Topic Editors

Department of General Surgery, Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China
Prof. Dr. Takeo Fukagawa
Department of Surgery, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan

Gut Microbiota and Cancer

Abstract submission deadline
24 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
25 November 2024
Viewed by
11107

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the continuous iteration of deep sequencing, the profound link between the gut microbiota and cancer has been gradually unveiled. In past studies, the gut microbiota has been suggested to influence the occurrence, progression, proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance of many different types of cancer, partly because the gut microbiota and its metabolites interact with the host at multiple body sites and are closely linked to the body’s immune system, thereby influencing a variety of physiopathological processes. The gut microbiota can also help with diagnosis and prognosis as well as suggest therapeutic strategies, including cancer immunotherapy. Additionally, the intratumoral microbiota has become one of the hotspots of research today. However, the specific mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences cancer development have not been elucidated. Currently, the relationship between microbiota-induced non-coding RNAs and cancer is also attracting more attention, offering a possible molecular mechanism by which the gut microbiota impacts cancer development. Therefore, this issue aims to explore the molecular mechanism of intestinal microbiome influencing cancer progression based on different perspectives and aims to contribute to new strategies for cancer treatment. This open access Topic will bring together original research and review articles on the gut microbiome and cancer. Potential submission topics include but are not limited to:

  • Gut microbiota and its metabolites;
  • Gut-microbiota-induced non-coding RNAs;
  • Intratumoral microbiota;
  • Tumor microenvironment;
  • Molecular mechanisms;
  • Therapeutic strategies;
  • Cancer immunotherapy;
  • Drug design;
  • Drug resistance;
  • Pharmacokinetics;
  • Tumor epidemiology.

Dr. Dong Tang
Prof. Dr. Takeo Fukagawa
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • gut microbiota
  • metabolites of gut microbiota
  • non-coding RNAS
  • tumor microenvironment
  • molecular mechanism
  • cancer immunotherapy
  • translational cancer research
  • cancer biomarker
  • drug resistance

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Current Oncology
curroncol
2.6 2.6 1994 18 Days CHF 2200 Submit
Diseases
diseases
3.7 - 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Vaccines
vaccines
7.8 7.0 2013 19.2 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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20 pages, 3018 KiB  
Article
Changes in Intestinal Flora and Serum Metabolites Pre- and Post-Antitumor Drug Therapy in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020529 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Objective: this study aimed to identify the relationships between gut microbiota, metabolism, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment outcomes, which are presently unclear. Methods: in this single-center prospective cohort study, we investigated changes in the gut microbiota and serum metabolite profile in [...] Read more.
Objective: this study aimed to identify the relationships between gut microbiota, metabolism, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment outcomes, which are presently unclear. Methods: in this single-center prospective cohort study, we investigated changes in the gut microbiota and serum metabolite profile in 60 patients with NSCLC after four cycles of anticancer therapy. Results: The microbial landscape of the gut exhibited a surge in Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiota populations, alongside a decline in Firmicutes, Actinobacteriota, and Bacteroidota. Furthermore, a significant shift in the prevalence of certain bacterial genera was noted, with an increase in Escherichia/Shigella and Klebsiella, contrasted by a reduction in Bifidobacterium. Metabolomic analysis uncovered significant changes in lipid abundances, with certain metabolic pathways markedly altered post-treatment. Correlation assessments identified strong links between certain gut microbial genera and serum metabolite concentrations. Despite these findings, a subgroup analysis delineating patient responses to therapy revealed no significant shifts in the gut microbiome’s composition after four cycles of treatment. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the critical role of gut microbiota changes in NSCLC patients during anticancer treatment. These insights pave the way for managing treatment complications and inform future research to improve patient care by understanding and addressing these microbiota changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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22 pages, 849 KiB  
Review
The Gut Microbiome from a Biomarker to a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Immunotherapy Response in Patients with Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(11), 9406-9427; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30110681 - 24 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2024
Abstract
The gastrointestinal microbiome has been shown to play a key role in determining the responses to cancer immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and CAR-T. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), increasing evidence suggests that a microbiome composition signature is [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal microbiome has been shown to play a key role in determining the responses to cancer immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and CAR-T. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), increasing evidence suggests that a microbiome composition signature is associated with clinical response to ICIs as well as with the development of immune-related adverse events. In support of this, antibiotic (ATB)-related dysbiosis has been consistently linked with the deleterious impact of ICI response, shortening the overall survival (OS) among patients on ATBs prior to ICI initiation. In parallel, several preclinical experiments have unravelled various strategies using probiotics, prebiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation as new therapeutic tools to beneficially shift the microbiome and enhance ICI efficacy. These approaches are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and have achieved encouraging preliminary results. In this article, we reviewed the recent studies on the gut microbiome as a potential biomarker and an adjuvant therapy to ICIs in NSCLC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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19 pages, 6402 KiB  
Article
Mucosal Microbiome in Patients with Early Bowel Polyps: Inferences from Short-Read and Long-Read 16S rRNA Sequencing
Cancers 2023, 15(20), 5045; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15205045 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Numerous studies have correlated dysbiosis in stool microbiota with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, fewer studies have investigated the mucosal microbiome in pre-cancerous bowel polyps. The short-read sequencing of variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene has commonly been used to infer bacterial taxonomy, [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have correlated dysbiosis in stool microbiota with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, fewer studies have investigated the mucosal microbiome in pre-cancerous bowel polyps. The short-read sequencing of variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene has commonly been used to infer bacterial taxonomy, and this has led, in part, to inconsistent findings between studies. Here, we examined mucosal microbiota from patients who presented with one or more polyps, compared to patients with no polyps, at the time of colonoscopy. We evaluated the results obtained using both short-read and PacBio long-read 16S rRNA sequencing. Neither sequencing technology identified significant differences in microbial diversity measures between patients with or without bowel polyps. Differential abundance measures showed that amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) associated with Ruminococcus gnavus and Escherichia coli were elevated in mucosa from polyp patients, while ASVs associated with Parabacteroides merdae, Veillonella nakazawae, and Sutterella wadsworthensis were relatively decreased. Only R. gnavus was consistently identified using both sequencing technologies as being altered between patients with polyps compared to patients without polyps, suggesting differences in technologies and bioinformatics processing impact study findings. Several of the differentially abundant bacteria identified using either sequencing technology are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases despite these patients being excluded from the current study, which suggests that early bowel neoplasia may be associated with a local inflammatory niche. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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8 pages, 3901 KiB  
Case Report
Two Cases of Durable and Deep Responses to Immune Checkpoint Inhibition-Refractory Metastatic Melanoma after Addition of Camu Camu Prebiotic
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(9), 7852-7859; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30090570 - 25 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Camu camu (CC) is a prebiotic that selectively stimulates growth and activity of beneficial gut microbiota. Work in murine models demonstrated that castalagin, the active compound in CC, preferentially binds to beneficial gut microbiome bacteria, promoting a stronger CD8+T cell anti-cancer response. We [...] Read more.
Camu camu (CC) is a prebiotic that selectively stimulates growth and activity of beneficial gut microbiota. Work in murine models demonstrated that castalagin, the active compound in CC, preferentially binds to beneficial gut microbiome bacteria, promoting a stronger CD8+T cell anti-cancer response. We present two patients with metastatic melanoma whose cancer progressed on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and developed clinically significant immune-related adverse events (irAEs). They were rechallenged with ICIs in combination with CC. The first patient is a 71-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma, whose ICI treatment was complicated by immune-related pneumonitis and colitis. Upon progression on maintenance nivolumab, CC was added to nivolumab, leading to a near complete response (CR). The second patient is a 90-year-old man with recurrent unresectable melanoma, treated with nivolumab, complicated by immune-related rash and diabetes. He developed new subcutaneous calf lesions and a metastatic popliteal lymph node. CC was added to nivolumab. One month later, the patient experienced a CR. Both patients have been on nivolumab and CC with durable responses for more than a year, with minimal irAEs. These two cases suggest that CC may modulate the microbiome, synergizing with ICIs to produce deep, durable responses with minimal irAEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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17 pages, 1234 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of the Oesophagogastric Cancer-Associated Microbiome: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment
Cancers 2023, 15(10), 2668; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15102668 - 09 May 2023
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Objective. Oesophagogastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, with poor survival outcomes. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of oesophagogastric cancer remains poorly understood. Design. A systematic search identified studies assessing the oesophagogastric cancer microbiome. The primary outcome was to [...] Read more.
Objective. Oesophagogastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, with poor survival outcomes. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of oesophagogastric cancer remains poorly understood. Design. A systematic search identified studies assessing the oesophagogastric cancer microbiome. The primary outcome was to identify bacterial enrichment specific to oesophagogastric cancer. Secondary outcomes included appraisal of the methodology, diagnostic performance of cancer bacteria and the relationship between oral and tissue microbiome. Results. A total of 9295 articles were identified, and 87 studies were selected for analysis. Five genera were enriched in gastric cancer: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacterium and Veillonella. No clear trends were observed in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Streptococcus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium were abundant in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Functional analysis supports the role of immune cells, localised inflammation and cancer-specific pathways mediating carcinogenesis. STORMS reporting assessment identified experimental deficiencies, considering batch effects and sources of contamination prevalent in low-biomass samples. Conclusions. Functional analysis of cancer pathways can infer tumorigenesis within the cancer–microbe–immune axis. There is evidence that study design, experimental protocols and analytical techniques could be improved to achieve more accurate and representative results. Whole-genome sequencing is recommended to identify key metabolic and functional capabilities of candidate bacteria biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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10 pages, 1905 KiB  
Communication
Antibiotics Significantly Decrease the Survival of Head and Neck Carcinoma Patients with Immunotherapy: A Real-World Analysis of More Than 3000 Cases
Cancers 2023, 15(8), 2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15082342 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Objective: The human gut microbiome is strongly influenced by the administration of drugs, namely antibiotics. We hypothesized that the effectiveness of immunotherapy with pembrolizumab in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients is decreased by the administration of antibiotics three months before and after immunotherapy. [...] Read more.
Objective: The human gut microbiome is strongly influenced by the administration of drugs, namely antibiotics. We hypothesized that the effectiveness of immunotherapy with pembrolizumab in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients is decreased by the administration of antibiotics three months before and after immunotherapy. Methods: We retrieved data from patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 codes C00-C14) and receiving immunotherapy with pembrolizumab from the TriNetX network. Two cohorts were built: patients in cohort I did not receive any antibiotics within three months before or up to three months after immunotherapy, while patients in cohort II were administered antibiotics at least once within three months before or after immunotherapy. To exclude confounders, we matched cohorts 1:1 for age, sex, secondary lymph node metastases, nicotine dependence, the insertion of feeding devices, body mass index (BMI) and severe sepsis. After defining the primary outcome as “death”, a Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed, and the risk ratio (RR), odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) were calculated. Results: A total of 3651 patients were enrolled, and after matching, each cohort consisted of 1362 patients. Among cohorts I and II, 346 and 511 patients were deceased within one year (risk of death = 25.5 and 38.3%, respectively), whereby the risk difference was significant (p = 0.000; log-rank test). The RR was 0.68 (95% confidence interval: 0.60–0.76), OR was 0.57 (0.48–0.67) and HR was 0.58 (0.51–0.67). Conclusions: Our hypothesis was confirmed: administering antibiotics significantly decreases the drug effectiveness of immunotherapy. We hypothesize that this finding is associated with antibiotic-related changes in the gut microbiome. Prospective clinical studies on the gut microbiome in cancer patients are necessary to understand the complex ecosystem of microbiota during immunotherapy. Trial Registration: Due to the retrospective nature of the study, no registration was necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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11 pages, 1555 KiB  
Article
Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract in Pancreatic Head Resections—A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(1), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12010250 - 29 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
(1) Background: The postoperative morbidity rate after pancreatic head resection remains high, partly due to infectious complications. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on the postoperative infection rate after pancreatic [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The postoperative morbidity rate after pancreatic head resection remains high, partly due to infectious complications. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on the postoperative infection rate after pancreatic surgery. (2) Methods: From January 2019, the standard of care for patients undergoing pancreatic head resections at the Department for Visceral, Thoracic, and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Dresden was the preoperative oral administration of SDD. The influence of SDD was evaluated for patients operated on between January 2019 and June 2020 in comparison to a propensity score-matched cohort, extracted from an existing database including all pancreatic resections from 2012 to 2018. The primary endpoint of the study was the shift of the bacterial load on the intraoperative bile swab test. The secondary endpoint was the association of SDD with postoperative complications. (3) Results: In total, 200 patients either with SDD (n = 100; 50%) or without SDD (non-SDD, n = 100; 50%) were analyzed. In the patient group without a preoperative biliary stent, 44% (n = 11) of the non-SDD group displayed positive bacterial results, whereas that was the case for only 21.7% (n = 10) in the SDD group (p = 0.05). Particularly, Enterobacter species (spp.) were reduced from 41.2% (n = 14) (non-SDD group) to 23.5% (n = 12) (SDD group) (p = 0.08), and Citrobacter spp. were reduced by 13.7% (p = 0.09) from the non-SDD to the SDD cohort. In patients with a preoperative biliary stent, the Gram-negative Enterobacter spp. were significantly reduced from 52.2% (n = 12) in the non-SDD group to 26.8% (n = 11) in the SDD group (p = 0.04). Similarly, Citrobacter spp. decreased by 20.6% from 30.4% (n = 7) to 9.8% (n = 4) in the non-SDD compared to the SDD group (p = 0.04). In general, deep fluid collection and abscesses occurred more frequently in the non-SDD group (36%; n = 36 vs. 27%; n = 27; p = 0.17). (4) Conclusions: Adoption of SDD before pancreatic head surgery may reduce the bacterial load in bile fluid. SDD administration does not significantly affect the postoperative infectious complication rate after pancreatic head resections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Gut Microbiota and Cancer)
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