Topic Editors

1. Professor and Director of BioMAT’X R&D&I Group, Scientific Director—Research, Development and Innovation, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile
2. Cross Appointment—BioMedicine Doctoral Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT 06604, USA

Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Viewed by
27235

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

A nanomaterial may demonstrate different behaviours when compared to the same substance in bulk form—meaning, a material could change when it goes from bulk to the nanoscale. This transformation could be revolutionary. Indeed, nanotechnology has, thus far, made it possible for us to create novel materials that we could never formulate before via taking advantage of the physico-chemicomechanical and cellular–biological (size and surface, amongst other parameters) effects. This has opened the door wide, enhancing our ability to deliver drugs in novel ways, for example, to treat critical conditions.

Nanomedicine and nanodentistry, herein, is the application of nanotechnology to the field of medicine and dentistry, respectively, through the use of nanomaterials. The most common application involves employing nanoparticles and nanocapsules to enhance the action of encapsulant cells, proteins, genes, antibodies, and drugs in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, skin, bone, teeth, and the supporting tissues/structures to our jaws and dentition, to list a few. Current applications tend to re-enforce controlled drug delivery for disease diagnosis, monitoring, prevention, management, and therapy, via targeting and precision or personalized approaches and strategies. Hence, the incorporation of nanomaterials, biopolymers, and newly discovered technologies to benefit human life and achieve what was once thought to be unachievable is the goal of every researcher, scientist, and innovator.

For controlled drug delivery, in particular, numerous nanomaterial and biopolymer characteristics of a delivery system are to be considered, including (but not limited to) dosage form, administration route, side effects, drug-loading capacity, drug encapsulation efficiency, dose–response, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and fate, and patient compliance. Polymeric materials can be incorporated to better control the variables presented in a nano-scaled drug delivery system so that the drug, especially if poorly soluble, can be safer and more effective/efficacious. This Special Issue will discuss the innovative nanomaterials and biopolymers being designed, synthesized, incorporated, and used in formulating novel drug delivery systems for application in nanomedicine and nanodentistry, including cell/gene therapy, tissue engineering, and regeneration indications. Articles are invited to discuss the different types of nanomaterials and biopolymers used, their preparation methods, safety and efficacy analysis, and potential translation from benchtop to bed-/chair-side. Contributions discussing different characterization methodologies and/or strategies as well as any arising challenges/hurdles are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Ziyad S. Haidar
Dr. Prabir Patra
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • natural and synthetic nanomaterials in drug delivery
  • hybrid drug delivery formulations
  • targeted and triggered drug delivery
  • controlled release and pharmacokinetics
  • hydrogels and polymer–drug conjugates
  • tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
  • nanomedicine and nanodentistry

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ijms
5.6 7.8 2000 16.3 Days CHF 2900
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 6.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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15 pages, 12102 KiB  
Article
Dissipative Particle Dynamic Simulation on Self-Assembly of Symmetric CBABC Pentablock Terpolymers in Solution
by Yingying Guo
Materials 2023, 16(23), 7273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16237273 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Pentablock terpolymers are potential candidates for the self-assembly of multicompartment nanostructures. In this work, Dissipative Particle Dynamic simulation is employed to investigate how the equilibrium aggregate structures of C3B3A6B3C3 pentablock terpolymers are affected by [...] Read more.
Pentablock terpolymers are potential candidates for the self-assembly of multicompartment nanostructures. In this work, Dissipative Particle Dynamic simulation is employed to investigate how the equilibrium aggregate structures of C3B3A6B3C3 pentablock terpolymers are affected by polymer–solvent interactions in a solution. Multicompartment structures, such as layered micelles, onion-like micelles, onion-like vesicles, unilamellar vesicles, and vesicle-in-vesicle structures, are observed. Vesicles are obtained when the two end C-blocks or the central A-block are hydrophilic. The solvent encapsulation ability and vesicle membrane permeability are assessed. The unilamellar vesicle shows higher encapsulation efficiency and lower membrane permeability compared with the onion-like vesicles. Additionally, the two vesicles show different responses to shear. While the cargo release rate of the onion-like vesicle is not affected by shear, shear results in a slowdown of the release rate for the unilamellar vesicle. The membrane thickness of the unilamellar vesicle can be adjusted using the length of the central A-blocks. Vesicles with thicker membranes hold cargo more effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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10 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Uniform Nano Liposomes Using Focused Ultrasonic Technology
by Ji-Soo Yun, Seon-Ae Hwangbo and Young-Gyu Jeong
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(19), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13192618 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Liposomes are microspheres produced by placing phospholipids in aqueous solutions. Liposomes have the advantage of being able to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional substances and are thus important mediators used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is important for liposomes to have small [...] Read more.
Liposomes are microspheres produced by placing phospholipids in aqueous solutions. Liposomes have the advantage of being able to encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional substances and are thus important mediators used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is important for liposomes to have small sizes, uniform particle size distribution, and long-term stability. Previously, liposomes have been prepared using a homo mixer, microfluidizer, and horn and bath types of sonicators. However, it is difficult to produce liposomes with small sizes and uniform particle size distribution using these methods. Therefore, we have developed a focused ultrasound method to produce nano-sized liposomes with better size control. In this study, the liposome solutions were prepared using the focused ultrasound method and conventional methods. The liposome solutions were characterized for their size distribution, stability, and morphology. Results showed that the liposome solution prepared using focused ultrasonic equipment had a uniform particle size distribution with an average size of 113.6 nm and a polydispersity index value of 0.124. Furthermore, the solution showed good stability in dynamic light scattering measurements for 4 d and Turbiscan measurements for 1 week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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15 pages, 2228 KiB  
Article
GelMA Hydrogel as a Promising Delivery System for Osthole in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Targeting the miR-1224-3p/AGO1 Axis
by Weilin Zhang, Zhencong Li, Zhiwen Dai, Siyuan Chen, Weixiong Guo, Zhongwei Wang and Jinsong Wei
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713210 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifaceted, chronic, progressive autoimmune disease. This study aims to explore the potential benefits of an enhanced drug delivery system utilizing optimized Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) vectors in RA management. We evaluated the levels of miR-1124-3p and AGO1 in RA [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifaceted, chronic, progressive autoimmune disease. This study aims to explore the potential benefits of an enhanced drug delivery system utilizing optimized Gelatin Methacryloyl (GelMA) vectors in RA management. We evaluated the levels of miR-1124-3p and AGO1 in RA tissues and cell lines using qPCR, WB, and immunofluorescence. The effects of osthole on inflammatory response and joint morphology were determined by qPCR, H&E staining, and micro-CT. The data showed that miR-1224-3p was downregulated in RA tissues and HUM-iCell-s010RA cells, while the overexpression of miR-1224-3p in HUM-iCell-s010RA cells reduced the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β. Luciferase assay demonstrated that AGO1 was a direct target gene of miR-1224-3p. Additionally, osthole treatment increased miR-1224-3p levels and decreased AGO1 expression. The release data showed that osthole loaded on GelMA was released at a slower rate than free osthole. Further studies in a mouse model of CIA confirmed that osthole-loaded GelMA was more effective in attenuating osteopenia in RA as well as alleviating autoimmune arthritis. These findings suggest that osthole can regulate the miR-1224-3p/AGO1 axis in RASFs cells and has the potential to be developed as a clinical anti-RA drug. GelMA could provide a new approach to long-term RA treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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23 pages, 5369 KiB  
Article
Tailoring Magnetite-Nanoparticle-Based Nanocarriers for Gene Delivery: Exploiting CRISPRa Potential in Reducing Conditions
by David Arango, Javier Cifuentes, Paola Ruiz Puentes, Tatiana Beltran, Amaury Bittar, Camila Ocasión, Carolina Muñoz-Camargo, Natasha I. Bloch, Luis H. Reyes and Juan C. Cruz
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(11), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13111782 - 31 May 2023
Viewed by 1900
Abstract
Gene delivery has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional treatment approaches, allowing for the manipulation of gene expression through gene insertion, deletion, or alteration. However, the susceptibility of gene delivery components to degradation and challenges associated with cell penetration necessitate the use [...] Read more.
Gene delivery has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional treatment approaches, allowing for the manipulation of gene expression through gene insertion, deletion, or alteration. However, the susceptibility of gene delivery components to degradation and challenges associated with cell penetration necessitate the use of delivery vehicles for effective functional gene delivery. Nanostructured vehicles, such as iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) including magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs), have demonstrated significant potential for gene delivery applications due to their chemical versatility, biocompatibility, and strong magnetization. In this study, we developed an ION-based delivery vehicle capable of releasing linearized nucleic acids (tDNA) under reducing conditions in various cell cultures. As a proof of concept, we immobilized a CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) sequence to overexpress the pink1 gene on MNPs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithio]propionic acid (AEDP), and a translocating protein (OmpA). The nucleic sequence (tDNA) was modified to include a terminal thiol group and was conjugated to AEDP’s terminal thiol via a disulfide exchange reaction. Leveraging the natural sensitivity of the disulfide bridge, the cargo was released under reducing conditions. Physicochemical characterizations, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, confirmed the correct synthesis and functionalization of the MNP-based delivery carriers. The developed nanocarriers exhibited remarkable biocompatibility, as demonstrated by the hemocompatibility, platelet aggregation, and cytocompatibility assays using primary human astrocytes, rodent astrocytes, and human fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the nanocarriers enabled efficient cargo penetration, uptake, and endosomal escape, with minimal nucleofection. A preliminary functionality test using RT-qPCR revealed that the vehicle facilitated the timely release of CRISPRa vectors, resulting in a remarkable 130-fold overexpression of pink1. We demonstrate the potential of the developed ION-based nanocarrier as a versatile and promising gene delivery vehicle with potential applications in gene therapy. The developed nanocarrier is capable of delivering any nucleic sequence (up to 8.2 kb) once it is thiolated using the methodology explained in this study. To our knowledge, this represents the first MNP-based nanocarrier capable of delivering nucleic sequences under specific reducing conditions while preserving functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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14 pages, 2922 KiB  
Article
Sonochemical Deposition of Gentamicin Nanoparticles at the PCV Tracheostomy Tube Surface Limiting Bacterial Biofilm Formation
by Łukasz Ścibik, Dorota Ochońska, Monika Gołda-Cępa, Konrad Kwiecień, Elżbieta Pamuła, Andrzej Kotarba and Monika Brzychczy-Włoch
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103765 - 16 May 2023
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
Background: The use of nanotechnology in the production of medical equipment has opened new possibilities to fight bacterial biofilm developing on their surfaces, which can cause infectious complications. In this study, we decided to use gentamicin nanoparticles. An ultrasonic technique was used for [...] Read more.
Background: The use of nanotechnology in the production of medical equipment has opened new possibilities to fight bacterial biofilm developing on their surfaces, which can cause infectious complications. In this study, we decided to use gentamicin nanoparticles. An ultrasonic technique was used for their synthesis and immediate deposition onto the surface of tracheostomy tubes, and their effect on bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated. Methods: Polyvinyl chloride was functionalized using oxygen plasma followed by sonochemical formation and the embedment of gentamicin nanoparticles. The resulting surfaces were characterized with the use of AFM, WCA, NTA, FTIR and evaluated for cytotoxicity with the use of A549 cell line and for bacterial adhesion using reference strains of S. aureus (ATCC® 25923™) and E. coli (ATCC® 25922™). Results: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles significantly reduced the adhesion of bacterial colonies on the surface of the tracheostomy tube for S. aureus from 6 × 105 CFU/mL to 5 × 103 CFU/mL and for E. coli from 1.655 × 105 CFU/mL to 2 × 101 CFU/mL, and the functionalized surfaces did not show a cytotoxic effect on A549 cells (ATTC CCL 185). Conclusions: The use of gentamicin nanoparticles on the polyvinyl chloride surface may be an additional supporting method for patients after tracheostomy in order to prevent the colonization of the biomaterial by potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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17 pages, 17286 KiB  
Article
WZB117 Decorated Metformin-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Targeting Breast Cancer Metabolism
by Anindita De, Ashish Wadhwani, Sauraj, Parikshit Roychowdhury, Ji Hee Kang, Young Tag Ko and Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15040976 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
The “Warburg effect” provides a novel method for treating cancer cell metabolism. Overexpression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and downregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been identified as biomarkers of abnormal cancer cell metabolism. Metformin [...] Read more.
The “Warburg effect” provides a novel method for treating cancer cell metabolism. Overexpression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and downregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have been identified as biomarkers of abnormal cancer cell metabolism. Metformin (MET) is an effective therapy for breast cancer (BC), but its efficacy is largely reliant on the concentration of glucose at the tumor site. We propose a WZB117 (a GLUT1 inhibitor)-OCMC (O-carboxymethyl-chitosan)-MET combo strategy for simultaneous GLUT1 and mTOR targeting for alteration of BC metabolism. WZB117 conjugated polymeric nanoparticles were 225.67 ± 11.5 nm in size, with a PDI of 0.113 ± 0.16, and an encapsulation of 72.78 6.4%. OCMC pH-dependently and selectively releases MET at the tumor site. MET targets the mTOR pathway in cancer cells, and WZB117 targets BCL2 to alter GLUT1 at the cancer site. WZB117-OCMC-MET overcomes the limitations of MET monotherapy by targeting mTOR and BCL2 synergistically. WZB117-OCMC-MET activates AMPK and suppresses mTOR in a Western blot experiment, indicating growth-inhibitory and apoptotic characteristics. AO/EB and the cell cycle enhance cellular internalization as compared to MET alone. WZB117-OCMC-MET affects cancer cells’ metabolism and is a promising BC therapeutic strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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17 pages, 4746 KiB  
Article
A Machine Learning Approach for PLGA Nanoparticles in Antiviral Drug Delivery
by Labiba Noorain, Vu Nguyen, Hae-Won Kim and Linh T. B. Nguyen
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(2), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15020495 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2859
Abstract
In recent years, nanoparticles have been highly investigated in the laboratory. However, only a few laboratory discoveries have been translated into clinical practice. These findings in the laboratory are limited by trial-and-error methods to determine the optimum formulation for successful drug delivery. A [...] Read more.
In recent years, nanoparticles have been highly investigated in the laboratory. However, only a few laboratory discoveries have been translated into clinical practice. These findings in the laboratory are limited by trial-and-error methods to determine the optimum formulation for successful drug delivery. A new paradigm is required to ease the translation of lab discoveries to clinical practice. Due to their previous success in antiviral activity, it is vital to accelerate the discovery of novel drugs to treat and manage viruses. Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence and consists of computer algorithms which are improved through experience. It can generate predictions from data inputs via an algorithm which includes a method built from inputs and outputs. Combining nanotherapeutics and well-established machine-learning algorithms can simplify antiviral-drug development systems by automating the analysis. Other relationships in bio-pharmaceutical networks would eventually aid in reaching a complex goal very easily. From previous laboratory experiments, data can be extracted and input into machine learning algorithms to generate predictions. In this study, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were investigated in antiviral drug delivery. Data was extracted from research articles on nanoparticle size, polydispersity index, drug loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency. The Gaussian Process, a form of machine learning algorithm, could be applied to this data to generate graphs with predictions of the datasets. The Gaussian Process is a probabilistic machine learning model which defines a prior over function. The mean and variance of the data can be calculated via matrix multiplications, leading to the formation of prediction graphs—the graphs generated in this study which could be used for the discovery of novel antiviral drugs. The drug load and encapsulation efficiency of a nanoparticle with a specific size can be predicted using these graphs. This could eliminate the trial-and-error discovery method and save laboratory time and ease efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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27 pages, 15448 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticles Modified by Carbosilane Dendrons and PEG as Delivery Vectors of Small Interfering RNA
by Viktar Abashkin, Elżbieta Pędziwiatr-Werbicka, Katarzyna Horodecka, Victoriya Zhogla, Egor Ulashchik, Vadim Shmanai, Dzmitry Shcharbin and Maria Bryszewska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010840 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
The fact that cancer is one of the leading causes of death requires researchers to create new systems of effective treatment for malignant tumors. One promising area is genetic therapy that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA). These molecules are capable of blocking mutant [...] Read more.
The fact that cancer is one of the leading causes of death requires researchers to create new systems of effective treatment for malignant tumors. One promising area is genetic therapy that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA). These molecules are capable of blocking mutant proteins in cells, but require specific systems that will deliver RNA to target cells and successfully release them into the cytoplasm. Dendronized and PEGylated silver nanoparticles as potential vectors for proapoptotic siRNA (siMCL-1) were used here. Using the methods of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism, stable siRNA and AgNP complexes were obtained. Data gathered using multicolor flow cytometry showed that AgNPs are able to deliver (up to 90%) siRNAs efficiently to some types of tumor cells, depending on the degree of PEGylation. Analysis of cell death showed that complexes of some AgNP variations with siMCL-1 lead to ~70% cell death in the populations that uptake these complexes due to apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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28 pages, 6368 KiB  
Review
Bio-Inspired Muco-Adhesive Polymers for Drug Delivery Applications
by Zina Jawadi, Christine Yang, Ziyad S. Haidar, Peter L. Santa Maria and Solange Massa
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5459; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245459 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
Muco-adhesive drug delivery systems continue to be one of the most studied for controlled pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Briefly, muco-adhesive polymers, can be described as bio-polymers that adhere to the mucosal (mucus) surface layer, for an extended residency period of time at the site [...] Read more.
Muco-adhesive drug delivery systems continue to be one of the most studied for controlled pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Briefly, muco-adhesive polymers, can be described as bio-polymers that adhere to the mucosal (mucus) surface layer, for an extended residency period of time at the site of application, by the help of interfacial forces resulting in improved drug delivery. When compared to traditional drug delivery systems, muco-adhesive carriers have the potential to enhance therapeutic performance and efficacy, locally and systematically, in oral, rectal, vaginal, amongst other routes. Yet, the achieving successful muco-adhesion in a novel polymeric drug delivery solution is a complex process involving key physico-chemico-mechanical parameters such as adsorption, wettability, polymer chain length, inter-penetration and cross-linking, to list a few. Hence, and in light of accruing progress, evidence and interest, during the last decade, this review aims to provide the reader with an overview of the theories, principles, properties, and underlying mechanisms of muco-adhesive polymers for pharmaceutics; from basics to design to characterization to optimization to evaluation to market. A special focus is devoted to recent advances incorporating bio-inspired polymers for designing controlled muco-adhesive drug delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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17 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Covalent Organic Framework (C6N6) as a Drug Delivery Platform for Fluorouracil to Treat Cancerous Cells: A DFT Study
by Mohammed A. Alkhalifah, Muhammad Yar, Imene Bayach, Nadeem S. Sheikh and Khurshid Ayub
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217425 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Continuous studies are being carried out to explore new methods and carrier surfaces for target drug delivery. Herein, we report the covalent triazine framework C6N6 as a drug delivery carrier for fluorouracil (FU) and nitrosourea (NU) anti-cancer drugs. FU and [...] Read more.
Continuous studies are being carried out to explore new methods and carrier surfaces for target drug delivery. Herein, we report the covalent triazine framework C6N6 as a drug delivery carrier for fluorouracil (FU) and nitrosourea (NU) anti-cancer drugs. FU and NU are physiosorbed on C6N6 with adsorption energies of −28.14 kcal/mol and −27.54 kcal/mol, respectively. The outcomes of the non-covalent index (NCI) and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses reveal that the FU@C6N6 and NU@C6N6 complexes were stabilized through van der Waals interactions. Natural bond order (NBO) and electron density difference (EDD) analyses show an appreciable charge transfer from the drug and carrier. The FU@C6N6 complex had a higher charge transfer (−0.16 e) compared to the NU@C6N6 complex (−0.02 e). Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis reveals that the adsorption of FU on C6N6 caused a more pronounced decrease in the HOMO-LUMO gap (EH-L) compared to that of NU. The results of the FMO analysis are consistent with the NBO and EDD analyses. The drug release mechanism was studied through dipole moments and pH effects. The highest decrease in adsorption energy was observed for the FU@C6N6 complex in an acidic medium, which indicates that FU can easily be off-loaded from the carrier (C6N6) to a target site because the cancerous cells have a low pH compared to a normal cell. Thus, it may be concluded that C6N6 possesses the therapeutic potential to act as a nanocarrier for FU to treat cancer. Furthermore, the current study will also provide motivation to the scientific community to explore new surfaces for drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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19 pages, 4654 KiB  
Article
Silver-Coated Silica Nanoparticles Modified with MPS: Potential Antimicrobial Biomaterials Applied in Glaze and Soft Reliner
by Natália Rivoli Rossi, Beatriz Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Aline da Graça Sampaio, Diego Morais da Silva, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Gilmar Patrocínio Thim and Tarcisio José de Arruda Paes-Junior
Polymers 2022, 14(20), 4306; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14204306 - 13 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1996
Abstract
Soft reliner and glaze are materials used over full or partial dental prosthesis to prevent excessive pressure on the supporting tissues. They are also indicated as supportive treatment for dental stomatitis, especially when modified by the addition of medications. The objective of the [...] Read more.
Soft reliner and glaze are materials used over full or partial dental prosthesis to prevent excessive pressure on the supporting tissues. They are also indicated as supportive treatment for dental stomatitis, especially when modified by the addition of medications. The objective of the work was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of silver-coated silica nanoparticles in a glaze and a soft reliner. The nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and tested by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for C. albicans SC5314. Then, the nanoparticles were incorporated to a glaze and a soft reliner, which were called nanocomposites. Then, the nanocomposites were divided into six groups (n = 12): CG: glaze/reliner; CR: reliner; G1: glaze + 1% nanoparticles/reliner; G2: glaze + 2.5% nanoparticles/reliner; R1: reliner + 1%; R2: reliner + 2.5%. The nanocomposites were characterized by a goniometer and by a scanning electron microscope. The antibiofilm test was performed against C. albicans SC5314. According to the MIC results, the non-functionalized nanoparticles reduced fungal growth at 1000 μg/mL and the functionalized nanoparticles at 2000 μg/mL. The functionalized nanoparticle had a superior dispersion being selected for the antibiofilm test. There was a reduction of 64% in CFU/specimen count for the glaze, not statistically significant (p = 0.244). For the soft reliner, there was an increase in CFU/specimen with the presence of nanoparticles, still not statistically significant (p = 0.264). In conclusion, it is necessary to conduct new studies to increase the release of silver, thus improving nanoparticles’ antifungal potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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15 pages, 1116 KiB  
Review
Nanomedicine for Treating Muscle Dystrophies: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives
by Zaheer Ahmed and Rizwan Qaisar
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(19), 12039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231912039 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2978
Abstract
Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic muscular diseases characterized by impaired muscle regeneration, which leads to pathological inflammation that drives muscle wasting and eventually results in weakness, functional dependency, and premature death. The most known causes of death include respiratory muscle failure [...] Read more.
Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic muscular diseases characterized by impaired muscle regeneration, which leads to pathological inflammation that drives muscle wasting and eventually results in weakness, functional dependency, and premature death. The most known causes of death include respiratory muscle failure due to diaphragm muscle decay. There is no definitive treatment for muscular dystrophies, and conventional therapies aim to ameliorate muscle wasting by promoting physiological muscle regeneration and growth. However, their effects on muscle function remain limited, illustrating the requirement for major advancements in novel approaches to treatments, such as nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving field that seeks to optimize drug delivery to target tissues by merging pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. However, the therapeutic potential of nanomedicine in muscular dystrophies is poorly understood. This review highlights recent work in the application of nanomedicine in treating muscular dystrophies. First, we discuss the history and applications of nanomedicine from a broader perspective. Second, we address the use of nanoparticles for drug delivery, gene regulation, and editing to target Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy. Next, we highlight the potential hindrances and limitations of using nanomedicine in the context of cell culture and animal models. Finally, the future perspectives for using nanomedicine in clinics are summarized with relevance to muscular dystrophies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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36 pages, 6316 KiB  
Review
Clay-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications: A Review
by Cezar Tipa, Maria T. Cidade, João P. Borges, Luis C. Costa, Jorge C. Silva and Paula I. P. Soares
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(19), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12193308 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2528
Abstract
In recent decades, new and improved materials have been developed with a significant interest in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that can cope with the diverse needs of the expanding biomedical field and promote the required biological response in multiple applications. Due to their biocompatibility, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, new and improved materials have been developed with a significant interest in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that can cope with the diverse needs of the expanding biomedical field and promote the required biological response in multiple applications. Due to their biocompatibility, ability to encapsulate and deliver drugs, and capacity to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), typical hydrogels have been extensively investigated in the biomedical and biotechnological fields. The major limitations of hydrogels include poor mechanical integrity and limited cell interaction, restricting their broad applicability. To overcome these limitations, an emerging approach, aimed at the generation of hybrid materials with synergistic effects, is focused on incorporating nanoparticles (NPs) within polymeric gels to achieve nanocomposites with tailored functionality and improved properties. This review focuses on the unique contributions of clay nanoparticles, regarding the recent developments of clay-based nanocomposite hydrogels, with an emphasis on biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Nanomaterials and Polymers in Controlled Drug Delivery)
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