Topic Editors

Dr. Haoran Xu
State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China

Thermal-Related Design, Application, and Optimization of Fuel Cells and Batteries

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
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9988

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

The challenges in energy constraints, environmental deterioration, and climate change have accelerated the development of low-carbon and decarbonized technologies in many countries. The thermal-related effect is the key to the successful application of these technologies as it significantly affects the capital and the operating costs. In the process of energy conversion, the management of heat source terms (generation, consumption, transfer and dissipation) is the key to achieve a high energy efficiency and to ensure a stable long-term operation.

This Topic aims to provide a collection of the latest research and findings in the field of thermal effects on advanced energy conversion and storage technologies. Both research and review papers are welcome. Potential research topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Thermal management of fuel cell, electrolyzer, and batteries;
  • Thermochemical energy storage;
  • Thermomechanical fatigue failure of energy devices;
  • Waste heat utilization.

Dr. Haoran Xu
Dr. Rui Cheng
Dr. Meiting Guo
Dr. Guangming Yang
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • thermal effects
  • reversible solid oxide cell
  • battery

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.7 4.5 2011 16.9 Days CHF 2400
Batteries
batteries
4.0 5.4 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Clean Technologies
cleantechnol
3.8 4.5 2019 26.6 Days CHF 1600
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (8 papers)

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18 pages, 5875 KiB  
Article
Simulation of a Novel Integrated Multi-Stack Fuel Cell System Based on a Double-Layer Multi-Objective Optimal Allocation Approach
by Jianhua Gao, Su Zhou, Yanda Lu and Wei Shen
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 2961; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14072961 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 400
Abstract
A multi-stack fuel cell system (MFCS) is a promising solution for high-power PEM fuel cell applications. This paper proposes an optimized stack allocation approach for power allocation, considering economy and dynamics to establish integrated subsystems with added functional components. The results show that [...] Read more.
A multi-stack fuel cell system (MFCS) is a promising solution for high-power PEM fuel cell applications. This paper proposes an optimized stack allocation approach for power allocation, considering economy and dynamics to establish integrated subsystems with added functional components. The results show that an MFCS with target powers of 20 kW, 70 kW, and 120 kW satisfies lifetime and efficiency factors. The common rail buffer at the air supply subsystem inlet stabilizes pressure, buffers, and diverts. By adjusting the volume of the common rail buffer, it is possible to reduce the maximum instantaneous power and consumption of the air compressor. The integrated hydrogen supply subsystem improves hydrogen utilization and reduces parasitic power consumption. However, the integrated thermal subsystem does not have the advantages of integrated gas supply subsystems, and its thermal management performance is worse than that of a distributed thermal subsystem. This MFCS provides a solution for high-power non-average distribution PEM fuel cell systems. Full article
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19 pages, 4961 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment and Optimization of the Ultra-High Speed Air Compressor in Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
by Ting Shi and Xueyuan Peng
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14031232 - 01 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
Air compressors in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles play a crucial role in ensuring the stability of the cathode air system. However, they currently face challenges related to low efficiency and poor stability. To address these issues, the experimental setup for the pneumatic performance [...] Read more.
Air compressors in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles play a crucial role in ensuring the stability of the cathode air system. However, they currently face challenges related to low efficiency and poor stability. To address these issues, the experimental setup for the pneumatic performance of air compressors is established. The effects of operational parameters on energy consumption, efficiency, and mass flow rate of the air compressor are revealed based on a Morris global sensitivity analysis. Considering a higher flow rate, larger efficiency, and lower energy consumption simultaneously, the optimal operating combination of the air compressor is determined based on grey relational multi-objective optimization. The optimal combination of operational parameters consisted of a speed of 80,000 rpm, a pressure ratio of 1.8, and an inlet temperature of 18.3 °C. Compared to the average values, the isentropic efficiency achieved a 48.23% increase, and the mass flow rate rose by 78.88% under the optimal operational combination. These findings hold significant value in guiding the efficient and stable operation of air compressors. The comprehensive methodology employed in this study is applicable further to investigate air compressors for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Full article
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18 pages, 6837 KiB  
Article
Study of Contact Pressure Distribution in Bolted Encapsulated Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly
by Gui Ren, Yanfeng Xing, Juyong Cao, Ying Wang, Linfa Peng and Xuelong Miao
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6487; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186487 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
The distribution of contact pressure on the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) significantly affects the performance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This paper establishes a PEM fuel cell model to investigate the impact of bolt load and its distribution, sealing gasket [...] Read more.
The distribution of contact pressure on the Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) significantly affects the performance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This paper establishes a PEM fuel cell model to investigate the impact of bolt load and its distribution, sealing gasket hardness, and size on the magnitude and distribution of contact pressure on the MEA during assembly. Thermal–mechanical coupling is employed to simulate the thermal effects resulting from chemical reactions under operational conditions. The findings reveal that there is an extremum of pressure uniformity in the range of 5000 to 6250 N for bolt loads. When the average bolt load is lower than this extremum, altering the distribution of the load can effectively enhance the uniform distribution of contact pressure. Stiffer gaskets reduce the contact pressure on the MEA while increasing the pressure on the gasket itself, resulting in reduced deformation. A rational matching relationship among gaskets, Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs), and seal grooves is proposed. During operational conditions, thermal effects decrease the sealing performance and also impact the magnitude and distribution of contact pressure on the MEA. These outcomes provide significant guidance for the assembly and performance evaluation of PEMFCs. Full article
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18 pages, 6631 KiB  
Article
Liquid Water Characteristics in the Compressed Gradient Porosity Gas Diffusion Layer of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method
by Song Yan, Mingyang Yang, Chuanyu Sun and Sichuan Xu
Energies 2023, 16(16), 6010; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16166010 - 16 Aug 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
The mitigation of water flooding in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) at relatively high current densities is indispensable for enhancing the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this paper, a 2D multicomponent LBM model is developed to investigate the effects [...] Read more.
The mitigation of water flooding in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) at relatively high current densities is indispensable for enhancing the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this paper, a 2D multicomponent LBM model is developed to investigate the effects of porosity distribution and compression on the liquid water dynamic behaviors and distribution. The results suggest that adopting the gradient GDL structure with increasing porosity along the thickness direction significantly reduces the breakthrough time and steady–state total water saturation inside the GDL. Moreover, the positive gradient structure reaches the highest breakthrough time and water saturation at 10% compression ratio (CR) when the GDL is compressed, and the corresponding values decrease with further increase of the CR. Considering the breakthrough time, total water saturation and water distribution at the entrance of the GDL at the same time, the gradient structure with continuously increasing porosity can perform better water management capacity at 30% CR. This paper is useful for understanding the two–phase process in a gradient GDL structure and provides guidance for future design and manufacturing. Full article
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19 pages, 12934 KiB  
Article
Liquid Water Transport Characteristics and Droplet Dynamics of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with 3D Wave Channel
by Zijun Li, Jianguo Wang, Shubo Wang, Weiwei Li and Xiaofeng Xie
Energies 2023, 16(16), 5892; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16165892 - 09 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
Water management is a crucial aspect in the efficient functioning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The presence of a two-phase flow, consisting of water and reactive gas, in the channel of the PEMFC is of utmost importance for effective water management. [...] Read more.
Water management is a crucial aspect in the efficient functioning of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The presence of a two-phase flow, consisting of water and reactive gas, in the channel of the PEMFC is of utmost importance for effective water management. This study focuses on investigating the removal of liquid water in 3D wave channels and 2D straight channels using the volume of fluid method. The study analyzes the dynamic behavior of droplets emerging from the gas diffusion layer (GDL) into the channel under the influence of gas flow. The study also explores the effects of droplet growth, deformation, detachment, force, and pore size on critical water behavior and water content in the channel. The results indicate that the 3D wave channel is more effective in removing liquid water compared to the 2D straight channel. It is observed that increasing the velocity facilitates the discharge of liquid water. However, excessively high velocities lead to parasitic power losses. Furthermore, while larger pore sizes in the GDL are not advantageous for PEMFC performance, a moderate increase in pore size aids in the discharge of liquid water. The knowledge gained through this study deepens the understanding of droplet dynamics in PEMFC gas channels and assists in optimizing the design and operational conditions of these channels. Full article
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14 pages, 1531 KiB  
Article
Performance Assessment of the Heat Recovery System of a 12 MW SOFC-Based Generator on Board a Cruise Ship through a 0D Model
by Luca Micoli, Roberta Russo, Tommaso Coppola and Andrea Pietra
Energies 2023, 16(8), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083334 - 09 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The present work considers a 12 MW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plant integrated with a heat recovery system installed on board an LNG-fuelled cruise ship of about 175,000 gross tonnes and 345 m in length. The SOFC plant is fed by [...] Read more.
The present work considers a 12 MW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plant integrated with a heat recovery system installed on board an LNG-fuelled cruise ship of about 175,000 gross tonnes and 345 m in length. The SOFC plant is fed by LNG and generates electrical power within an integrated power system configuration; additionally, it provides part of the thermal energy demand. A zero-dimensional (0D) Aspen Plus model has been built-up to simulate the SOFC power plant and to assess the performances of the proposed heat recovery system. The model has been validated by comparing the results obtained with data from the literature and commercial SOFC modules. The integrated system has been optimized in order to maximize steam production since it is the most requested thermal source on board. The main design outcome is that the steam produced is made by the recovered water from the SOFC exhaust by about 50–60%, thus reducing the onboard water storage or production. Additionally, results indicate that such an integrated system could save up to about 14.4% of LNG. Full article
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19 pages, 16579 KiB  
Article
Numerical Optimization of Triple-Phase Components in Order-Structured Cathode Catalyst Layer of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
by Miao Ye, Long Rong, Xu Ma and Weiwei Yang
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1623; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041623 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is generally regarded as a promising energy conversion device due to its low noise, high efficiency, low pollution, and quick startup. The design of the catalyst layer structure is crucial in boosting cell performance. The traditional catalyst [...] Read more.
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is generally regarded as a promising energy conversion device due to its low noise, high efficiency, low pollution, and quick startup. The design of the catalyst layer structure is crucial in boosting cell performance. The traditional catalyst layer has high oxygen transmission resistance, low utilization rate of Pt particles and high production cost. In this study, we offer a sub-model for an order-structured cathode catalyst layer coupled to a three-dimensional (3D) two-phase macroscopic PEMFC model. In the sub-model of the cathode catalyst layer, it is assumed that carbon nanowires are vertically arranged into the catalyst layer structure, platinum particles and ionomers adhere to the surface, and water films cover the cylindrical electrode. The impacts of triple-phase contents in the catalyst layer on cell performance are investigated and discussed in detail after the model has been validated using data from existing studies. The results show that when the triple-phase contents ratio of the order-structured cathode catalyst layer is the best, the overall cell power density of the cell can be maximized, that is, the Pt loading of 0.15 mg cm−2, carbon loading of 1.0 mg cm−2, and ionomer volume fraction of 0.2. The above study may provide guidance for constructing the PEMFC catalyst layer with high catalyst utilization and high performance. Full article
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11 pages, 3214 KiB  
Article
Performance Study of Gravity-Type Heat Pipe Applied to Fuel Cell Heat Dissipation
by Lei Jin, Shaohua Wang, Jiachao Guo, Haopeng Li and Xiaoliang Tian
Energies 2023, 16(1), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010563 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
A gravity-type heat pipe boiling characteristics test rig was constructed to solve the heat dissipation problem of fuel cells during operation. The boiling heat transfer characteristics of water in a parallel plate under negative pressure at different inclination angles and heat flow density [...] Read more.
A gravity-type heat pipe boiling characteristics test rig was constructed to solve the heat dissipation problem of fuel cells during operation. The boiling heat transfer characteristics of water in a parallel plate under negative pressure at different inclination angles and heat flow density input are investigated. The results show that: First, the gravity-type heat pipe can dissipate some heat and it is possible to use it for fuel cell heat dissipation. Second, with a certain range of heat flow density, the temperature of all parts of the plate is about 80 °C, with a small temperature difference, which is conducive to the safe operation of the fuel cell. Third, the heat flow density is in the range of 2222~3111 W·m−2, the temperature difference is large, and the outlet temperature is greater than 80 °C, which exceeds the operating temperature of the fuel cell, and the power-type heat pipe should be used for heat dissipation. Fourth, the average temperature of the plate placed at an inclination angle of 45°~60° is lower compared to other angles, and the temperature is evenly distributed. On the one hand, the conclusions reveal the characteristics of boiling heat exchange under negative pressure conditions of water inside the flat plate and, on the other hand, provide a reference for designing heat pipe systems for fuel cell heat dissipation. Full article
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