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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 20, Issue 1 (January-1 2023) – 894 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The commonly used two-step and one-pot synthesis methods for producing biochar require the use of iron salt solutions, resulting in the undesirable consequences of energy consumption for dewatering and potential pollution risks. To address this drawback, a magnetic sewage sludge-derived biochar (MSBC-2) was synthesized by a solvent-free method in this study. The maximum adsorption capacities were 151.52 mg·g−1 for Pb2+, 109.89 mg·g−1 for Cd2+, and 74.07 mg·g−1 for Cu2+. Surface complexation, cation–π interaction, ion exchange, and electrostatic attraction mechanisms were involved in the adsorption of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ onto MSBC-2. Overall, this study will provide a new perspective for the synthesis of magnetic biochar; MSBC-2 shows great potential as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal. View this paper
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12 pages, 1285 KiB  
Communication
How Does Sustainable Leadership Affect Environmental Innovation Strategy Adoption? The Mediating Role of Environmental Identity
by Ling Hu, Tai-Wei Chang, Yue-Shi Lee, Show-Jane Yen and Chih-Wen Ting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010894 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3943
Abstract
This paper uses social identity theory to develop an environmental identity theory and interpret why sustainable leadership can influence environmental identity, which in turn, results in environmental innovation strategy (EIS) adoption. Data were collected from 90 samples of technology manufacturing firms in Taiwan, [...] Read more.
This paper uses social identity theory to develop an environmental identity theory and interpret why sustainable leadership can influence environmental identity, which in turn, results in environmental innovation strategy (EIS) adoption. Data were collected from 90 samples of technology manufacturing firms in Taiwan, and a latent growth curve model was employed to analyze the longitudinal data. The research results confirm all hypotheses. Mediating analysis also supports the environmental identity as a mediating role between sustainable leadership and EIS. Indeed, past studies have not explored the mechanism studied in this paper, a novel mechanism which can not only advance the literature on sustainable development but also help companies to realize sustainable development through environmental innovation strategy adoption. Full article
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18 pages, 4452 KiB  
Article
Safe, Efficient, and Comfortable Autonomous Driving Based on Cooperative Vehicle Infrastructure System
by Jing Chen, Cong Zhao, Shengchuan Jiang, Xinyuan Zhang, Zhongxin Li and Yuchuan Du
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010893 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3639
Abstract
Traffic crashes, heavy congestion, and discomfort often occur on rough pavements due to human drivers’ imperfect decision-making for vehicle control. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will flood onto urban roads to replace human drivers and improve driving performance in the near future. With the development [...] Read more.
Traffic crashes, heavy congestion, and discomfort often occur on rough pavements due to human drivers’ imperfect decision-making for vehicle control. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will flood onto urban roads to replace human drivers and improve driving performance in the near future. With the development of the cooperative vehicle infrastructure system (CVIS), multi-source road and traffic information can be collected by onboard or roadside sensors and integrated into a cloud. The information is updated and used for decision-making in real-time. This study proposes an intelligent speed control approach for AVs in CVISs using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) to improve safety, efficiency, and ride comfort. First, the irregular and fluctuating road profiles of rough pavements are represented by maximum comfortable speeds on segments via vertical comfort evaluation. A DRL-based speed control model is then designed to learn safe, efficient, and comfortable car-following behavior based on road and traffic information. Specifically, the model is trained and tested in a stochastic environment using data sampled from 1341 car-following events collected in California and 110 rough pavements detected in Shanghai. The experimental results show that the DRL-based speed control model can improve computational efficiency, driving efficiency, longitudinal comfort, and vertical comfort in cars by 93.47%, 26.99%, 58.33%, and 6.05%, respectively, compared to a model predictive control-based adaptive cruise control. The results indicate that the proposed intelligent speed control approach for AVs is effective on rough pavements and has excellent potential for practical application. Full article
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14 pages, 912 KiB  
Systematic Review
Characteristics and Effectiveness of Co-Designed Mental Health Interventions in Primary Care for People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review
by Tobias Schiffler, Ali Kapan, Alina Gansterer, Thomas Pass, Lisa Lehner, Alejandro Gil-Salmeron, Daragh T. McDermott and Igor Grabovac
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010892 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 3608
Abstract
People experiencing homelessness (PEH) face a disproportionately high prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes compared with the non-homeless population and are known to utilize primary healthcare services less frequently while seeking help in emergency care facilities. Given that primary health services are more [...] Read more.
People experiencing homelessness (PEH) face a disproportionately high prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes compared with the non-homeless population and are known to utilize primary healthcare services less frequently while seeking help in emergency care facilities. Given that primary health services are more efficient and cost-saving, services with a focus on mental health that are co-designed with the participation of users can tackle this problem. Hence, we aimed to synthesize the current evidence of such interventions to assess and summarize the characteristics and effectiveness of co-designed primary mental healthcare services geared towards adult PEH. Out of a total of 10,428 identified records, four articles were found to be eligible to be included in this review. Our findings show that co-designed interventions positively impacted PEH’s mental health and housing situation or reduced hospital and emergency department admissions and increased primary care utilization. Therefore, co-designed mental health interventions appear a promising way of providing PEH with continued access to primary mental healthcare. However, as co-designed mental health interventions for PEH can improve overall mental health, quality of life, housing, and acute service utilization, more research is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Well-Being in Vulnerable Communities)
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29 pages, 1239 KiB  
Article
COVID-19 News Exposure and Vaccinations: A Moderated Mediation of Digital News Literacy Behavior and Vaccine Misperceptions
by Yuanyuan Wu, Ozan Kuru, Dam Hee Kim and Seongcheol Kim
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010891 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2807
Abstract
Being exposed to and believing in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines is a challenge for vaccine acceptance. Yet, how countervailing factors such as news literacy could complicate “the information exposure—belief in vaccine misinformation—vaccination” path needs to be unpacked to understand the communication of scientific [...] Read more.
Being exposed to and believing in misinformation about COVID-19 vaccines is a challenge for vaccine acceptance. Yet, how countervailing factors such as news literacy could complicate “the information exposure—belief in vaccine misinformation—vaccination” path needs to be unpacked to understand the communication of scientific information about COVID-19. This study examines (1) the mediating role of belief in vaccine misinformation between COVID-19 information exposure and vaccination behavior and (2) the moderating role of news literacy behaviors. We examine these relationships by collecting data in two distinct societies: the United States and South Korea. We conducted online surveys in June and September 2021 respectively for each country (N = 1336 [the U.S.]; N = 550 [South Korea]). Our results showed a significant moderated mediation model, in which the association between digital media reliance and COVID-19 vaccination was mediated through vaccine misperceptions, and the relationship between digital media reliance and misinformed belief was further moderated by news literacy behavior. Unexpectedly, we found that individuals with stronger news literacy behavior were more susceptible to misinformation belief. This study contributes to the extant literature on the communication of COVID-19 science through probing into the mediating role of belief in vaccine-related misinformation and the moderating role of news literacy behavior in relation to COVID-19 information exposure and vaccination behaviors. It also reflects the concept of news literacy behavior and discusses how it could be further refined to exert its positive impact in correcting misinformation beliefs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Communication and Informatics)
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19 pages, 3572 KiB  
Article
Assessing Spatial Accessibility of Community Hospitals for the Elderly in Beijing, China
by Jingya Luan, Yuhong Tian, Chi Yung Jim, Xu Liu, Mengxuan Yan and Lizhu Wu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010890 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Accessibility of health services signifies the quality and equitability of universal health provision. The hierarchical medical system recently implemented in China offers the policy instruments to improve medical services to the elderly in an aging society. As the critical primary care gateway, accessibility [...] Read more.
Accessibility of health services signifies the quality and equitability of universal health provision. The hierarchical medical system recently implemented in China offers the policy instruments to improve medical services to the elderly in an aging society. As the critical primary care gateway, accessibility to community hospitals has significant impacts on people’s health. However, current research has paid little attention to spatial accessibility within walking distance of community hospitals, especially for the elderly. This study selected four districts with different urbanization levels in the rapidly developing Beijing metropolis. The spatial interaction model was applied to measure the accessibility of community hospitals for the elderly at the community level. An attractiveness index was computed based on key hospital traits. The results showed that: (1) community hospitals could cover 82.66% of elderly residents, and 77.63% of the communities were within walking distance. The served elderly proportion was relatively high in central urban areas and low in the suburbs. (2) The attractiveness indices of hospitals varied notably between districts, with higher values in more urbanized areas. (3) The spatial accessibility for the elderly of hospitals differed significantly between the four districts, with a descending gradient from central to suburban and rural areas, as indicated by the Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves. (4) The accessibility index was strongly related to the served elderly population and the hospital–residence distance. The findings provide policy directions to the government, including providing more primary-care resources to suburban and rural areas, building new community hospitals in identified provision gaps, upgrading some clinics to hospitals in rural areas, and planning hospitals according to the projected trend of the elderly population in terms of quantity and distribution. The considerable provision disparity between core urban, suburban and rural areas can be addressed by refined spatial health planning informed by research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Transdisciplinary Approach to Healthy Ageing)
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22 pages, 706 KiB  
Review
Poverty-Aware Programs in Social Service Departments in Israel: A Rapid Evidence Review of Outcomes for Service Users and Social Work Practice
by Shachar Timor-Shlevin, Yuval Saar-Heiman and Michal Krumer-Nevo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010889 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
Critical perspectives and practices are fundamental to social work, yet there are only scarce examples of direct critical practice in public social services, and even fewer empirical evaluations of their outcomes for service users and social workers. This article presents a rapid evidence [...] Read more.
Critical perspectives and practices are fundamental to social work, yet there are only scarce examples of direct critical practice in public social services, and even fewer empirical evaluations of their outcomes for service users and social workers. This article presents a rapid evidence review of 25 evaluation studies of five programs that operate in the social services departments in Israel according to the principles of the Poverty-Aware Paradigm (PAP). The PAP is a critical paradigm for direct social work practice with people living in poverty that was implemented in the welfare services by the Ministry of Welfare, targeting over 14,000 service users. The evaluation studies we reviewed encompass an overall quantitative sample of 4612 service users and 1363 professionals, and a qualitative sample of 420 service users and 424 professionals. The findings present: (1) the program’s outcomes for service users in terms of relationship with social workers, financial circumstances, family relations, and children’s safety; and (2) the program’s impact on social workers’ attitudes and practices. Finally, we discuss the lessons learned regarding social workers’ role in combatting poverty, the construction of success in interventions with people in poverty, and the article’s limitations. Full article
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11 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Comparisons of Effectiveness in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Ovarian Masses between Conventional and Modified Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI)
by Charuwan Tantipalakorn, Dangcheewan Tinnangwattana, Thitikarn Lerthiranwong, Suchaya Luewan and Theera Tongsong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010888 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 4150
Abstract
Objective: To compare the predictive performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between the modified risk malignancy index (RMI) and the conventional RMI (RMI-1 and RMI-2). Methods: Women scheduled for elective surgery because of adnexal masses were recruited to undergo pelvic sonography [...] Read more.
Objective: To compare the predictive performance in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses between the modified risk malignancy index (RMI) and the conventional RMI (RMI-1 and RMI-2). Methods: Women scheduled for elective surgery because of adnexal masses were recruited to undergo pelvic sonography within 24 h before surgery to assess the sonographic characteristics of the masses, focusing on loculi, solid part, ascites, bilateralness, papillary projection, and color flow mapping (CFM). Preoperative CA-125 levels were also measured. Modified RMI, RMI-1, and RMI-2 systems were used to predict malignant masses. The gold standard was pathological or intraoperative diagnosis. Results: A total of 342 ovarian masses, benign: 243 (71.1%); malignant: 99 (28.9%), meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The sensitivity and the specificity of the modified RMI (87.9% and 81.9%) were significantly higher than those of RMI-1 (74.7% and 84.4%), and RMI-2 (79.8% and 81.1%, respectively). Based on ROC curves, the area under the curves were 0.930, 0.881 and 0.882 for modified RMI, RMI-1 and RMI-2, respectively. Conclusion: Modified RMI had better predictive performance than the conventional RMI in differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian masses. Modified RMI may be useful to help general gynecologists or practitioners to triage patients with an adnexal mass, especially in settings of low resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Prediction Tools for Gynaecological Cancer in Primary Care)
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12 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Wearable Devices on Physical Activity for Chronic Disease Patients: Findings from the 2019 Health Information National Trends Survey
by Shiyuan Yu, Zhifeng Chen and Xiang Wu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010887 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2701
Abstract
Background: Wearable devices are shown to be an advanced tool for chronic disease management, but their impacts on physical activity remain uninvestigated. This study aims to examine the effect of wearable devices on physical activity in general people and chronic patients. Methods: Our [...] Read more.
Background: Wearable devices are shown to be an advanced tool for chronic disease management, but their impacts on physical activity remain uninvestigated. This study aims to examine the effect of wearable devices on physical activity in general people and chronic patients. Methods: Our sample was from the third cycle of the fifth iteration of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), which includes a total of 5438 residents. Genetic matching was used to evaluate the effect of wearable devices on physical activity in different populations. Results: (1) Both using wearable devices and using them with high frequency will improve physical activity for the whole population. (2) Wearable devices may have greater positive effects on physical activity for chronic patients. (3) Especially in patients with hypertension, high-frequency use of wearable devices can significantly improve the duration and frequency of physical activity. Conclusions: Wearable devices lead to more physical activity, and the benefit is more noticeable for chronic patients, particularly those with hypertension. Full article
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11 pages, 1485 KiB  
Article
Competitive Analysis of the Online Leasing Problem for Scarce Resources
by Jiamin Lu, Nishan Chen and Xin Feng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010886 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The leasing activities of enterprises are of positive significance for promoting a green and low-carbon economy. For scarce resources that can easily go into tight supply states due to changes in the external market environment, the sudden change of their price is a [...] Read more.
The leasing activities of enterprises are of positive significance for promoting a green and low-carbon economy. For scarce resources that can easily go into tight supply states due to changes in the external market environment, the sudden change of their price is a common phenomenon in the leasing market. This paper provides an online leasing model based on the characteristics of scarce resources in which the resource might have a sudden price surge, and the length of its usage time cannot be known in advance. An online leasing strategy ON was then developed to achieve the minimum possible acquisition cost for the scarce resource. This strategy was proven to be the optimal online strategy through competitive analysis. Computational experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed online strategy. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters shows that increasing resource reserves and reducing the price-to-rent ratio are effective ways to improve the performance of enterprise leasing operation management for scarce resources. Full article
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14 pages, 2001 KiB  
Article
Energy Logistic Regression and Survival Model: Case Study of Russian Exports
by Karel Malec, Socrates Kraido Majune, Elena Kuzmenko, Joseph Phiri, Rahab Liz Masese Nyamoita, Seth Nana Kwame Appiah-Kubi, Mansoor Maitah, Luboš Smutka, Zdeňka Gebeltová, Karel Tomšík, Sylvie Kobzev Kotásková and Jiří Marušiak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010885 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
The importance of environmental sustainability is becoming more and more obvious, so the rationale behind long-term usage of solely non-renewable energy sources appeared questionable. This study aims to identify, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and logistic regressions, the main determinants that affect the duration [...] Read more.
The importance of environmental sustainability is becoming more and more obvious, so the rationale behind long-term usage of solely non-renewable energy sources appeared questionable. This study aims to identify, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and logistic regressions, the main determinants that affect the duration of Russian non-renewable energy exports to different regions of the world. Data were retrieved from the databanks of the World Development Indicators (WDI), World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS), and the French Centre for Prospective studies and International Information (CEPII). The obtained results point to the fact that approximately 52% of energy products survive beyond their first year of trading, nearly 38% survive beyond the second year, and almost 18% survive to the twelfth year. The survival of Russian non-renewable energy exports differs depending on the region, and the affecting factors are of different importance. The duration of Russian non-renewable energy exports is significantly linked to Russia’s GDP, Total export, and Initial export values. A decline in Russia’s GDP by 1% is associated with an increasing probability of a spell ending by 2.9% on average, in turn growing Total export and Initial export values positively linked with the duration of non-renewable energy exports from Russia. These findings may have practical relevance for strategic actions aimed at approaching both energy security and environmental sustainability. Full article
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9 pages, 2317 KiB  
Article
The Job that Kills the Worker: Analysis of Two Case Reports on Work-Related Stress Deaths in the COVID-19 Era
by Maricla Marrone, Carlo Angeletti, Gerardo Cazzato, Gabriele Sebastiani, Luigi Buongiorno, Pierluigi Caricato, Fortunato Pititto, Eliano Cascardi, Alessandra Stellacci and Benedetta Pia De Luca
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010884 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2233
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic caused an increasing number of corporate layoffs and downsizing, as well as causing many employees to be absent due to illness, with inevitable consequences on the health of active workers both from a physical point of view, due to the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused an increasing number of corporate layoffs and downsizing, as well as causing many employees to be absent due to illness, with inevitable consequences on the health of active workers both from a physical point of view, due to the need to make up for staff and organizational shortages, and from a mental point of view, due to the inevitable consequences related to the uncertainty of the social context. This context has certainly caused an increase in work-related stress, which is the pathological outcome of a process that affects workers who are subjected to excessive (emotional-relational or high or low or inadequate activity) or improper work loads. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the main aspects of this issue, through the analysis proposed by two case reports, both of which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, in which occupational stress emerged as an etiological agent in the determinism of death. Full article
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17 pages, 4200 KiB  
Article
Driving Factors and Spatiotemporal Characteristics of CO2 Emissions from Marine Fisheries in China: A Commonly Neglected Carbon-Intensive Sector
by Xiao Zhang, Shengchao Ye and Manhong Shen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010883 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
The CO2 emissions from marine fisheries have a significant impact on marine ecology, despite generally being overlooked in studies on global climate change. Few studies have estimated the carbon emissions from marine fisheries while taking into account all pertinent sectors. This study [...] Read more.
The CO2 emissions from marine fisheries have a significant impact on marine ecology, despite generally being overlooked in studies on global climate change. Few studies have estimated the carbon emissions from marine fisheries while taking into account all pertinent sectors. This study evaluated marine fisheries’ CO2 emissions based on three sectors: marine fishing, mariculture, and the marine aquatic product processing industry. Kernel density estimation and the spatial Durbin model were used to investigate the spatial and temporal characteristics and the key socioeconomic drivers of the CO2 emissions from marine fisheries in 11 coastal provinces of China from 2005 to 2020. The results are as follows: (1) marine fishing is the sector that produces the most CO2 emissions; trawling operations generate more CO2 than all other modes of operation combined; (2) China’s marine fisheries’ CO2 emissions show a rising, then declining, trend, with significant differences in coastal provinces; (3) the development of the marine fishery economy and trade have a positive driving effect on CO2 emissions, the expansion of the tertiary industry does not decrease CO2, the technical advancement and income growth of fishermen are negatively related to carbon emissions, and the effect of environmental regulation has failed to pass the significance test; (4) the carbon emissions of marine fisheries have significant spatial spillover effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Ecology)
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12 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
Couple’s Relationship during the Transition to Parenthood and Toddler’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems
by Tiago Miguel Pinto, M. Carmen Míguez and Bárbara Figueiredo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010882 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1531
Abstract
The literature has mainly focused on the impact of the negative aspects of the couple’s relationship on the toddler’s internalizing and externalizing problems. This study explored the impact of the positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood [...] Read more.
The literature has mainly focused on the impact of the negative aspects of the couple’s relationship on the toddler’s internalizing and externalizing problems. This study explored the impact of the positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood on toddlers’ psychological adjustment, considering the concurrent impact of the couple’s relationship at 30 months postpartum. The sample comprised 115 mothers and fathers (N = 230) recruited during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. The mothers and fathers individually completed a measure of the couple’s relationship (Relationship Questionnaire) during the first trimester of pregnancy, at 3 and 30 months postpartum, and the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5 at 30 months postpartum. Multiple linear regressions, cluster analyses, and univariate and multivariate analyses of variance were conducted. The positive dimension at the 1st trimester of pregnancy and the negative dimension of the couple’s relationship at 3 months postpartum were the strongest predictors of the toddler’s internalizing problems, while the negative dimension at 3 months postpartum and the positive dimension of the couple’s relationship at 30 months postpartum were the strongest predictors of the toddler’s externalizing problems. Two patterns of the couple’s relationship (adjusted vs. non-adjusted) during the transition to parenthood were identified. Higher levels of internalizing and externalizing problems were found in toddlers from couples with a non-adjusted couple’s relationship. Findings suggested the impact of both positive and negative dimensions of the couple’s relationship during the transition to parenthood on the toddler’s emotional and behavioral problems. Promoting the couple’s relationship adjustment during the transition to parenthood can help to prevent toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Perinatal Mental Health: 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 2348 KiB  
Article
Water Quality Evaluation and Pollution Source Apportionment of Surface Water in a Major City in Southeast China Using Multi-Statistical Analyses and Machine Learning Models
by Yu Zhou, Xinmin Wang, Weiying Li, Shuyun Zhou and Laizhu Jiang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010881 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
The comprehensive evaluation of water quality and identification of potential pollution sources has become a hot research topic. In this study, 14 water quality parameters at 4 water quality monitoring stations on the M River of a city in southeast China were measured [...] Read more.
The comprehensive evaluation of water quality and identification of potential pollution sources has become a hot research topic. In this study, 14 water quality parameters at 4 water quality monitoring stations on the M River of a city in southeast China were measured monthly for 10 years (2011–2020). Multiple statistical methods, the water quality index (WQI) model, machine learning (ML), and positive matrix factorisation (PMF) models were used to assess the overall condition of the river, select crucial water quality parameters, and identify potential pollution sources. The average WQI values of the four sites ranged from 68.31 to 77.16, with a clear trend of deterioration from upstream to downstream. A random forest-based WQI model (WQIRF model) was developed, and the results showed that Mn, Fe, faecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and total nitrogen were selected as the top five important water quality parameters. Based on the results of the WQIRF and PMF models, the contributions of potential pollution sources to the variation in the WQI values were quantitatively assessed and ranked. These findings prove the effectiveness of ML in evaluating water quality, and improve our understanding of surface water quality, thus providing support for the formulation of water quality management strategies. Full article
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16 pages, 5182 KiB  
Article
Are Ecosystem Services Provided by Street Trees at Parcel Level Worthy of Attention? A Case Study of a Campus in Zhenjiang, China
by Guangxi Shen, Zipeng Song, Jiacong Xu, Lishuang Zou, Lijin Huang and Yingnan Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010880 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Street trees in urban areas have positive impacts on the environment, such as climate regulation, air purification, and runoff mitigation. However, the ecosystem services (ES) provided by street trees at the parcel level remain a notable gap in the existing literature. This study [...] Read more.
Street trees in urban areas have positive impacts on the environment, such as climate regulation, air purification, and runoff mitigation. However, the ecosystem services (ES) provided by street trees at the parcel level remain a notable gap in the existing literature. This study quantified the ES benefits provided by street trees at Jiangsu University in Zhenjiang, China, which could represent the parcel level. A widely applied model, i-Tree Eco, was used to evaluate the ES, including carbon storage, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, rainwater runoff reduction, and their economic value. We also analyzed how these are affected by the structure of tree species. The results revealed that the 10 most abundant species accounted for 84.3% of the total number of trees, with an unstable structure of species composition. A reasonable age proportion was important since a lower proportion of young trees may make future benefit outputs unstable. The annual economic value provided by ES was USD 205,253.20, with an average of USD 79.90 per tree. Platanus orientalis had the highest single plant benefit, indicating that the management pattern of street trees could be adapted in different environments to maximize benefits. Thus, street trees at the parcel level should receive more attention with strategic planning and management in order to maximize the ES and their economic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment Impacts of Biological Invasion and Climate Change)
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21 pages, 9323 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Perception Accuracy of Roadside Millimeter-Wave Radar for Traffic Risk Assessment and Early Warning Systems
by Cong Zhao, Delong Ding, Zhouyang Du, Yupeng Shi, Guimin Su and Shanchuan Yu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010879 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
Millimeter-wave (MMW) radar is essential in roadside traffic perception scenarios and traffic safety control. For traffic risk assessment and early warning systems, MMW radar provides real-time position and velocity measurements as a crucial source of dynamic risk information. However, due to MMW radar’s [...] Read more.
Millimeter-wave (MMW) radar is essential in roadside traffic perception scenarios and traffic safety control. For traffic risk assessment and early warning systems, MMW radar provides real-time position and velocity measurements as a crucial source of dynamic risk information. However, due to MMW radar’s measuring principle and hardware limitations, vehicle positioning errors are unavoidable, potentially causing misperception of the vehicle motion and interaction behavior. This paper analyzes the factors influencing the MMW radar positioning accuracy that are of major concern in the application of transportation systems. An analysis of the radar measuring principle and the distributions of the radar point cloud on the vehicle body under different scenarios are provided to determine the causes of the positioning error. Qualitative analyses of the radar positioning accuracy regarding radar installation height, radar sampling frequency, vehicle location, posture, and size are performed. The analyses are verified through simulated experiments. Based on the results, a general guideline for radar data processing in traffic risk assessment and early warning systems is proposed. Full article
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14 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Detrimental Effects of Disempowering Climates on Teaching Intention in (Physical Education) Initial Teacher Education
by Ginés David López-García, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, María Carrasco-Poyatos and Rafael Burgueño
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010878 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1615
Abstract
Previous research has looked at the positive consequences generated by teacher-generated climates on the motivational experiences of pre-service teachers. However, there is scant research focusing on the adverse motivational consequences that affect the perceptions of future teachers during the training process. The objective [...] Read more.
Previous research has looked at the positive consequences generated by teacher-generated climates on the motivational experiences of pre-service teachers. However, there is scant research focusing on the adverse motivational consequences that affect the perceptions of future teachers during the training process. The objective of this study was to explore the dark side of Duda’s multidimensional conceptualization, its influence on academic engagement, and the intention of pre-service teachers to be educators. A total of 1,410 university students in initial teacher training (including physical education pre-service teachers) (59.6% women; 40.3% men; 0.1% other; Mage = 23.85; SD = 5.13) participated. The following scales were used: disempowering motivational climate, frustration of basic psychological needs, academic motivation, academic engagement, and the intention to choose teaching. The results of the structural equation model with latent variables show the positive prediction of the disempowering climate on the dark side and its negative influence on the intention to be a teacher. Controlled motivation preceded by academic engagement significantly mediates the relationship between a disempowering climate and the intention to be a teacher, increasing the total effect on the latter variable. Therefore, this research highlights for both teachers and researchers the impact of a disempowering motivational style, as well as its influence on the dark side as a negative promoter in trainee teachers regarding their intention to become teachers. Full article
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13 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
The Roles of Endorsement and Stigma in Suicidal Ideation and Behavior among Chinese College Students
by Shunyan Lyu and Yu Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010877 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that stereotypes towards suicide, including endorsement of suicide and stigma toward suicide, may contribute to suicidal ideation and behaviors. However, this has not been examined directly. In this study, we examined whether endorsement of suicide and stigma toward suicide [...] Read more.
Previous studies have suggested that stereotypes towards suicide, including endorsement of suicide and stigma toward suicide, may contribute to suicidal ideation and behaviors. However, this has not been examined directly. In this study, we examined whether endorsement of suicide and stigma toward suicide are involved in the pathway from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts among college students. To this end, we used the Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS), the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), and the Stigma of Suicide Scale (SOSS) to assess suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, endorsement of suicide, and stigma toward suicide, respectively, in a sample of 944 Chinese college students (mean age, 20.97 years). Using mediation analysis, we found that suicidal ideation partially mediated the relationship between endorsement of suicide and suicide attempts and between stigma toward suicide and suicide attempts. These findings provide novel evidence that endorsement of suicide and stigma toward suicide are closely associated with suicide attempts, but partially through the influences of suicidal ideation. Future studies should elaborate on their longitudinal relationships. Implications of these findings for clinical practices are discussed with reference to the ideation-to-action framework of suicide, aiming to reduce suicidal behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Attempt Research and Suicide Prevention)
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13 pages, 680 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing Pre-Cardiopulmonary Arrest Signs among Post-General Surgery Patients in Critical Care Service System
by Chunthana Chinawong, Ketsarin Utriyaprasit, Siriorn Sindhu, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem and Sirilak Suksompong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010876 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1532
Abstract
Health service system factors can lead to pre-cardiopulmonary arrest signs (pre-CA), which refer to a critical condition in the body leading to a circulatory and respiratory system disruption. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence rate of an event leading [...] Read more.
Health service system factors can lead to pre-cardiopulmonary arrest signs (pre-CA), which refer to a critical condition in the body leading to a circulatory and respiratory system disruption. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence rate of an event leading to pre-cardiopulmonary arrest signs within the first 24 h, and also to analyze the factors influencing the health service system in critical post-general surgery patients in the intensive care unit. These results of the study found the incidence rate of pre-CA was 49.05 per 1000 person-hours, especially 1 h after admission to the ICU. Hemodynamic instability, respiratory instability, and neurological alteration were the most common pre-CA symptoms. The patient factors associated with high pre-CA arrest sign scores were the age from 18–40 years, with an operation status as emergency surgery, elective surgery compared with urgent surgery, and the interaction of operation status and age in critical post-general surgery patients. The organization factors found advanced hospital level and nurse allocation were associated with pre-CA. To improve quality of care for critical post-general surgery patients, critical care service delivery should be delegated to nurses with nurse allocation and critical care nursing training. Guidelines must be established for critically ill post-general surgery patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Nursing and Health)
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22 pages, 2671 KiB  
Systematic Review
Myopia and Near Work: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Frédéric Dutheil, Tharwa Oueslati, Louis Delamarre, Joris Castanon, Caroline Maurin, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Julien S. Baker, Ukadike C. Ugbolue, Marek Zak, Ines Lakbar, Bruno Pereira and Valentin Navel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010875 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4483
Abstract
Background: Myopia is a global public health problem affecting quality of life and work productivity. Data is scarce regarding the effects of near work on myopia. Providing a larger meta-analysis with life-long perspective, including adults and occupational exposure seemed needed. Methods: We searched [...] Read more.
Background: Myopia is a global public health problem affecting quality of life and work productivity. Data is scarce regarding the effects of near work on myopia. Providing a larger meta-analysis with life-long perspective, including adults and occupational exposure seemed needed. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct for studies reporting myopia prevalence in near work. Myopia was defined as a mean spherical equivalent ≤ −0.50 diopter. We performed a meta-analysis using random-effects model on myopia prevalence, myopia progression per year, and odds ratio (OR) of myopia in near work, completed by subgroup analyses and meta-regressions on patients’ characteristics, type of work in adults, geographic zones, time and characteristics of near work. Results: We included 78 studies, representing a total of 254,037 participants, aged from 6 to 39 years. The global prevalence of myopia in near work was 35% (95% CI: 30 to 41%), with a prevalence of 31% (95% CI: 26 to 37%) in children and 46% (95% CI: 30 to 62%) in adults. Myopia progression was −0.39 diopters per year (−0.53 to −0.24 D/year), ranging from −0.44 (−0.57 to −0.31) in children to −0.25 D/year (−0.56 to 0.06) in adults. The odds of myopia in workers exposed vs. non-exposed to near work were increased by 26% (18 to 34%), by 31% (21 to 42%) in children and 21% (6 to 35%) in adults. Prevalence of myopia was higher in adults compared to children (Coefficient 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27). Conclusions: Near work conditions, including occupational exposure in adults, could be associated with myopia. Targeted prevention should be implemented in the workplace. Full article
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14 pages, 580 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life and Stress Levels in Patients under Home Mechanical Ventilation: What Can We Do to Improve Functioning Patients at Home? A Survey Study
by Magdalena Kwiatosz-Muc, Bożena Kopacz and Anna Fijałkowska-Nestorowicz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010874 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Background: Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is becoming more widely available in many countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the health-related quality of life and stress levels of patients ventilated mechanically at home. The relation between quality of life and [...] Read more.
Background: Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is becoming more widely available in many countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the health-related quality of life and stress levels of patients ventilated mechanically at home. The relation between quality of life and stress levels was investigated including multiple regression analysis. Methods: 100 patients treated with HMV in Poland were surveyed with the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Results: 26% of patients assessed their quality of life as bad or very bad and 34% as good or very good. Stress levels measured with PSS-10 Scale were high level. For the group of patients with neurological disorders, stress levels were significantly higher than for the group of patients with pulmonological disorders. Conclusions: The higher the stress levels of patients, the lower the quality of life in particular domains. Improving the living conditions of HMV patients can influence improving their quality of life. Full article
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19 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Minor Forms of Parental Maltreatment and Educational Achievement of Immigrant Youths in Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study
by Jerf W. K. Yeung, Hui-Fang Chen, Herman H. M. Lo, Leilei Xu and Chi Xu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010873 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
Parental hostility and emotional rejection—or aggregated as general harsh family interactions with parents—have received little research attention due to such parent-child interactions being counted as minor forms of parental maltreatment and regarded as being less harmful. However, recent research showed that these minor [...] Read more.
Parental hostility and emotional rejection—or aggregated as general harsh family interactions with parents—have received little research attention due to such parent-child interactions being counted as minor forms of parental maltreatment and regarded as being less harmful. However, recent research showed that these minor forms of parental maltreatment on youth development are far from negligibility on account of their frequency, chronicity, and incessancy. In this longitudinal study, we investigated how parental hostility, emotional rejection, and harsh family interactions with parents of in early adolescence of immigrant youths (wave-1 Mage = 14) adversely impact successful college graduation of immigrant youths in young adulthood (wave-3 Mage = 24) through the mediation of their development of academic aspirations in late adolescence (wave-2 Mage = 17). Using data from a representative sample of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (N = 3344), the current study revealed that parental hostility, emotional rejection, and harsh family interactions with parents significantly impaired successful college graduation of immigrant youths in young adulthood, with the decreased odds of 20.1% to 30.22%. Furthermore, academic aspirations of immigrant youths in late adolescence not only significantly mediated the abovementioned relationships but also contributed to the higher odds of immigrant youths’ college graduation by 2.226 to 2.257 times. Findings of this study related to educational innovations, family services, and policy implications are discussed herein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Health Issues in Global Youth)
25 pages, 1839 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Coupling Effect and Space-Time Difference between China’s Digital Economy Development and Carbon Emissions Reduction
by Nan Li, Beibei Shi and Rong Kang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010872 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
Previously conducted studies have established that the digital economy has a one-way inhibition effect on carbon emissions. Against this background, this paper aims to analyze the coordinated development effect of the interaction between the digital economy and carbon emissions reduction. The entropy weight [...] Read more.
Previously conducted studies have established that the digital economy has a one-way inhibition effect on carbon emissions. Against this background, this paper aims to analyze the coordinated development effect of the interaction between the digital economy and carbon emissions reduction. The entropy weight method, coupling and coordination degree model, Dagum Gini coefficient and Moran’s I index have been carried out as research methods in this paper. The results showed that: (1) The coupling and coordination of China’s digital economy and carbon emissions reduction shows an overall growth trend, but the coupling and coordination among regions, provinces and cities show a large imbalance. (2) In the sample period, the overall difference in the coupling and coordination between digital economy development and carbon emissions reduction shows an expanding trend, and the overall difference results are attributed to regional differences. (3) There is a significant spatial correlation in the coupling and coordination degree of digital economy development and carbon emissions reduction among cities. The paper systematically grasps the status of coupling and coordination development, the source of difference and spatial correlation between the digital economy and carbon reduction in Chinese cities. A dependence relationship has been established, which is digital economy development and carbon emissions reduction, and an interactive promotion pattern has been revealed between the digital economic system and the carbon emissions reduction system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbon Development and Carbon Reduction)
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10 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of High-Risk Patients towards Prevention and Early Detection of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in Saudi Arabia
by Abdullah Alghamdi, Abdullah Alaryni, Khalid AlMatham, Osamah Hakami, Rayan Qutob, Abdullah Bukhari, Amani Abualnaja, Yara Aldosari, Noora Altamimi, Khawlah Alshahrani, Areej Alsabty and Amal Abdullah
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010871 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
Context: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the presence of kidney damage or decreased kidney function. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CKD is at 5.7%, which represents a high burden on health care systems. Aims: This study aimed [...] Read more.
Context: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the presence of kidney damage or decreased kidney function. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CKD is at 5.7%, which represents a high burden on health care systems. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of high-risk patients towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease in Saudi Arabia. Setting and Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Methods and Material: This study was designed using a newly developed instrument, the CKD Screening Index. It was conducted from December 2021 to May 2022 by a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire has three parts: socio-demographic data, clinical factors, and the CKD screening index tool. Statistical analyses used: Independent t-test, One-Way ANOVA, LSD, Games–Howell tests. Results: Knowledge of kidney function had a significant difference across patient groups with varying employment status. Monthly income is a significant factor for the patient attitude on healthcare towards preventing kidney disease. On the other hand, educational level significantly affects the overall attitude of patients towards preventing kidney disease. Conclusion: Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with CKD is vital to informing optimal policy and public health responses in the country. Full article
18 pages, 390 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution and Migration Decision of Migrants in Low-Carbon Society
by Feiwei Shen, Qiang Wang, Jing Zou, Huili Yan and Baitao Wang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 870; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010870 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1690
Abstract
The influence of environmental quality on the quality of urban life and on migration decisions is an important research issue in urban economics and environmental economics. Using the 2012–2014 China Labor Dynamics Survey data (CLDS), this paper uses a conditional logit model (CLM) [...] Read more.
The influence of environmental quality on the quality of urban life and on migration decisions is an important research issue in urban economics and environmental economics. Using the 2012–2014 China Labor Dynamics Survey data (CLDS), this paper uses a conditional logit model (CLM) and Instrumental Variable (IV) estimation to examine the impact of air pollution on the migrant migration decision. We find that air pollution significantly negatively impacts the migration decisions of migrants. Specifically, if the PM2.5 level of a city increases by 10 μg/m3, the probability of migrants flowing into the city will be significantly reduced by 21.2%. It shows that migrants choose to flow into cities with better spatial quality to reduce the risk of exposure to air pollution. After controlling for the characteristics of the outflow and the reasons for the flow, the impact of air pollution on migrants’ migration decisions remains robust. Heterogeneity analysis shows that middle-aged, male, married, and highly educated migrants are more sensitive to air pollution. This paper enriches the research on air pollution and labor mobility at the micro level and provides empirical evidence for policymaking related to environmental governance and labor mobility in a low-carbon society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Governance and Low-Carbon Development)
22 pages, 1149 KiB  
Article
A Situation-Specific Theory of End-of-Life Communication in Nursing Homes
by Silvia Gonella, Sara Campagna and Valerio Dimonte
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010869 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
High-quality end-of-life communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs), patients and/or their family caregivers (FCs) improves quality of life and reduces non-beneficial care at the end of life. Nursing homes (NHs) are among the contexts at the forefront of these conversations. Having a solid theoretical [...] Read more.
High-quality end-of-life communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs), patients and/or their family caregivers (FCs) improves quality of life and reduces non-beneficial care at the end of life. Nursing homes (NHs) are among the contexts at the forefront of these conversations. Having a solid theoretical basis for the role of end-of-life communication in NHs in transitioning to palliative-oriented care can offer indications for research, practice, education, and policy related to geropalliative care. This study aimed to develop a situation-specific theory of end-of-life communication in NHs by refining an existing theory. A four-step integrative approach was employed that included: (1) checking the assumptions for theorization; (2) exploring the phenomenon through multiple sources; (3) theorizing; and (4) reporting. All elements of the existing end-of-life communication theory in NHs were confirmed: end-of-life communication improved the understanding of FCs about their relatives’ health conditions, shared decision-making, and reflections on the desired preferences of residents/FCs for care at the end of life. Furthermore, the family environment affected the burden of FCs in the decision-making process. Finally, time and resource constraints, regulations, visitation restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and social and cultural values influenced the quality and timing of communication. The study findings confirmed the impact of the political, historical, social, and cultural context on end-of-life communication, thus providing the basis for a situation-specific theory. Full article
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17 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
Research on the Mechanism and Control Technology of Coal Wall Sloughing in the Ultra-Large Mining Height Working Face
by Xuelong Li, Xinyuan Zhang, Wenlong Shen, Qingdong Zeng, Peng Chen, Qizhi Qin and Zhen Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010868 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
One of the primary factors affecting safe and effective mining in fully mechanized mining faces with large mining heights is coal wall sloughing. This paper establishes the mechanical model of the coal wall and uses the deflection theory for the mechanics of materials [...] Read more.
One of the primary factors affecting safe and effective mining in fully mechanized mining faces with large mining heights is coal wall sloughing. This paper establishes the mechanical model of the coal wall and uses the deflection theory for the mechanics of materials to find the maximum point of the deflection of the coal wall, which is the most easily deformed and damaged during the mining process, based on the mining production conditions of the 12-2up108 working face in the Jinjitan Coal Mine. In order to simulate the characteristics of the coal wall in the large mining height working face at various mining heights, the FLAC-3D numerical method was used. The stability of the mining area was assessed in conjunction with the multi-factor fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model, and the corresponding control of the coal wall was suggested. The study demonstrates that: (1) The working surface at Jinjitan Coal Mine 112-2up108 is a typical drum-out sloughing. The coal wall is most likely to sustain damage at the point where it contacts the roof when the frictional resistance between the coal seam and the roof and floor is less than the uniform load, and at 0.578 times the mining height when the frictional resistance between the coal seam and the roof and floor is greater than the uniform load. (2) In the working face with a large mining height, mining height of the coal wall is one of the significant influencing factors. With increasing mining height, the coal wall’s height also rises nonlinearly, as does the depth of the coal wall in the working face with the large mining height. The growth is linear. The coal wall’s maximum deflection value point moves up and the slab’s height significantly increases when the mining height exceeds 7.5 m. (3) The Jinjitan Coal Mine should be supported by a pressurized and enhanced composite support bracket with a support force greater than 0.245 MPa and a support plate of 3500 mm because it belongs to a Class I stable coal wall, according to a thorough evaluation of a multi-factor fuzzy mathematical model. The working face’s mining pressure is continuously and dynamically monitored, and the stress is released in a timely manner to prevent the occurrence of dynamic disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Control of Fire and Explosion in Mining Industry)
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16 pages, 6199 KiB  
Article
Potential Mechanism of Long-Term Immobilization of Pb/Cd by Layered Double Hydroxide Doped Chicken-Manure Biochar
by Xiaoxian Zhang, Tingran Liu, Jichen Zhang and Ling Zhu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010867 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
Layered double hydroxide (LDH)-doped chicken-manure biochar (CMB) with long-term stability was synthesized to immobilize Pb/Cd. MgAl-Cl-LDH-doped CMB (MHs) showed prominent long-term oxidation resistance and the least biodegradation sensitivity. Efficient Pb/Cd adsorption was observed on MHs, and the maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II)/Cd(II) reached [...] Read more.
Layered double hydroxide (LDH)-doped chicken-manure biochar (CMB) with long-term stability was synthesized to immobilize Pb/Cd. MgAl-Cl-LDH-doped CMB (MHs) showed prominent long-term oxidation resistance and the least biodegradation sensitivity. Efficient Pb/Cd adsorption was observed on MHs, and the maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II)/Cd(II) reached 1.95 mmol/g and 0.65 mmol/g, respectively. Precipitation and isomorphous substitution were identified as the key adsorption mechanisms, which formed highly stable Pb/Cd species (PbAl-CO3-LDH, Pb3(OH)2CO3, CdAl-Cl-LDH and CdCO3). Pb(II) and Cd(II) precipitated with CO32− in MHs; meanwhile, Mg(II) and Ca(II) in LDH layers were substituted by Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively. Therefore, MHs had the potential for long-term stability of Pb/Cd. Moreover, complexation and electrostatic adsorption also contributed to the Pb/Cd immobilization to a certain extent. When 5% MHs (w/w) was applied to Pb/Cd contaminated smelting site soils, the soil pH increased from 5.9 to 7.3. After applying MHs for 25 d, the content of bioavailable Pb(II) and Cd(II) decreased by 98.8% and 85.2%, respectively, and the content of soluble Pb and Cd dropped by 99.5% and 96.7%. This study paves the way for designing a novel LDH doped CMB as efficient Pb/Cd immobilizers for smelting site soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals Remediation of Soil and Water)
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12 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Dietary and Physical Activity Habits as Conditioning Factors of Nutritional Status among Children of GENYAL Study
by Helena Marcos-Pasero, Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Gonzalo Colmenarejo, Ana Ramírez de Molina, Guillermo Reglero and Viviana Loria-Kohen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010866 - 03 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Excess weight (EW) in children has become a severe public health problem. The present study aimed to describe the main lifestyle characteristics and their possible association with nutritional status in a group of schoolchildren enrolled in the GENYAL study, where 221 children in [...] Read more.
Excess weight (EW) in children has become a severe public health problem. The present study aimed to describe the main lifestyle characteristics and their possible association with nutritional status in a group of schoolchildren enrolled in the GENYAL study, where 221 children in the first or second grade of primary education (6–9 years old) were included. Anthropometric (BMI and bioimpedance), dietary intake (twice-repeated 24 h food record), and physical activity (twice-repeated 24 h physical activity questionnaire) data were collected. Logistic and linear regressions, with p-values adjusted for multiple tests by Bonferroni’s method and with sex and age as covariates, were applied. The prevalence of EW was 19%, 25.4%, and 32.2%, according to Orbegozo Foundation, IOFT, and WHO criteria, respectively. The results showed a significant association between schoolchildren’s nutritional status and energy balance, defined as the ratio of estimated energy intake to estimated energy expenditure (%), (β = −1.49 (−1.9–1.07), p < 0.01) and KIDMED Mediterranean Diet Quality Index score (β = −0.19 (95% IC −0.38–0), p = 0.04), and between the availability of TV or other technological devices in their room and the child’s BMI (β = 1.15 (95% IC 0.20–2.10), p = 0.017) and their fat mass (β = 3.28 (95% IC 0.69–5.87), p = 0.013). The number of dairy servings/day had a protective effect against EW (OR = 0.48 (0.29–0.75), p adjusted = 0.05)). Studying lifestyle factors associated with obesity is essential for developing tools and strategies for obesity prevention in children. Full article
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11 pages, 2957 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Transmission Path, Influencing Factors and Risk of Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Xi’an Xianyang International Airport
by Zhuona Zhang, Xia Li, Keyang Lyu, Xiaoning Zhao, Feng Zhang, Dong Liu, Yonggang Zhao, Fan Gao, Jian Hu and Dongqun Xu
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010865 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence results collected from native COVID-19 cases who waited or saw relatives off at Xi’an Xianyang International Airport were highly consistent with the imported cases. In order to explore the routes of transmission and influencing factors that may cause the transmission [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequence results collected from native COVID-19 cases who waited or saw relatives off at Xi’an Xianyang International Airport were highly consistent with the imported cases. In order to explore the routes of transmission and influencing factors that may cause the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the airport, a field simulation experiment of aerosol diffusion was adopted based on epidemiological survey data and a detailed field investigation of airport structure and ventilation. The results showed that the inbound passengers waited for approximately 3 h in the rest area on the first level of the international arrival area (Zone E). During the period, masks were removed for eating and drinking, resulting in the viral aerosols rising from the first level to the second level with hot air. After deplaning, the inbound passengers handled the relevant procedures and passed through the corridor on the second floor. The local side wall of the corridor adopted fan coil air conditioning, combined with fresh air supply and personnel walking, resulting in airflow flowing to Zone E. After merging with diffused air containing virus aerosol from the first floor, it continued to spread upward to the connected third-layer area. There was a local suspended ceiling on the top of the third floor, but it was approximately 4 m high and connected to the corridor from Terminal 2 to Terminal 3. When the virus aerosol diffused above the Terminal 2–Terminal 3 corridor, where the temperature was low and the air diffused downward, it could cause an infection risk for people passing through the corridor. In addition, the investigation found that the exhaust pipes of the nucleic acid sampling rooms at the international arrival corridor were directly discharged outdoors without treatment. Only one exhaust pipe and poor ventilation in the bathroom in Zone E had a risk of viral aerosol diffusion. Therefore, the international arrival area should be set up alone or separated from the other areas by hard isolation to avoid the existence of communication between different areas that could cause viral aerosols to diffuse with airflow. The toilet ventilation should be increased to avoid the accumulation of viral aerosols at high concentrations. The exhaust pipes of the toilet and the nucleic acid sampling rooms should be equipped with disinfection and efficient filtration devices, and high-altitude emission should be adopted to reduce the risk of virus aerosol diffusion. Full article
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