Topic Editors

State Key Laboratory of Mountain Bridge and Tunnel Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing, China
College of Engineering and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Advanced Robotics & Intelligent Systems (ARIS) Lab, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada

Condition Perception and Performance Evaluation of Engineering Structures

Abstract submission deadline
30 June 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 August 2024
Viewed by
14775

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineering structures play a vital role in human daily life and social activities. Due to limitations at the technological development level and management level, and the effect of adverse environmental factors, problems regarding the security and usability of engineering structures have become increasingly prominent in the whole life of structures, even resulting in serious casualties, property losses and adverse social impact. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the construction quality, service level and operation safety of engineering structures for augmenting urban security and sustainable social development.

At present, with the rapid development of the Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence and remote sensing, it is inevitable to explore new technologies surrounding the condition perception and performance evaluation of engineering structures across their life cycle. For this reason, this topic aims to boost knowledge and development in condition perception and the performance evaluation of engineering structures through multi-disciplinary works. The potential topics include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Development and application of new sensing techniques;
  • Smart materials for condition perception;
  • Construction process control;
  • Damage detection;
  • Structural earthquake and wind engineering;
  • Intelligent monitoring techniques;
  • Performance evaluation methods.

Dr. Jingzhou Xin
Prof. Dr. Hong Zhang
Dr. Yan Jiang
Prof. Dr. Simon X. Yang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • non-destructive testing
  • structural health monitoring
  • process control
  • artificial intelligence
  • environmental action
  • advanced remote sensing
  • smart materials
  • structural durability
  • structure reinforcement

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Atmosphere
atmosphere
2.9 4.1 2010 17.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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23 pages, 7267 KiB  
Article
Research on an Intelligent Identification Method for Cable-Stayed Force with a Damper Based on Microwave Radar Measurements
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030568 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Aiming at the shortcomings of traditional contact cable force monitoring technology in accuracy, efficiency, and applicability, an assessment method based on microwave radar measurements is proposed to measure a sloping cable with a damper for lengths greater than 200 m in this study. [...] Read more.
Aiming at the shortcomings of traditional contact cable force monitoring technology in accuracy, efficiency, and applicability, an assessment method based on microwave radar measurements is proposed to measure a sloping cable with a damper for lengths greater than 200 m in this study. A formula for calculating the cable-stayed force with a damper is derived, and an intelligent cable force monitoring platform is developed based on cloud technology. Based on the Chongqing Nanjimen Railway Bridge, a real bridge test was carried out. It was indicated that the microwave radar method could be used to freely adjust the measurement angle and possessed high applicability and penetration. It significantly improved the measurement accuracy and efficiency of cables with a damper for lengths greater than 200 m. It has good application value for the solution of the problems of complicated operation and high costs in the monitoring of cables with a damper. The formula for calculating the cable force with a damper was proven to be reliable and accurate when compared to the results of direct calculation and the equivalent cable length method. It was able to significantly reduce the calculation error of the cable force caused by the influence of the damper. Additionally, the intelligent cable force monitoring platform was utilized to enhance the level of digitization, providing technical support for the scientific management and maintenance of bridges. Full article
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18 pages, 8199 KiB  
Article
Buffeting Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge Crossing a Deep Canyon during Erection: Response Evaluation and Vibration Control
Buildings 2024, 14(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14020305 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 412
Abstract
The stiffness of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction may be much lower than that observed in service, making it more susceptible to wind effects, especially for a bridge designed using high piers crossing a deep canyon. To study the buffeting characteristics of [...] Read more.
The stiffness of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under construction may be much lower than that observed in service, making it more susceptible to wind effects, especially for a bridge designed using high piers crossing a deep canyon. To study the buffeting characteristics of such cable-stayed bridges under construction, a long-span cable-stayed bridge (the main span is 575 m) is taken as the engineering background. In this study, the buffeting responses and vibration countermeasures at three different construction states were systematically studied using time-domain analysis. It was found that the buffeting response enlarges with an increase in the wind attack angle. The RMS values of the vertical buffeting of the bridge deck end are relatively greater at the maximum double cantilever construction state and maximum single cantilever state. At maximum double cantilever construction state, the traditional wind-resistant cable connecting the bridge deck end to the bridge pile cap significantly reduces the vertical buffeting response, while the suppression effect on lateral and torsional buffeting is limited. When the bridge deck nears completion, wind-resistant cables installed at both cantilever ending in the ‘soft connection’ method would effectively suppress the vertical, lateral, and torsional buffeting. The suppression effect of cross-arranged wind-resistant cables is superior to that of the parallel arrangement. It is recommended that a reasonable wind-resistant cable layout scheme according to different construction conditions is selected. Full article
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18 pages, 13422 KiB  
Article
Active-Passive Joint Acoustic Emission Monitoring Test Considering the Heterogeneity of Concrete
Materials 2023, 16(24), 7694; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16247694 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 551
Abstract
The heterogeneity of concrete is a major challenge for acoustic emission monitoring. A method of active-passive joint acoustic emission monitoring considering the heterogeneity of concrete is presented herein, and the time-frequency-space multi-parameter response characteristics of active and passive acoustic emission signals were studied [...] Read more.
The heterogeneity of concrete is a major challenge for acoustic emission monitoring. A method of active-passive joint acoustic emission monitoring considering the heterogeneity of concrete is presented herein, and the time-frequency-space multi-parameter response characteristics of active and passive acoustic emission signals were studied in relation to the damage evolution of concrete. This method provides an idea of evaluating the damage state of concrete more actively and quantitatively than traditional methods. The results show that the microscopic damage model of concrete based on the acoustic emission penetrating wave velocity and amplitude is in agreement with the damage process of concrete. The standard deviation of the wave velocity up to 1000 m/s and the change rate of the amplitude up to −0.66 can be adopted as two signs that the load of concrete reached 70% of the ultimate load. The time-of-arrival localization based on variable velocity was used to correct the acoustic emission localization results, and the localization accuracy was increased by 44.74%. The damage process of concrete undergoes diverse changes; that is, the distribution of damage changes from heterogeneous to homogeneous and then back to heterogeneous. Hence, it is necessary for researchers to consider the heterogeneity of concrete when using acoustic emission monitoring. The active-passive joint acoustic emission monitoring is an effective method. Full article
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19 pages, 2384 KiB  
Article
An Improved Ensemble-Strategy-Assisted Wind Speed Prediction Method for Railway Strong Wind Warnings
Atmosphere 2023, 14(12), 1787; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14121787 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Reliable short-term wind speed prediction is one of the core technologies in the strong wind warning system for railway applications, which is of great significance for ensuring the safety of high-speed train operations and ancillary railway facilities. To improve forecasting accuracy, decomposition-based methods [...] Read more.
Reliable short-term wind speed prediction is one of the core technologies in the strong wind warning system for railway applications, which is of great significance for ensuring the safety of high-speed train operations and ancillary railway facilities. To improve forecasting accuracy, decomposition-based methods have attracted extensive attention due to their superior ability to address complex data characteristics (e.g., nonstationarity and nonlinearity). Currently, there are two pre-processing schemes for decomposition-based methods, i.e., one-time decomposition and real-time decomposition. In order to apply them better, this paper first expounds the difference between them, based on a combination of DWT (discrete wavelet transform) and CKDE (conditional kernel density estimation). The results show that although the one-time decomposition-based method has an unexceptionable accuracy, it only can provide offline prediction and thus may not be practical. The real-time decomposition-based method possesses stronger practicability and is able to provide online prediction, but it has limited accuracy. Then, an improved ensemble strategy is developed by optimizing the selection of appropriate decomposed components to conduct the prediction on the basis of real-time decomposition. This improved ensemble strategy provides an effective guidance for this selective combination, including taking historical information into consideration in the data. Finally, numerical examples and practicality analysis using two groups of measured wind speed data demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in providing high-precision online wind speed prediction. For example, compared with CKDE, the average degrees of improvement achieved by the proposed method in terms of MAE, RMSE, and MRPE, are 16.25%, 17.66%, and 16.93, respectively, while those compared with the traditional real-time decomposition method are 17.11%, 18.54%, and 16.84, respectively. Full article
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18 pages, 4111 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and Fatigue Damage Assessment of Wind-Induced Vibration for the Tension Cable-Supported Power Transmission Structure
Buildings 2023, 13(12), 2924; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13122924 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, and is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and [...] Read more.
The tension cable-supported power transmission structure (TC-PTS) is a new type of power transmission structure suitable for mountainous terrain, and is sensitive to wind load. In this regard, a nonlinear finite element analysis model of wind-induced vibration is proposed for the TC-PTS, and the wind-induced vibration response of the structure is analyzed. Firstly, the tangent stiffness matrix of the three-dimensional truss element for the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, considering the geometric nonlinearity of structures, is derived through the relationship between the element elastic energy and its displacement. Subsequently, the element mass matrix and damping matrix of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line, as well as the element nodal load vector obtained from wind load equivalence, are given. Then, based on the nonlinear finite element theory, the nonlinear dynamic equation of wind-induced vibration is established for the TC-PTS and solved using the Newmark-β method combined with the Newton–Raphson iterative method. Furthermore, the rain-flow counting method and Miner’s linear fatigue cumulative damage theory were used for wind-induced fatigue damage assessment. Finally, a two-span TC-PTS was selected as an example, and the wind-induced nonlinear vibration and fatigue damage assessment were analyzed through the proposed model. The results show that the proposed model has high computational accuracy and efficiency. The first three order vibration modes of the supporting-conductor part of the two-span TC-PTS were antisymmetric vertical bending, symmetric side bending, and antisymmetric side bending. With the increase in wind speed and wind direction angle, the maximum lateral displacement and tension of the supporting suspension cable and transmission line increased, and their degree of increase showed a nonlinear trend. In terms of the wind-induced fatigue analysis results of TC-PTS, the fatigue damage at the end of the supporting-conductor suspension cable was greater than the fatigue damage at its midpoint. Compared to the fatigue damage at the midpoint of the conductor, the fatigue damage at the end of the conductor was less affected by the wind direction angle, and both were more significantly affected by the wind speed. Full article
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24 pages, 4126 KiB  
Article
Bridge Model Updating Based on Wavelet Neural Network and Wind-Driven Optimization
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9185; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229185 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Aging, corrosive environments, and inadequate maintenance may result in performance deterioration of civil infrastructures, and finite element model updating is a commonly employed structural health monitoring procedure in civil engineering to reflect the current situation and to ensure the safety and serviceability of [...] Read more.
Aging, corrosive environments, and inadequate maintenance may result in performance deterioration of civil infrastructures, and finite element model updating is a commonly employed structural health monitoring procedure in civil engineering to reflect the current situation and to ensure the safety and serviceability of structures. Using the finite element model updating process to obtain the relationship between the structural responses and updating parameters, this paper proposes a method of using the wavelet neural network (WNN) as the surrogate model combined with the wind-driven optimization (WDO) algorithm to update the structural finite element model. The method was applied to finite element model updating of a continuous beam structure of three equal spans to verify its feasibility, the results show that the WNN can reflect the nonlinear relationship between structural responses and the parameters and has an outstanding simulation performance; the WDO has an excellent ability for optimization and can effectively improve the efficiency of model updating. Finally, the method was applied to update a real bridge model, and the results show that the finite element model update based on WDO and WNN is applicable to the updating of a multi-parameter bridge model, which has practical significance in engineering and high efficiency in finite element model updating. The differences between the updated values and measured values are all within the range of 5%, while the maximum difference was reduced from −10.9% to −3.6%. The proposed finite element model updating method is applicable and practical for multi-parameter bridge model updating and has the advantages of high updating efficiency, reliability, and practical significance. Full article
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23 pages, 2646 KiB  
Article
A Lightweight and Efficient Method of Structural Damage Detection Using Stochastic Configuration Network
Sensors 2023, 23(22), 9146; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23229146 - 13 Nov 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
With the advancement of neural networks, more and more neural networks are being applied to structural health monitoring systems (SHMSs). When an SHMS requires the integration of numerous neural networks, high-performance and low-latency networks are favored. This paper focuses on damage detection based [...] Read more.
With the advancement of neural networks, more and more neural networks are being applied to structural health monitoring systems (SHMSs). When an SHMS requires the integration of numerous neural networks, high-performance and low-latency networks are favored. This paper focuses on damage detection based on vibration signals. In contrast to traditional neural network approaches, this study utilizes a stochastic configuration network (SCN). An SCN is an incrementally learning network that randomly configures appropriate neurons based on data and errors. It is an emerging neural network that does not require predefined network structures and is not based on gradient descent. While SCNs dynamically define the network structure, they essentially function as fully connected neural networks that fail to capture the temporal properties of monitoring data effectively. Moreover, they suffer from inference time and computational cost issues. To enable faster and more accurate operation within the monitoring system, this paper introduces a stochastic convolutional feature extraction approach that does not rely on backpropagation. Additionally, a random node deletion algorithm is proposed to automatically prune redundant neurons in SCNs, addressing the issue of network node redundancy. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature extraction method improves accuracy by 30% compared to the original SCN, and the random node deletion algorithm removes approximately 10% of neurons. Full article
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28 pages, 3875 KiB  
Article
Bridge Condition Deterioration Prediction Using the Whale Optimization Algorithm and Extreme Learning Machine
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112730 - 29 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 534
Abstract
To address the problem in model computations and the limited accuracy of current bridge deterioration prediction methods, this paper proposes a novel bridge deterioration prediction meth-od using the whale optimization algorithm and extreme learning machine (WOA-ELM). First, we collected a dataset consisting of [...] Read more.
To address the problem in model computations and the limited accuracy of current bridge deterioration prediction methods, this paper proposes a novel bridge deterioration prediction meth-od using the whale optimization algorithm and extreme learning machine (WOA-ELM). First, we collected a dataset consisting of 539 sets of bridge inspection data and determined the necessary influencing factors through correlation analysis. Subsequently, the WOA-ELM algorithm was applied to establish a nonlinear mapping relationship between each influencing factor and the bridge condition indicators. Furthermore, the extreme learning machine (ELM), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), decision trees (DT), and support vector machine (SVM) were employed for comparison to validate the superiority of the proposed method. In addition, this paper provides further substantiation of the model’s exceptional predictive capabilities across diverse bridge components. The results demonstrate the accurate predictive capability of the proposed method for bridge conditions. Compared with ELM, BPNN, DT, and SVM, the proposed method exhibits significant improvements in predictive accuracy, i.e., the correlation coefficient is increased by 4.1%, 11.4%, 24.5%, and 33.6%, and the root mean square error is reduced by 7.3%, 18.0%, 14.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method presents considerably enhanced generalization capabilities, resulting in the reduction in mean relative error by 11.6%, 15.3%, 6%, and 16.2%. The proposed method presents a robust framework for proactive bridge maintenance. Full article
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25 pages, 12688 KiB  
Article
Seismic Performance and Calculation Method of Precast Reduced Beam Section Connection
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2653; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102653 - 21 Oct 2023
Viewed by 565
Abstract
To prevent brittle damage and improve the post-earthquake rapid repair capability of beam-column connections, a precast reduced beam section (PRBS) connection joint that can be rapidly repaired under earthquake action was proposed in this study. Four specimens, including a repaired specimen, were subjected [...] Read more.
To prevent brittle damage and improve the post-earthquake rapid repair capability of beam-column connections, a precast reduced beam section (PRBS) connection joint that can be rapidly repaired under earthquake action was proposed in this study. Four specimens, including a repaired specimen, were subjected to a quasi-static test to investigate the seismic performance and repair ability of the connection. Seismic performance indices such as the failure mode, hysteresis curve, skeleton curve, strain distribution, and ductility were obtained through observations and analyses. The results indicated that the novel connection exhibited superior load-bearing, energy dissipation, and rotation capacities, compared to the welded flange-bolted web and traditional bone-weakened connections. This novel connection effectively relocated the plastic hinge to alter the failure mode and prevent brittle damage. Additionally, rapid post-earthquake repair was achieved by replacing the dog-bone-style splice section, maintaining a high load-bearing capacity and seismic performance. Finite element (FE) models were established to analyze the mechanical behavior of the specimens, and a parametric analysis was conducted to study the influence of different parameters on the load-bearing capacity of the connection. Based on the experimental and FE analysis results, the possible yield and failure modes of the connection were analyzed, and a calculation method for the bearing capacity of the PRBS connection was proposed. A comparative result demonstrates that the proposed calculation method can accurately predict the load-carrying capacity of a connection. Full article
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17 pages, 5984 KiB  
Article
Rewelding Residual Stress of Fatigue Crack at U-Rib-to-Deck of an Orthotropic Steel Deck
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2515; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102515 - 04 Oct 2023
Viewed by 578
Abstract
The orthotropic steel deck is a prevalent stiffening girder structure utilized in long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges. Nonetheless, the issue of fatigue cracking has persisted in in-service orthotropic steel decks, significantly impacting the longevity of bridges. This study examines the analysis of [...] Read more.
The orthotropic steel deck is a prevalent stiffening girder structure utilized in long-span cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges. Nonetheless, the issue of fatigue cracking has persisted in in-service orthotropic steel decks, significantly impacting the longevity of bridges. This study examines the analysis of the distribution of residual stress during the rewelding process of a fatigue crack at the U-rib-to-deck-plate joint of an orthotropic steel bridge deck. Additionally, the impact of the initial welding and the stiffness of the boundary constraint on the residual stress field during rewelding is discussed. The findings indicate that the removal of the fatigue crack prior to rewelding alleviates the transverse residual stress caused by the initial welding. After undergoing the rewelding procedure, both the transverse residual stress and the longitudinal residual stress exhibited a significant stress peak. More precisely, the transverse tensile stress underwent a rise from 21 MPa to 385 MPa, while the longitudinal tensile stress experienced an increase from 345 MPa to 525 MPa. Furthermore, the range of tensile stress within the longitudinal residual distribution expanded by 88%. Moreover, the stress redistribution during the rewelding of the local fatigue crack varied depending on the constraints imposed on the steel bridge deck. Notably, the transverse residual stress increases by 40.6% when compared to the absence of constraints. The findings of this research offer valuable insights for the implementation of rewelding repair techniques on steel bridge decks, emphasizing the significance of considering the effects of residual stresses induced during the rewelding process. Full article
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12 pages, 2674 KiB  
Article
Lumped Plasticity Model and Hysteretic Performance of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Rocking Pier
Materials 2023, 16(19), 6515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16196515 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Rocking piers using ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) have high damage-control capacity and self-centering characteristics that can limit the post-earthquake recovery time of bridges. To study the hysteretic behavior of UHPC rocking piers, a lumped plasticity model is proposed that comprises two parallel rotational springs [...] Read more.
Rocking piers using ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) have high damage-control capacity and self-centering characteristics that can limit the post-earthquake recovery time of bridges. To study the hysteretic behavior of UHPC rocking piers, a lumped plasticity model is proposed that comprises two parallel rotational springs and which can accurately calculate their force-displacement hysteretic behavior. Three states of the rocking piers, decompression, yield, and large deformation, are considered in this study. The model is verified based on existing experimental results, and the hysteretic characteristics of the UHPC rocking piers, such as strength, stiffness, and energy dissipation, are further analyzed. The research results show that the lumped plasticity analysis model proposed in this study can predict the force-displacement hysteretic behavior of the rocking piers accurately. Moreover, the hysteretic performance of the UHPC rocking piers is better than that of rocking piers using normal-strength concrete. An increase in the energy dissipation reinforcement ratio, pre-stressed tendon ratio, and initial pre-stress improves the lateral stiffness and strength of the UHPC rocking piers. However, the increase in the pre-stressed tendon ratio and initial pre-stress reduces their energy-dissipation capacity. Full article
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15 pages, 7858 KiB  
Article
A New Method for Correcting the Deviation of a Middle Pier Tower of a Long-Span Intermediate Arch Bridge
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102498 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 532
Abstract
To control the deviation of a long-span concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) arch bridge during construction monitoring, a practical method for controlling tower deviation is studied and established. The form of construction of this bridge is an intermediate double-arch bridge, which differs from conventional [...] Read more.
To control the deviation of a long-span concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) arch bridge during construction monitoring, a practical method for controlling tower deviation is studied and established. The form of construction of this bridge is an intermediate double-arch bridge, which differs from conventional bridges, thus requiring the urgent resolution of the issue of unbalanced middle piers. Therefore, the mechanical characteristics and construction process of an intermediate long-span, dual-coupled steel pipe arch bridge are meticulously examined by using a 1:10 scale model, with particular focus on discussing the deflection of the buckle tower during the installation of the arch rib segments. Construction control is implemented using a novel tower deflection control method that addresses unilateral torsion problems and difficulties in controlling the deflection of the tower. The model results are compared with the finite element analysis output, demonstrating that this new approach can resolve unbalanced tower deviations by maintaining absolute values within 0.5 mm. After correcting these deviations, the measured results from the model bridge tower align with the calculated analytical results and even surpass the theoretical expectations for tower deviation. This remarkable new method accurately resolves real-world bridge tower deviations. Full article
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16 pages, 4151 KiB  
Article
A Stress Measurement Method for Steel Strands Based on Spatially Self-Magnetic Flux Leakage Field
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092312 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Metal Magnetic Memory (MMM) exhibits the advantage of not requiring embedded sensors or external excitation, making it suitable for inspecting ferromagnetic components in engineering structures. This study introduced MMM into stress detection of steel strands. Graded tensile tests were conducted on the steel [...] Read more.
Metal Magnetic Memory (MMM) exhibits the advantage of not requiring embedded sensors or external excitation, making it suitable for inspecting ferromagnetic components in engineering structures. This study introduced MMM into stress detection of steel strands. Graded tensile tests were conducted on the steel strands to investigate the correlation between Self-Magnetic Flux Leakage (SMFL) signals and stress levels. Different spatial detection positions with varying Lift-Off Values (LOV) and Rotation Angle Values (RAV) were set to examine the distribution of spatial SMFL field under load. Furthermore, a magnetic characteristic parameter AN was proposed to assess the stress level of the steel strands. The results indicate that the rate of change in the middle region of the SMFL curve was lower than that at the beginning and the end. Additionally, with increased applied load, the SMFL curve exhibited systematic variations, and the dispersion of the normal component curve gradually decreased. By utilizing the magnetic characteristic parameter AN, the stress in the steel strands can be calculated, with the parameters determined based on LOV and RAV. This achievement expanded the nondestructive testing methods for steel strands and holds significant research value. Full article
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20 pages, 8941 KiB  
Article
Effect of Shear Keys on the Quasi-Isolated Behavior of Small-to-Medium-Span Girder Bridges
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092246 - 04 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 597
Abstract
Small-to-medium-span girder bridges equipped with shear keys play a significant role in the Chinese highway bridge system. However, shear key failure was observed during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, which resulted in excessive superstructure displacements and even catastrophic span collapse. For this, six refined [...] Read more.
Small-to-medium-span girder bridges equipped with shear keys play a significant role in the Chinese highway bridge system. However, shear key failure was observed during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, which resulted in excessive superstructure displacements and even catastrophic span collapse. For this, six refined bridges were investigated for the quasi-isolated behaviors under different shear key strengths by using the Pushover and IDA methods. Results indicate that the bridges exhibit two distinct damage states upon the shear key strengths. The shear key failure and bearing sliding create a natural quasi-isolated mechanism, with the following damage sequence: shear key failure → bearing sliding → pier undamaged or slight damage. Quasi-isolated behavior leads to higher displacement demands for beams, especially when the peak ground acceleration (PGA) exceeds 0.45 g. By selecting suitable shear key strength, below 9% for 20 m piers and 30% for 10 m piers, quasi-isolated damage is expected to occur in bridges. The study offers a fresh perspective on the concept of seismic design for highway girder bridges in China. Full article
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17 pages, 2217 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation Framework for Construction Quality of Bridge Monitoring System Using the DHGF Method
Sensors 2023, 23(16), 7139; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23167139 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Aiming at comprehensively evaluating the status of a bridge monitoring system, an evaluation framework based on the improved Delphi, analytic Hierarchy process, Grey relations analysis and Fuzzy integrated evaluation (DHGF) is selected. Firstly, the evaluation indexes for the bridge monitoring system are determined [...] Read more.
Aiming at comprehensively evaluating the status of a bridge monitoring system, an evaluation framework based on the improved Delphi, analytic Hierarchy process, Grey relations analysis and Fuzzy integrated evaluation (DHGF) is selected. Firstly, the evaluation indexes for the bridge monitoring system are determined by an anonymous group discussion and expert questionnaire using the improved Delphi method. Secondly, a comparison matrix of the evaluation indexes is constructed to determine the comprehensive weight via the analytic hierarchy process. Then, based on the gray relations analysis, the albino weight function is constructed, the evaluation gray class is determined, and the single-factor fuzzy evaluation matrix is obtained. Finally, the final evaluation result was obtained by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The evaluation results of a real bridge monitoring system show that the evaluation level of the monitoring system was level II, and the proposed framework could better reflect the construction and operation status of the monitoring system. Full article
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23 pages, 12866 KiB  
Article
Experimental Analysis of the Magnetic Leakage Detection of a Corroded Steel Strand Due to Vibration
Sensors 2023, 23(16), 7130; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23167130 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
The self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) detection technique has great potential in the corrosion detection of bridge stay cables due to its advantages of small testing equipment, high accuracy, and fast testing rate. However, the vibration effect in the cable’s SMFL detection is unclear. [...] Read more.
The self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) detection technique has great potential in the corrosion detection of bridge stay cables due to its advantages of small testing equipment, high accuracy, and fast testing rate. However, the vibration effect in the cable’s SMFL detection is unclear. To address this, the influence of vibration on the magnetic field distribution of cable structure is analyzed theoretically. According to the theoretical model, the effect of vibration on SMFL detection primarily manifests as displacement changes (displacement-added magnetic field) and defect shape changes (deformation-added magnetic field). SMFL detection experiments are conducted on steel strands. The results demonstrate that the displacement-added magnetic field exhibits statistical characteristics in the form of a normal distribution, fluctuating around the zero value. The impact of the deformation-added magnetic field on SMFL is linearly correlated with the corrosion ratio c. Moreover, a corrosion characterization index A was proposed and has an excellent linear fit with the corrosion ratio c. The index A effectively improves the accuracy of corrosion detection and provides early warning for the maintenance of cable structures. Full article
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23 pages, 10601 KiB  
Article
Evolution Law of Concrete Interface Stress of Rigid-Frame Arch under Construction and Its Impact on Ultimate Load-Bearing Capacity
Sensors 2023, 23(15), 6868; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23156868 - 02 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 680
Abstract
To study the evolution of stress on the ring and segment interfaces during the construction process of the concrete encapsulation of the main arch ring in a rigid-frame arch bridge, alongside its impact on the ultimate load-bearing capacity of the main arch ring, [...] Read more.
To study the evolution of stress on the ring and segment interfaces during the construction process of the concrete encapsulation of the main arch ring in a rigid-frame arch bridge, alongside its impact on the ultimate load-bearing capacity of the main arch ring, a 1:10 scale model experiment was conducted by taking the 600 m Tian’e Longtan Bridge as the prototype. The key cross-section concrete strain data were collected during the entire construction process of the main arch ring via fiber-optic strain sensors, which were used to investigate the stress evolution at ring and segment interfaces. ANSYS APDL was employed to simulate the ultimate bearing capacity under various loading conditions of two different finite element models, which were, respectively, formed segmentally and by single pouring. The results revealed that (1) after the closure of the concrete encapsulation of the main arch ring, the concrete stress in the cross-section exhibits significant stress disparities. At the same cross-section, the level of the web concrete stress can reach 76% of the floor concrete stress, while the roof concrete stress level is less than 20% of the floor concrete stress. (2) At the junction of two adjacent work planes, there are considerable differences in the stress levels of the concrete on both sides. After the closure of the main arch ring, the intersegment stress ratios of the floor, web, and roof concrete are 60~70%, 40~60%, and 0~5%, respectively. (3) Loading conditions remarkably affected the ultimate bearing capacity of the main arch ring. Under mid-span loading and 1/4 span symmetrical loading conditions, compared to single-pour concrete encapsulation, the ultimate bearing capacity of the main arch ring with concrete encapsulated by segmented and ring-divided pouring decreased by 19.16% and 5.23%, respectively, compared to single-pour concrete encapsulation. This suggests that the non-uniformity of stress distribution in the concrete sheath can lead to reductions in the ultimate bearing capacity of the arch ring. Full article
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29 pages, 3738 KiB  
Review
A Review on Damage Monitoring and Identification Methods for Arch Bridges
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081975 - 02 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
The damage monitoring and identification of arch bridges provide an important means to ensure the safe operation of arch bridges. At present, many methods have been developed, and the applicability and effectiveness of these methods depend on the damage type, structural configuration and [...] Read more.
The damage monitoring and identification of arch bridges provide an important means to ensure the safe operation of arch bridges. At present, many methods have been developed, and the applicability and effectiveness of these methods depend on the damage type, structural configuration and available data. To guide the practical application of these methods, a systematic review is implemented in this paper. Specifically, the damage monitoring and identification methods of arch bridges are divided into the damage monitoring of local diseases and damage identification of overall performance. Firstly, the research on the damage monitoring of the local diseases of arch bridges is reviewed. According to the disease type, it is divided into four categories, including suspender inspection, void monitoring, stress detection and corrosion detection. For each disease, this paper analyzes the principles, advantages and shortcomings of various methods. Then, the damage identification methods of the overall performance of arch bridges are reviewed, including masonry arch bridges, steel arch bridges, reinforced concrete arch bridges and concrete-filled steel tubular arch bridges. And the commonly used damage indexes of damage identification methods are summarized. This review aims to help researchers and practitioners in implementing existing damage detection methods effectively and developing more reliable and practical methods for arch bridges in the future. Full article
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16 pages, 8393 KiB  
Article
Effects of Polyethylene Glycol/Porous Silica Form-Stabilized Phase Change Materials on the Performance of Asphalt Binders
Materials 2023, 16(15), 5293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16155293 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The road performance and temperature-regulating properties of asphalt binders modified with novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)/porous silica (PS) form-stabilized phase-change materials (PEG/PS-fs-PCMs) were studied. PS and PEG were used as the supporting substance and PCMs. The results showed that PEG/PS-fs-PCMs could maintain a maximum [...] Read more.
The road performance and temperature-regulating properties of asphalt binders modified with novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)/porous silica (PS) form-stabilized phase-change materials (PEG/PS-fs-PCMs) were studied. PS and PEG were used as the supporting substance and PCMs. The results showed that PEG/PS-fs-PCMs could maintain a maximum weight percentage of 70% without leakage, at temperatures as high as 90 °C. The PEG/PS-fs-PCMs exhibited stable chemical structures, excellent thermal stability, high heat storage density, and suitable phase-change temperature. Based on conventional physical tests, the addition of PEG/PS-fs-PCMs can increase the viscosity and the degree of hardness of asphalt binders; thus, achieving an excellent comprehensive performance of the modified asphalt binder depends on determining the optimal dosage of PEG/PS-fs-PCMs. Additionally, incorporating PEG/PS-fs-PCM particles into the asphalt binder can enhance its ability to withstand permanent deformation at elevated temperatures, while PEG/PS-fs-PCMs mainly act as a filler, weakening the cohesive force of the asphalt molecules, and preventing the ductility of asphalt from expansion, according to DSR and BBR tests. Moreover, the use of PEG/PS-fs-PCMs can enhance the heat transfer properties of the asphalt binders, resulting in an improved temperature regulation performance. However, the accumulation of PEG/PS-fs-PCM particles on asphalt binders can negatively impact the storage stability of the modified asphalt binders, because of the difference in density between the two materials. Full article
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16 pages, 9730 KiB  
Article
Field Measurements of Wind-Induced Responses of the Shanghai World Financial Center during Super Typhoon Lekima
Sensors 2023, 23(14), 6519; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23146519 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 837
Abstract
In this paper, the wind-induced responses of the Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) under Super Typhoon Lekima are measured using the health monitoring system. Based on the measurements, the characteristics of vibration, including probability density distribution of accelerations, power spectra, and mode shapes [...] Read more.
In this paper, the wind-induced responses of the Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC) under Super Typhoon Lekima are measured using the health monitoring system. Based on the measurements, the characteristics of vibration, including probability density distribution of accelerations, power spectra, and mode shapes are studied. The curve method and the standard deviation method are used to analyze the relationship of the first- and second-order natural frequencies and damping ratios with amplitudes and the mean wind speed. The results show the following: (1) The structural wind-induced responses in the X and Y directions have high consistencies, and the vibration signals exhibit a peak state; moreover, response amplitudes and acceleration signals disperse when the floor height increases. (2) The first- and second-order natural frequencies in the X and Y directions decrease with the increasing amplitudes and are negatively correlated with mean wind speed; the maximum decrease in natural frequency is 5.794%. The first- and second-order damping ratios in the X and Y directions increase with the increasing amplitudes and are positively correlated with the mean wind speed; the maximum increase in damping ratio is 95.7%. (3) The curve method and the standard deviation method are similar in identifying dynamic characteristic parameters, but the discreteness of the natural frequencies obtained by the curve method is lesser. (4) Under excitations of various typhoons, the mode shapes of SWFC are basically the same, and the mode shapes in the X and Y directions increase with the height and have nonlinearity. Full article
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