewer software version 1.6.18, encompasses 323 publications. Key terms in the studies include “resveratrol”, “neuroinflammation”, and “oxidative stress”, with China leading in the number of publications. The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil emerges as the institution with the highest contribution, and a phase 2 clinical study on resveratrol was the most cited. These results provide an overview of the global research landscape related to resveratrol and neuroinflammation, aiding decision making for future publications and advancing scientific understanding in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Nutraceuticals in Central Nervous System Disorders)
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18 pages, 3190 KiB  
Article
Osteoprotective Effect of the Phytonutraceutical Ormona® on Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Wistar Rats
by Aline Lopes do Nascimento, Gabriel da Costa Furtado, Vinicius Maciel Vilhena, Helison de Oliveira Carvalho, Priscila Faimann Sales, Alessandra Ohana Nery Barcellos, Kaio Coutinho de Maria, Francinaldo Sarges Braga, Heitor Ribeiro da Silva, Roberto Messias Bezerra and José Carlos Tavares Carvalho
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(2), 147-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4020010 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 612
Abstract
The phytonutraceutical Ormona® is a product composed of purified oil of Bixa orellana Linné, dry extract of Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, dry extract of Trifolium pratense L., and dry extract of Euterpe oleracea Mart. obtained using Evolve® technology. This study evaluated the [...] Read more.
The phytonutraceutical Ormona® is a product composed of purified oil of Bixa orellana Linné, dry extract of Myrciaria dubia McVaugh, dry extract of Trifolium pratense L., and dry extract of Euterpe oleracea Mart. obtained using Evolve® technology. This study evaluated the effects of Ormona® on Wistar rats affected by ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Pre-treatment was conducted for 15 days before surgery and continued for a further 45 days after the surgical procedure. The experimental design consisted of five groups (n = 5): OVW: treated with distilled water (1 mL/kg, p.o); ADS: alendronate sodium (4 mg/kg p.o); EST: conjugated estrogen (2 µg/kg, p.o); ORM: Ormona® (20 mg/kg, p.o); ORM + EST: Ormona® (20 mg/kg, p.o) + conjugated estrogen (2 µg/kg, p.o). Biochemical and hormonal parameters of bone histopathology and trabecular and femoral diaphysis size were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bone calcium quantification by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results show that ovariectomy caused bone alterations such as loss of femoral microarchitecture, decreased bone homeostasis parameters, and changes in the lipid profile. Estrogen supplementation reduced parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, and Ca2+ concentration. However, Ormona® showed higher serum estradiol levels (p < 0.01), effects on the lipid profile, including parameters that estrogen replacement and alendronate sodium did not affect, with an increase in HDL, and positive modulation of bone metabolism, increasing osteocytes and the presence of osteoblasts. Ormona®, therefore, produced better results than the groups treated with estrogen and alendronate sodium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects)
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