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Nutraceuticals, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 9 articles

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20 pages, 3253 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the In Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects of Extracts from Green-Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus)
by Roberta Cardim Lessa, Belgheis Ebrahimi, Hui Li, Xiao Guan, Yan Li and Jun Lu
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 127-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010009 - 15 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
The immune system plays a crucial role in defending the body against foreign invaders, and the balance of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can impact immune cell functions and overall immune responses. [...] Read more.
The immune system plays a crucial role in defending the body against foreign invaders, and the balance of various polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), can impact immune cell functions and overall immune responses. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of mussel oil extracts in modulating inflammatory responses by analysing their effects on immune cell lines and cytokine expression. Four different mussel oil extracts were obtained using two extraction methods (organic solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction) from two tissue sources (fresh and commercial). These extracts were then tested at various concentrations on T lymphocyte (Jurkat) cells, monocytes, and macrophages (THP-1 and U-937). Cytokine levels were quantified using ELISA. The results showed that the solvent-extracted samples had a dose-dependent effect on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) cytokine secretion in THP-1 and U937 cells, with the extract from a commercial mussel powder being more efficient than the extract from fresh powder. However, supercritical CO2 samples showed elevated cytokine secretion levels despite their high omega-3 content. Furthermore, 100 ug/mL extract from fresh powder successfully reduced interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion while maintaining cell viability after stimulation. The study demonstrated that solvent-extracted mussel oil can effectively regulate cytokine secretion, modulate immune cell activation, and alleviate inflammation. These findings offer valuable insights into using mussel oil extracts to treat inflammatory disorders and enhance immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects)
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23 pages, 826 KiB  
Review
What Is New about Parsley, a Potential Source of Cardioprotective Therapeutic Substances?
by Livia Marques Casanova, Luana Beatriz dos Santos Nascimento and Sônia Soares Costa
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 104-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010008 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae), popularly known as parsley, is a ubiquitous aromatic herb used for culinary and medicinal purposes worldwide. In addition to the richness in nutrients, several bioactive secondary metabolites, especially the flavone apigenin and its glycosides, have been described in [...] Read more.
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss (Apiaceae), popularly known as parsley, is a ubiquitous aromatic herb used for culinary and medicinal purposes worldwide. In addition to the richness in nutrients, several bioactive secondary metabolites, especially the flavone apigenin and its glycosides, have been described in this species. Parsley has already been shown to have several health-promoting activities, such as antithrombotic, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic properties. The multiple studies conducted in animal models so far suggest this species is a potential source of cardioprotective agents. This review provides up-to-date information and perspectives on the potential of parsley and its bioactive compounds for the development of nutraceutical products and drugs for promoting cardiovascular health. It includes not only a discussion of parsley’s reported bioactivities but also the knowledge of supplements and food additives developed as innovative parsley-based products. Full article
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10 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile of Cold-Pressed Beech Nut (Fagus sylvatica L.) Oil
by Marko Obranović, Klara Kraljić, Dubravka Škevin, Sandra Balbino and Kristijan Tomljanović
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 94-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010007 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the chemical characteristics of cold-pressed beech nut oil. The nuts, gathered from the forest, comprised 25.35% water, 13.19% oil, and 19.40% protein. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (40.5%), followed by oleic acid (35.0%) [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to assess the chemical characteristics of cold-pressed beech nut oil. The nuts, gathered from the forest, comprised 25.35% water, 13.19% oil, and 19.40% protein. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic acid (40.5%), followed by oleic acid (35.0%) and gondoic acid (7.7%). All four tocopherols were present in the oil, with γ-tocopherol being the dominant form at 99.38 mg per 100 g of oil. The total sterol content was 2708.73 mg per kg of oil, with β-sitosterol constituting 80.5% of all sterols. The main characteristics of the oil included its relatively high tocopherol and gondoic acid content, a dominant oleic–linoleic fatty acid profile, and elevated levels of carotenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods - 2nd Volume)
12 pages, 993 KiB  
Article
The Acute Effects of a Commercially Available Caffeinated and Caffeine-Free Thermogenic Dietary Supplement on Resting Energy Expenditure, Hunger, and Hemodynamic Responses
by Kworweinski Lafontant, Jacob Broeckel, Kara Phillips, Yasamian Alsayed, Wayne A. Ayers-Creech, Yuto Ohigashi, John Solis, Cassidy Bale, Arielle Parks, Scott Dankel and Bill I. Campbell
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 82-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010006 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
There has been a rise in popularity of “stimulant-free” or caffeine-free fat loss supplements, but it is not well understood whether those fat loss supplements are effective at enhancing thermogenesis without caffeine’s influence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects [...] Read more.
There has been a rise in popularity of “stimulant-free” or caffeine-free fat loss supplements, but it is not well understood whether those fat loss supplements are effective at enhancing thermogenesis without caffeine’s influence. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a caffeinated and non-caffeinated commercially available fat loss supplement on resting energy expenditure (REE), hunger, and hemodynamic variables in healthy adults. Twenty-five healthy male and female participants completed three separate laboratory visits after overnight fasts. Baseline assessments of REE, subjective hunger, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were followed by ingestion of a caffeinated (Phoenix, Legion®; CAF), non-caffeinated (Phoenix Caffeine-Free, Legion®; NCAF), or placebo (PL) fat loss supplement. REE, hunger, HR, and BP assessments were repeated at 60-, 120-, and 180-min post-ingestion. CAF, but not NCAF, significantly elevated REE greater than PL at all time points (p < 0.05). NCAF significantly reduced hunger compared to CAF and PL at the 120-min time point (p = 0.006). CAF significantly increased diastolic BP 60-min post-ingestion and significantly increased systolic BP 120- and 180-min post-ingestion compared to NCAF and PL. Further research is warranted with respect to investigating non-caffeinated ingredients and their effects on REE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods as a New Therapeutic Strategy 2.0)
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17 pages, 3566 KiB  
Article
Saline Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Has Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects in Mouse Models
by Kleber Ribeiro Fidelis, Robson Raion de Vasconcelos Alves, Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Magda Rhayanny Assunção Ferreira, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares, Alisson Macário de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Napoleão and Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 65-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010005 - 4 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Plant extracts can be therapeutic alternatives for depression and anxiety. However, some plant-derived preparations can also be toxic. Moringa oleifera leaves are used in human nutrition due to their high nutritional value and antioxidant activity. This study investigated a saline extract from M. [...] Read more.
Plant extracts can be therapeutic alternatives for depression and anxiety. However, some plant-derived preparations can also be toxic. Moringa oleifera leaves are used in human nutrition due to their high nutritional value and antioxidant activity. This study investigated a saline extract from M. oleifera leaves (MoLE) for secondary metabolites, proteins, cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity, in vivo acute oral toxicity, and neurobehavioral effects. MoLE contains flavonoids (rutin and vitexin), lectin, and a trypsin inhibitor. It is neither cytotoxic nor hemolytic for human cells and did not present acute oral toxicity (2000 mg/kg) to mice. The elevated plus maze test showed that MoLE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the number of entries as well as the time spent by mice in open arms, while it decreased the number of entries and the time spent in closed arms when compared to the control. MoLE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced immobility time of mice in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, compared to the control. The anxiolytic-like effect of MoLE is possibly mediated by a GABA mimetic action once it is prevented by pre-treatment with flumazenil. The present study demonstrated that MoLE has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in mice and is a promising herbal medicine. Full article
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15 pages, 1826 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Properties, Antioxidant Activity, and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Selected Marine Macro-Algae Species of Sri Lanka
by Viraji Warnasooriya, Sadhisha Gunawardena, Pabodha Weththasinghe, Barana Jayawardana, Mallique Qader and Ruvini Liyanage
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 50-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010004 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
In recent years, the emergence of drug resistance and sensitivity in leading diseases has heightened global interest in natural nutraceuticals as primary health supplements. However, comprehensive scientific scrutiny is essential before marketing these as supplements. In this study, we assessed the nutritional composition, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the emergence of drug resistance and sensitivity in leading diseases has heightened global interest in natural nutraceuticals as primary health supplements. However, comprehensive scientific scrutiny is essential before marketing these as supplements. In this study, we assessed the nutritional composition, antioxidant activities, and trace metal accumulation in eleven selected Sri Lankan coastal seaweed species. Gracilaria corticata had the highest (p < 0.05) ash and crude fiber content among the species. Protein content ranged from 4.87% to 23.67% (DW), with Ulva rigida displaying the highest (p < 0.05). Crude fat content ranged from 0.09% to 4.13% (DW), with Cladophora herpestica having the highest (p < 0.05) crude fat content. Sargassam cinereum, Turbinaria ornata and Sargassum crassifolium had the highest (p < 0.05) TPC content (51.32 ± 0.61–28.90 ± 2.68 mg/GAE g) and the highest (p < 0.05) radical scavenging antioxidant activity compared to other seaweeds. The study findings indicate that most of the studied metals in seaweeds exceeded the WHO-recommended levels. Aluminum was the highest (p < 0.05) accumulated metal in seaweeds compared to other metals. Toxic heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium and chromium, levels in all of the studied seaweeds surpassed the WHO limits. While seaweeds displayed acceptable nutritional and antioxidant properties, heavy metal presence poses a potential health risk to consumers. Products using seaweeds with accumulated heavy metals may have lower nutritional quality. Thus, this study underscores the need for comprehensive scientific investigation before developing high-quality natural food products or supplements from seaweeds. Full article
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15 pages, 3125 KiB  
Article
Immune Activation by a Nutraceutical Blend: Rapid Increase in Immune-Modulating Cytokines, Followed by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory and Restorative Biomarkers
by Sage V. McGarry, Liu Yu, Dina Cruickshank, Ifeanyi Iloba and Gitte S. Jensen
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 35-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010003 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Immune cells express Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) to recognize potentially pathogenic microbial forms. Nutraceutical compounds can induce immune cell activation through PRRs. The nutraceutical immune blend (IB), QuickStart™, contains botanical and yeast-derived ligands for PRRs, along with vitamin C and zinc. We evaluated [...] Read more.
Immune cells express Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) to recognize potentially pathogenic microbial forms. Nutraceutical compounds can induce immune cell activation through PRRs. The nutraceutical immune blend (IB), QuickStart™, contains botanical and yeast-derived ligands for PRRs, along with vitamin C and zinc. We evaluated immune-activating effects of the IB and its ingredients in vitro. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with either the IB or single ingredients: elderberry extract, the proprietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentate EpiCor™ (Sacc), the plant-based hemicellulose preparation Natramune (PDS-2865)™ (Hemi), vitamin C (VitC), or zinc gluconate (Zinc). The IB triggered sequential waves of immune activation. Initial cytokine induction by the IB at 2 h involved the immune-activating cytokines IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, and the stem cell-mobilizing growth factor G-CSF, as did Sacc and Hemi. The 24 h immune-activation by the IB included increases in IL-1β, IL-17A, IP-10, GM-CSF, Basis FGF, PDGF-BB, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Increased CD69 expression by the IB was also seen for VitC and Sacc. Increased CD25 expression by the IB on monocytes was also seen for Sacc. The IB triggered rapid immune activating events of higher magnitude than the single ingredients, involving immune-activating cytokines and restorative growth factors. Clinical research is warranted to evaluate rapid immune-modulating events upon consumption. Full article
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12 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Yohimbine Ingestion Mitigates Morning-Associated Decrements in High-Intensity Exercise Performance
by Christopher G. Ballmann, Rebecca R. Rogers, Megan E. Barnes, Camryn R. Cowan, Carson C. Elwell, Kailey A. Luiken, Grace Y. Lehman, Julia C. Kaylor, Ella G. Simpson, Spencer B. Westbrooks, Maria J. Miller, Courteney L. Benjamin and Tyler D. Williams
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 23-34; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010002 - 2 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1575
Abstract
Exercise performance tends to suffer during the morning compared to the evening, which may decrease potential training adaptations. Currently, it is unclear how nutritional interventions may affect this phenomenon and whether supplementation may allow for the attainment of optimal performance regardless of the [...] Read more.
Exercise performance tends to suffer during the morning compared to the evening, which may decrease potential training adaptations. Currently, it is unclear how nutritional interventions may affect this phenomenon and whether supplementation may allow for the attainment of optimal performance regardless of the time of day. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute yohimbine ingestion on morning-associated decrements in performance and psychophysiological responses to exercise. Physically active females (n = 16) were recruited to participate in three total visits, each with a different treatment: (1) placebo-morning (PL-AM), (2) yohimbine-morning (YHM-AM; oral 2.5 mg), and (3) placebo-afternoon (PM). The morning and afternoon visits occurred between 7:00–8:00 h and 16:00–17:00 h, respectively. The experimental treatments in the morning were ingested 20 min prior to capillary blood collection, which was completed pre- and post-exercise. Following a warm-up, participants completed a 2000 m time trial on a rowing ergometer. Power output, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every minute. Time to competition (TTC) and subjective energy, focus, and alertness were documented post-exercise. Pre- and post-exercise blood lactate (La) and plasma hypoxanthine (HX) levels were also assessed. The trials were separated by a 48 h washout period. The results showed that power output (p = 0.010) was lower and TTC (p = 0.003) was significantly slower with PL-AM compared to PM. Furthermore, YHM-AM resulted in higher power output (p = 0.035) and faster TTC (p = 0.007) compared to PL-AM, with no differences compared to PM (p > 0.05). Post-exercise La was significantly lower with YHM-AM compared to PL-AM (p = 0.046) and PM (p = 0.001). Pre-exercise plasma HX, as measured via conversion to xanthine, was significantly higher with PM (p = 0.039), while the levels trended higher with YHM-AM (p = 0.060) compared to PL-AM. Subjective energy was higher with YHM-AM (p = 0.045) and PM (p = 0.009) compared to PL-AM, while alertness was only higher for YHM-AM compared to PL-AM (p = 0.045). No statistical differences between the treatments were found for RPE or HR (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that YHM ingestion attenuates performance decrements in the morning. Improvements in performance may be underpinned by improved feelings of energy and alterations in metabolism. Practically, YHM may represent an effective ergogenic aid to combat a lack of energy and low performance during the morning. Full article
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22 pages, 5408 KiB  
Article
Exploring the In Vitro Protective Effects of Green-Lipped Mussel (GLM) Oil Extract against Biomarkers of Glucose Metabolism and Inflammation in Chondrocyte Cells
by Roberta Cardim Lessa, Belgheis Ebrahimi, Xiao Guan, Yan Li and Jun Lu
Nutraceuticals 2024, 4(1), 1-22; https://doi.org/10.3390/nutraceuticals4010001 - 19 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Chondrocyte behavior is critical in osteoarthritis (OA) progression and cartilage deterioration. Recent studies have shown that green-lipped mussel (GLM) oil extracts obtained through solvent extraction can regulate cytokine secretion in cell lines, potentially reducing inflammation and immune cell activation. This study investigates the [...] Read more.
Chondrocyte behavior is critical in osteoarthritis (OA) progression and cartilage deterioration. Recent studies have shown that green-lipped mussel (GLM) oil extracts obtained through solvent extraction can regulate cytokine secretion in cell lines, potentially reducing inflammation and immune cell activation. This study investigates the effects of these extracts on human chondrocyte cell lines to understand their impact on osteoarthritis development. Chondrocyte cultures exposed to osteoarthritis-related inflammatory factors were treated with various concentrations of GLM oil. The results revealed that mussel oils, particularly a commercial mussel powder extract (SOLV.COM), enhance glucose uptake and protect chondrocyte cells. SOLV.COM effectively manages the release of inflammatory markers like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), showing increased deoxyglucose uptake. This study highlights the significant influence of extract choice on managing interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion and cellular activation pathways, demonstrating the potential of SOLV.COM in managing osteoarthritis by controlling reactive oxygen production, regulating glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects)
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