Topic Editors

Prof. Dr. Sven Svenson
Department of Agriculture, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
Prof. Dr. Shakirah Nakasagga
Department of Agriculture, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
Prof. Dr. Indi Braden
Department of Agriculture, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA
Department of Agriculture, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701, USA

Agronomy, Soil Health and Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 January 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
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20508

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit your latest research results to the Topic “Agronomy, Soil Health and Climate Change: Challenges and Solutions”.

Agriculture and soil are impacted from many challenges over the years because of rapid increases in the world’s population.  Climate change is a common threat which has a devastating impact on agricultural production and soil health; therefore, to facilitate the transition of agriculture towards sustainable soil use adaptation strategies are needed to be developed and tested to compensate for the negative impact of climate change.

The purpose of this Topic is to publish peer-reviewed works that address climate change and agronomy issues related to soil health, new practices, and solutions to adopt in developing and developed countries and regions. We welcome papers, reviews and opinion pieces covering all related topics, including soil adaptations, primarily focusing on how agricultural management can focus and could help in tackling climate change and related to innovative and controversial technologies with the potential of finding new solutions. Soil health is an integrative property of soil that supports agricultural sustainability, these include working towards finding new research on enhancing the sustainability of agriculture, adapting agriculture to climate changes and so on. Several climate change adaptation strategies could reduce the risk of negative impacts on agriculture and soil, on which we need to focus more.

In the modern world, weather variability is a widespread occurrence and a threat to soil health. The effects of climate change go beyond just rising temperatures and heatwaves; they also include changes in rainfall, more intense and frequent storms, increased drought, and an increased risk of wildfires. Each country, area, and piece of land has its own distinct set of issues;  however agriculture adaptability should be considered address the issue of climate change. These barriers must be removed. The proposed Topic will focus an open discussion on the prospects of soil health, climate change and agriculture challenges and solutions.

Prof. Dr. Sven Svenson
Prof. Dr. Shakirah Nakasagga
Prof. Dr. Indi Braden
Dr. Michael Aide
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • soil health
  • adaptability soil
  • soil development
  • sustainability of agriculture
  • agricultural systems resilience
  • climate change challenges
  • agronomy aspects
  • adapting agriculture

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Agronomy
agronomy
3.7 5.2 2011 15.8 Days CHF 2600
Climate
climate
3.7 5.2 2013 19.7 Days CHF 1800
Soil Systems
soilsystems
3.5 5.8 2017 27.7 Days CHF 1800
Land
land
3.9 3.7 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (20 papers)

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17 pages, 529 KiB  
Article
The Use of a New Ionic Derivative of Salicylic Acid in Sugar Beet Cultivation
by Rafal Kukawka, Maciej Spychalski, Bartosz Grzempa, Marcin Smiglak, Dariusz Górski, Renata Gaj and Agnieszka Kiniec
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040827 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The need for sustainable development in the context of pesticide use has been recognized by the European Union. The “Farm to Fork Strategy” indicates a goal of 50% reduction in pesticide use by 2030. To address this challenge, we used the concept of [...] Read more.
The need for sustainable development in the context of pesticide use has been recognized by the European Union. The “Farm to Fork Strategy” indicates a goal of 50% reduction in pesticide use by 2030. To address this challenge, we used the concept of ionic liquids to modify known resistance inducers, i.e., a group of substances whose action is indicated as an alternative to fungicides. A new, patented substance developed by us, which is a choline 3,5-dichlorosalicylate, has been tested in the context of its use in sugar beet cultivation with the aim of controlling Cercospora leaf spot (CLS). The results suggest that the use of this substance in combination with one fungicide treatment reduces disease infection and produces yields very similar to the use of a standard protection program assuming the use of two fungicides. Such results provide the basis for further development of 3,5-dichlorosalicylate in terms of its use in agriculture. Thanks to its use, it was possible to resign from one fungicide treatment, while maintaining protection against CLS and yields at the same level as for the full fungicide protection program. Such an approach is in line with European Union policies. Full article
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10 pages, 2133 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Natural Soil to Paddy Promotes Soil Organic Matter Degradation in Small-Particle Fractions: δ13C and Lipid Biomarker Evidence
by Yuxuan Li, Yan Li, Yu Zhang, Bingzhen Wu, Dandan Zhou, Hongbo Peng, Fangfang Li and Min Wu
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040818 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 410
Abstract
The stabilization mechanism of soil organic matter (SOM) has received considerable attention. It is widely accepted that mineral sorption/protection is important for SOM stabilization. However, it remains unclear which organic carbon component is beneficial for mineral protection. We collected soil samples from a [...] Read more.
The stabilization mechanism of soil organic matter (SOM) has received considerable attention. It is widely accepted that mineral sorption/protection is important for SOM stabilization. However, it remains unclear which organic carbon component is beneficial for mineral protection. We collected soil samples from a paddy field (TP) to compare with natural soil (NS). To illustrate the behavior of different SOM pools and their protection by particles, we separated the soils into different particle-size fractions and then removed the active minerals using an acid mixture (1 M HCl/10% HF). The different carbon pools were analyzed using stable carbon isotopes and lipid biomarkers. Our study showed that acid treatment evidently increased the extractability of free lipids, usually over 60%, which confirmed the predominant role of minerals in SOM protection. For NS, the δ13C values increased with decreasing soil particle sizes and soil depths, indicating that 13C-enriched SOM was selectively preserved. However, this trend disappeared after cultivation, which was mainly attributed to the combined effects of the input of 13C-depleted fresh SOM and decomposition of the preserved 13C-enriched SOM. Meanwhile, based on the degradation parameters of the overall lipid biomarkers, SOM showed higher degradation states in clay and silt fractions than in the sand fraction before cultivation. It is possible that the small particle-size fractions could selectively absorb highly degraded SOM. The clay-associated SOM showed a low degradation state, but its carbon content was low after cultivation. We propose that the previously protected SOM was degraded after cultivation and was replaced by relatively fresh SOM, which should be carefully monitored during SOM management. Full article
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20 pages, 2703 KiB  
Review
The Fate and Challenges of the Main Nutrients in Returned Straw: A Basic Review
by Huandi Li, Jiang Li, Xiyun Jiao, Hongzhe Jiang, Yong Liu, Xinglang Wang and Chao Ma
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040698 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Due to containing an abundance of essential nutrients, straw has significant potential to mitigate carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) deficits in soil. However, a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews on C, N, P, and K release and conversion [...] Read more.
Due to containing an abundance of essential nutrients, straw has significant potential to mitigate carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) deficits in soil. However, a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews on C, N, P, and K release and conversion from straw and on the impact of available nutrients in soils supplemented using straw-returning (SR) practices is noticeable in the literature. Therefore, we investigated straw decomposition, its nutrient release characteristics, and the subsequent fate of nutrients in soils. At early stages, straw decomposes rapidly and then gradually slows down at later stages. Nutrient release rates are generally in the K > P > C > N order. Nutrient fate encompasses fractions mineralized to inorganic nutrients, portions which supplement soil organic matter (SOM) pools, and other portions which are lost via leaching and gas volatilization. In future research, efforts should be made to quantitatively track straw nutrient release and fate and also examine the potential impact of coordinated supply-and-demand interactions between straw nutrients and plants. This review will provide a more systematic understanding of SR’s effectiveness in agriculture. Full article
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12 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Combining Robinia pseudoacacia Leaves and Corn Straw on Soil Carbon Content and Corn Yield in Loess Plateau
by Hanyu Liu, Jianjian Liu, Zhenjiao Zhang, Weichao Liu, Qi Zhang, Xing Wang, Chengjie Ren, Gaihe Yang and Xinhui Han
Agronomy 2024, 14(4), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040689 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 458
Abstract
In the agroforestry system, the organic matter in the farmland and natural ecosystem enters the farmland soil in a mixed form to improve soil fertility and carbon pool quality. However, it is unclear how soil microbial carbon-degrading enzyme activity responds to carbon dynamics [...] Read more.
In the agroforestry system, the organic matter in the farmland and natural ecosystem enters the farmland soil in a mixed form to improve soil fertility and carbon pool quality. However, it is unclear how soil microbial carbon-degrading enzyme activity responds to carbon dynamics in this process. Therefore, we took farmland in the Loess Plateau as the research object, combining the application of corn straw and Robinia pseudoacacia leaves in a mass ratio of 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, and 0:4 for returning to the field. We measured corn grain yield, carbon emission, organic carbon pool component content, and carbon-degrading enzyme activity of the farmland. The results showed that combining corn straw and Robinia pseudoacacia leaves had a significant impact on soil organic carbon components (readily oxidizable organic carbon and recalcitrant organic carbon), carbon-degrading enzymes (polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and cellobiohydrolase), and cumulative carbon emissions. The trend of different indicators in different treatments during the corn growth period was similar. We found that soil carbon emissions were closely related to ROC and soil oxidase activity, while soil carbon content was closely related to soil hydrolase activity. Compared to not returning straw to the field, the corn straw and Robinia pseudoacacia leaves returned to the field in a mass ratio of 1:3(Y1C3) can increase corn grain yield by 32.04%. The Y1C3 treatment has the highest soil carbon content and the lowest crop carbon emission efficiency. Soil water content plays a crucial role in the process of carbon pool transformation driven by soil carbon-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, soil carbon dynamics are closely related to the activity of soil carbon-degrading enzymes. Combining the application of corn straw and Robinia pseudoacacia leaves may be a more suitable farming measure for fragile habitats in the Loess Plateau than other solutions. Full article
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23 pages, 898 KiB  
Article
Can a Crop Rotation and Fallow System Reduce the Carbon Emission Intensity of Agriculture?
by Xuefeng Zhang, Hui Sun, Xuechao Xia, Zedong Yang and Shusen Zhu
Land 2024, 13(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13030293 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Under the carbon emission pattern of “peak carbon and carbon neutrality”, the policy of crop rotation and fallow system (CRFS) is regarded as an important initiative to promote the green, low-carbon, and high-quality development of agriculture. Focusing on balanced panel data from 30 [...] Read more.
Under the carbon emission pattern of “peak carbon and carbon neutrality”, the policy of crop rotation and fallow system (CRFS) is regarded as an important initiative to promote the green, low-carbon, and high-quality development of agriculture. Focusing on balanced panel data from 30 provinces in China from 2010 to 2021, this paper empirically examines the impact of CRFS on agricultural carbon emissions (ACEI) and its internal mechanism using a multi-temporal difference-in-differences model. The benchmark regression results show that CRFS can significantly reduce ACEI, and the results remain robust after validation by multiple methods. Mechanism results show that CRFS is able to reduce ACEI by reducing factor mismatch and promoting the level of agricultural services. Heterogeneity analysis results show that the arable land fallow rotation system is more conducive to promoting the reduction in agricultural carbon emission intensity in the main grain producing areas, main grain marketing areas, high land transfer areas, and plantation areas than in the grain production and marketing balanced areas, low land transfer, and animal husbandry areas. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the CRFS policy implementation, provides a doctrinal basis for expanding the scope of CRFS implementation, and provides policy recommendations for relevant departments to improve the CRFS policy. Full article
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15 pages, 2119 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Allelopathic Activity of Various Parts of Platycodon (Platycodon grandiflorus) and Its Mitigation by Activated Carbon
by Long Bao, Xuemei Zhao, Gaowa Kang, Kaito Suzuki, Tamer Ismail, Yoshiharu Fujii and Satoru Motoki
Agronomy 2024, 14(2), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14020385 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 668
Abstract
Platycodon is a medicinal plant of considerable pharmacological and dietary value. With the growing demand, agricultural production is increasing. However, the continuous cropping significantly causes negative impacts on its yield and quality. In this study, in order to solve the problem of continuous [...] Read more.
Platycodon is a medicinal plant of considerable pharmacological and dietary value. With the growing demand, agricultural production is increasing. However, the continuous cropping significantly causes negative impacts on its yield and quality. In this study, in order to solve the problem of continuous cropping, we evaluated the allelopathic activity of Platycodon and investigated the potential use of activated carbon for mitigating the negative impacts of allelopathic chemicals produced by Platycodon. The sandwich method (method for assaying the allelopathic activity of each part of a plant) was employed to evaluate the allelopathic activity of different parts (leaves, stems, and roots) of Platycodon. The inhibitory effects of various Platycodon plant parts were assessed based on their effects on lettuce seedling growth. At a concentration of 10 mg parts/10 mL agar, the average inhibition rates of Platycodon leaves on the radicle and hypocotyl growth of lettuce were 79.4% and 61.8%, stems 58.0% and 45.7%, and roots 53.4% and 49.3%, respectively. At a concentration of 50 mg parts/10 mL agar, the inhibitory effects were as follows: leaves (91.9%, 72.2%), stems (79.5%, 60.3%), and roots (71.4%, 65.2%). The effect of activated carbon on the adsorption of allelopathic substances was investigated, and the results of the sandwich method with a concentration of 10 mg parts/10 mL agar showed the following growth-inhibitory effects on lettuce seedlings and hypocotyls—roots (27.8%, 25.7%), leaves (13.3%, 25.7%), and stems (9.1%, 13.6%)—in each case showing a significant decrease in the inhibitory activity. The plant box method (method for assaying the allelopathic activity of plant root exudates) was employed to evaluate the activity of Platycodon root exudate. The growth inhibition rates of lettuce radicle and hypocotyls were 45.5% and 18.9%, respectively. The plant box method with addition of activated carbon revealed average rates of promotion of 16.7% and 4.7% on the growth of lettuce seedlings and hypocotyls, respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that activated carbon has a mitigating effect on allelopathic inhibition associated with the different plant parts and root exudation of Platycodon and provide a potential solution for overcoming problems associated with the continuous cropping of Platycodon. Full article
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23 pages, 8483 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Modeling of Soil Water Dynamics for Site-Specific Variable Rate Irrigation in Maize
by Bere Benjamin Bantchina, Kemal Sulhi Gündoğdu, Selçuk Arslan, Yahya Ulusoy, Yücel Tekin, Xanthoula Eirini Pantazi, Konstantinos Dolaptsis, Charalampos Paraskevas, Georgios Tziotzios, Muhammad Qaswar and Abdul Mounem Mouazen
Soil Syst. 2024, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems8010019 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
This study aimed to simulate dynamic irrigation management zones (MZs) in two maize fields for a variable rate hose reel fertigation machine (VRFM) with a four-section boom control. Soil moisture content was measured from nine and four soil moisture sensors in Field 1 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to simulate dynamic irrigation management zones (MZs) in two maize fields for a variable rate hose reel fertigation machine (VRFM) with a four-section boom control. Soil moisture content was measured from nine and four soil moisture sensors in Field 1 (8.2 ha) and Field 2 (2.5 ha), respectively, on different dates during the 2022 crop season. Three and five MZs scenarios were simulated per irrigation and the theoretical maps were processed for implementation. The application maps fitted to the VRFM showed significant spatiotemporal variations in irrigation requirements. For instance, in Field 1, 3-MZ modelling showed that the areas requiring high (H), medium (M), and low (L)-level irrigation on 21 July were 1.60, 4.84, and 1.85 ha, respectively, even though the farmer applied uniform rate over the whole field. H-level sub-areas ranged between 1.22 ha (25 July) and 3.25 ha (7 July), showing a coefficient of variation (CV) of 43.32% for the three MZs, whereas H-level sub-areas for the five MZs varied from 0.41 ha (2 July) to 1.49 ha (7 July) with a CV value of 48.84%. High levels of within-field variability can be addressed using precise and dynamic irrigation MZs fitted to the irrigation technology used. Full article
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17 pages, 6180 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Changes in Agroclimatic Resources of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia) under the Context of Global Warming
by Rita Kamalova, Ekaterina Bogdan, Larisa Belan, Iren Tuktarova, Alexey Firstov, Ildar Vildanov and Irik Saifullin
Climate 2024, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli12010011 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1551
Abstract
The process of climate warming significantly affects agroclimatic resources and agricultural production. We study the agroclimatic resources and their variability on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia). The Bashkortostan has a high agricultural potential and holds a leading position in the [...] Read more.
The process of climate warming significantly affects agroclimatic resources and agricultural production. We study the agroclimatic resources and their variability on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Russia). The Bashkortostan has a high agricultural potential and holds a leading position in the country in the production of grain crops, potatoes, milk, and honey. Currently, no detailed studies have been conducted for this area to assess the effects of global climate change on agro-climatic resources. World experience shows such research becomes strategically important for regions with powerful agricultural production. We used the sums of average daily air temperatures above 0 and 10 °C, the G.T. Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient, and the Ped aridity (humidification) index as agroclimatic indicators. We used data of long-term meteorological observations of 30 meteorological stations for the period of 1961–2020. We revealed the long-term dynamics of the agroclimatic indicators and the spatial and temporal regularities in their distribution on the territory of Bashkortostan. There is a steady increase in the sums of average daily air temperatures above 0 and 10 °C. Against this background, aridity increases, which is especially manifested in the southern parts of the Republic of Bashkortostan. We assessed the impact of agroclimatic indicators on the main types of agricultural crops in the republic. We revealed that the greatest positive impact on the yield of oilseeds, cereals, and industrial crops is made by precipitation at the beginning (r = 0.50, r = 0.44, and r = 0.52, respectively) and in the middle of the growing season (r = 0.55, r = 0.76, and r = 0.51, respectively). Temperature and precipitation during the growing season have a complex effect on cereals. This is proven by correlations with HCS and the Ped index (r = 0.45 and r = −0.56, respectively). Aridity at the beginning of the growing season affects the yield of oilseeds and potatoes. This is confirmed by correlations with the Ped index (r = −0.49 and r = −0.52, respectively). In general, the aridity of the growing season has a significant impact on the yield of cereals (r = −0.57). Negative relationships have been found between the air temperature growing season and the yield of potatoes (r = −0.50) and cereals (r = −0.53). The results of the study were compared with data from the Copernicus Climate Change Service database. We identified climate trends under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5 scenarios. These scenarios should be taken into account when developing plans for the adaptation of agriculture in the Republic of Bashkortostan to changes in the regional climate. Maximum decrease in precipitation is established for the RCP 6.0 scenario. This can have an extremely negative impact on crop yields. This problem is especially relevant for the southern part of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The information presented in the study will allow for a more effective adaptation of the agricultural sector to current and future climate changes. Full article
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19 pages, 7227 KiB  
Article
A Modified Version of RothC to Model the Direct and Indirect Effects of Rice Straw Mulching on Soil Carbon Dynamics, Calibrated in Two Valencian Citrus Orchards
by Simone Pesce, Enrico Balugani, José Miguel De Paz, Diego Marazza and Fernando Visconti
Soil Syst. 2024, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/soilsystems8010012 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The mulching of agricultural soils has been identified as a viable solution to sequester carbon into the soil, increase soil health, and fight desertification. This is why it is a promising solution for carbon farming in Mediterranean areas. Models are used to project [...] Read more.
The mulching of agricultural soils has been identified as a viable solution to sequester carbon into the soil, increase soil health, and fight desertification. This is why it is a promising solution for carbon farming in Mediterranean areas. Models are used to project the effects of agricultural practices on soil organic carbon in the future for various soil and climatic conditions, and to help policy makers and farmers assess the best way to implement carbon farming strategies. Here, we modified the widely used RothC model to include mulching practices and their direct and indirect effects on soil organic matter input, soil temperature changes, and soil hydraulic balance. We then calibrated and tested our modified RothC (RothC_MM) using the dataset collected in two field mulching experiments, and we used the tested RothC_MM to estimate the expected soil carbon sequestration due to mulching by the year 2050 for the Valencian Community (Spain). Our results show that RothC_MM improved the fit with the experimental data with respect to basic RothC; RothC_MM was able to model the effects of mulch on soil temperature and soil water content and to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) and CO2 observations taken in the field. Full article
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25 pages, 3281 KiB  
Article
Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Behavior under Short-Term Organic and Mineral Fertilization within Different Crops
by Elena Mirela Dușa, Vasilica Stan, Nicoleta Vrînceanu, Mircea Mihalache, Mihaela Vasile, Oana Sicuia and Cătălina Voaideș
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2837; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112837 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Agronomic practices can have a negative impact on soil health and quality and ecosystem resilience. The objectives of the study were (1) to evaluate the soil chemical properties and microbial abundance under short-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers and different cultivated crops [...] Read more.
Agronomic practices can have a negative impact on soil health and quality and ecosystem resilience. The objectives of the study were (1) to evaluate the soil chemical properties and microbial abundance under short-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers and different cultivated crops and (2) to observe the antifungal efficacy of microorganisms isolated from the studied soil. A field trial was conducted in the 2021–2022 period on a preluvosoil-type soil in four randomized blocks with eight fertilizer treatments based on manure compost (MC) and MC + mineral fertilizer (V1—control-soil; V2—NPK only; V3—15 t/ha MC; V4—15 t/ha MC + NPK; V5—30 t/ha MC; V6—30 t/ha MC + NPK; V7—60 t/ha MC; and V8—60 t/ha MC +NPK) and four crops (winter wheat—Triticum aestivum L., maize—Zea mays L., soybean—Glycine max L., and a mixture of perennial grasses and legumes). In almost all treatments, the soil pH decreased during the summer–autumn period. The organic carbon (Corg) and humus contents increased compared to the initial state of the soil after the application of different doses of MC and MC + NPK fertilization in almost all treatments. The microbial load of the soil was influenced by the fertilization regime and crop species, but there were no significant differences between the variants. The highest bacterial load was recorded in soil cultivated with a mixture of perennial grasses and grain legumes, i.e., in the variant with 15 t/ha MC, followed by soil cultivated with maize and fertilized with 30 t/ha and 60 t/ha MC. A higher number of fungi was observed in the mixture of perennial grasses and legumes, and Rhizobium population was higher, especially in the winter wheat plots, despite the fertilization regime. The antifungal efficacy of the microorganisms isolated from the samples was medium to low, except in the winter wheat experiment, where the efficacy against Fusarium culmorum was medium to high and against other pathogens was medium. In the other crops within the experiment, the antagonistic activity of the soil microorganisms was medium to low. Full article
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14 pages, 3159 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Organic Matter Contribution Using Absorbance and Chromatographic Parameters in Lake Paldang, Republic of Korea
by Yeon Jung Cho, Ki Seon Seong, Myeong Seop Byeon, Taegu Kang and Jong Kwon Im
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112766 - 04 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Organic matter in lakes is categorized into allochthonous organic matter, such as leaves and sewage effluent, and autochthonous organic matter, generated by microorganisms within the water system. In this study, organic matter composition was analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection [...] Read more.
Organic matter in lakes is categorized into allochthonous organic matter, such as leaves and sewage effluent, and autochthonous organic matter, generated by microorganisms within the water system. In this study, organic matter composition was analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). Several allochthonous natural organic matter substances were collected including leaves, green leaves, forest soils, and paddy soils. The organic matter composition analysis in our study sites revealed that humic substances comprised the highest proportion (36.5–42.3%). Also, individual samples at each site exhibited distinct characteristics. This study used a humic substance-diagram (HS-diagram) and principal component analysis (PCA) to trace the sources affecting the river water quality and identify their origins. The humic substances of soil origin predominantly influenced the water quality, with the impact of organic matter significantly pronounced during the July rainfall period. Compared with the PCA results, the contribution of the humic substance (HS, 48.9%) and building block (BB, 42.0%) indices appeared higher between June and July in summer, likely due to non-degradable substances released by heavy rain. In fall, the contribution of low molecular weight neutrals increased from 71.2% to 85.2%, owing to a humic substance influx and decomposition. This study demonstrated the application of estimating the relative contributions of source materials in lakes utilized for drinking and agricultural water to identify sources, aiding in the development of efficient watershed management plans. Full article
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12 pages, 3248 KiB  
Article
Influence of Brown Seaweed (Ecklonia maxima) Extract on the Morpho-Physiological Parameters of Melon, Cucumber, and Tomato Plants
by Elkadri Lefi, Mounawer Badri, Samouna Ben Hamed, Sihem Talbi, Wiem Mnafgui, Ndiko Ludidi and Mohamed Chaieb
Agronomy 2023, 13(11), 2745; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13112745 - 31 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
In this study, we evaluated the impact of brown seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima) on the morphology and physiology of three different plant species. We conducted experiments using two types of fertilizers: an artificial fertilizer (0.1 g/L) and a biological extract of [...] Read more.
In this study, we evaluated the impact of brown seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima) on the morphology and physiology of three different plant species. We conducted experiments using two types of fertilizers: an artificial fertilizer (0.1 g/L) and a biological extract of brown seaweed (Ecklonia maxima) at two concentrations (C1 at 1 mL/L and C2 at 2.5 mL/L). For melon, the application of C1 resulted in significant improvements in photosynthesis parameters, total chlorophyll content, and overall plant growth. When C2 was applied, it further enhanced these parameters, leading to a notable increase in shoot phytomass. In the case of cucumber, C1 led to increased resource allocation towards stems and leaves. Conversely, C2 increased the number of green leaves and contributed to higher shoot phytomass. For tomato plants, the application of C1 resulted in a slight increase in photosynthesis, but it did not significantly impact leaf growth. On the other hand, C2 induced a modest increase in photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, and root growth. In summary, our findings indicate that brown seaweed extract has a discernible influence on the physiology of the studied plants. However, the specific effects on resource allocation largely depend on the plant species and the concentration of the extract applied. Full article
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15 pages, 2003 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Classification of Soils in Agroecosystems in a Moist Enclave in Northeastern Brazil
by Phâmella Kalliny Pereira Farias, Jeane Cruz Portela, Rafael Oliveira Batista, Joseane Dunga da Costa, Joaquim Emanuel Fernandes Gondim, Geisiane Xavier de Matos, Paulo Jardel Mota, Eulene Francisco da Silva, Francisco de Assis de Oliveira, Joaquim Odilon Pereira, Diego José da Costa Bandeira, Claudeone Manoel do Nascimento, Rauny Oliveira de Souza, Matias de Souza Dantas, Tiago da Costa Dantas Moniz and Antonio Genilson Rodrigues Araujo
Land 2023, 12(10), 1881; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12101881 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Modern times have required studies that take into account the main soil features, aligning the use of land with the protection of more sensitive environments. From this perspective, this study aimed to perform a morphological description and determine the physical and chemical attributes [...] Read more.
Modern times have required studies that take into account the main soil features, aligning the use of land with the protection of more sensitive environments. From this perspective, this study aimed to perform a morphological description and determine the physical and chemical attributes for soil classification in the community of Poção, located in the municipality of Martins/RN, by highlighting the more sensitive attributes in the differentiation of environments through multivariate analysis. Nine soil profiles were identified to perform the morphological description and collect samples for physical and chemical analyses. The study updates the soil classes found in the study area: Acrisols, Planosols, and Cambisols, with the relief being the main factor responsible for the difference between soil attributes. The influence of organic matter on the soil attributes highlights the importance of its maintenance. Aluminum and the clay fraction are responsible for the distinction of the Acrisol class, whereas silt, potassium sodium, total organic carbon, the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract, and the cation exchange capacity allow the differentiation of Fluvisols. Full article
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23 pages, 37399 KiB  
Article
Modeling Dynamics of Soil Erosion by Water Due to Soil Organic Matter Change (1980–2020) in the Steppe Zone of Russia
by Nikita R. Kriuchkov and Oleg A. Makarov
Agronomy 2023, 13(10), 2527; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13102527 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
This research aims to evaluate the dynamics of soil loss through soil erosion by water in agricultural lands in steppe areas using a modification of the RUSLE2 model from the 1980s to the 2010s. The calculation was performed using a raster model of [...] Read more.
This research aims to evaluate the dynamics of soil loss through soil erosion by water in agricultural lands in steppe areas using a modification of the RUSLE2 model from the 1980s to the 2010s. The calculation was performed using a raster model of data that included a model of the slope angle, slope length, soil erodibility, rainfall and snowmelt erosivity factors, types of land use, and cover management factor. All data were taken from open sources. The average soil erosion in the territory studied amounted to 1.48 t ha−1 year−1 in the 1980s and 1.72 t ha−1 year−1 in the 2010s. The discrepancy with other studies was 12% for the level of the 1980s and 2–7% for the level of the 2010s. The main factor leading to an increase in soil loss was soil erodibility due to the loss of soil organic matter, which affected about 52% of the studied lands. The increase in the amount of soil loss occurred against a background of compensating processes: reduction in precipitation and climate change (getting drier), as well as the overgrowth of agricultural lands with natural steppe vegetation. Modified model RUSLE2 has shown good results correlated with other studies for the research area. Full article
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25 pages, 1598 KiB  
Article
Wood Vinegar Promotes Soil Health and the Productivity of Cowpea
by Edwin K. Akley, Peter A. Y. Ampim, Eric Obeng, Sophia Sanyare, Mawuli Yevu, Eric Owusu Danquah, Ophelia Asirifi Amoako, Theophilus K. Tengey, Justice K. Avedzi, Vincent K. Avornyo, Abdul Fatawu Neindow and Abdul Fatawu Seidu
Agronomy 2023, 13(10), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13102497 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Wood vinegar (WV) is a biostimulant and a biopesticide that contains pyroligneous acid and is used as a crop growth enhancer and biocontrol agent, but insufficient information exists on WV’s effects on soil quality and cowpea production in Ghana. A field study (2 [...] Read more.
Wood vinegar (WV) is a biostimulant and a biopesticide that contains pyroligneous acid and is used as a crop growth enhancer and biocontrol agent, but insufficient information exists on WV’s effects on soil quality and cowpea production in Ghana. A field study (2 years) was conducted to determine the appropriate method of applying WV for soil health and cowpea production, and to determine the economic benefits of WV. Assessments were on nodulation, shoot biomass, yield, value–cost ratio, soil enzymes, soil respiration, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), permanganate-oxidizable carbon (POXC), mineralizable C, soil pH, available nitrogen and phosphorus. Results revealed soil drenching and foliar application are efficient methods of applying WV to achieve greater shoot dry matter, nodulation and grain yield of cowpea. Economically, soil drenching, followed by foliar application, generated better economic returns than the control. Adding WV to cowpea using soil drenching and foliar application improved soil health indicators. Soil enzymes and MBN were enhanced by WV applied foliarly and through soil drenching. Soil drenching with WV produced greater POXC and mineralizable C compared to the other treatments. Conclusively, WV applied foliarly and through soil drenching improved soil health, nodulation and yields of cowpea, and enhanced profitability. Full article
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13 pages, 3194 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation of the Crop Yield, Soil-Available Phosphorus, and Total Phosphorus Leaching Caused by Phosphorus Fertilization: A Meta-Analysis
by Yuwen Jin, Naiyu Zhang, Yanhua Chen, Qiong Wang, Zhenhan Qin, Zhimei Sun and Shuxiang Zhang
Agronomy 2023, 13(9), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13092436 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 927
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) leaching from excessive P application is the primary pathway of P losses in agricultural soils. Different P fertilizer practices have mixed effects on P leaching. We conducted a meta-analysis of the relevant literature regarding the response of crop yields, soil-available P [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) leaching from excessive P application is the primary pathway of P losses in agricultural soils. Different P fertilizer practices have mixed effects on P leaching. We conducted a meta-analysis of the relevant literature regarding the response of crop yields, soil-available P (AP), and total P (TP) leaching to reduced P input (RP) and an inorganic-organic combination fertilizer (NPKM) for different agricultural land-use types. Compared to conventional P application (CP), RP (10~90% reduction) did not reduce crop yields in vegetable fields (experiments were 1~4 years) but significantly reduced cereal yields by 4.57%. Compared to chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPKM significantly increased cereal yields by 12.73%. Compared to CP, RP significantly reduced AP at 0~60 cm in vegetable and cereal fields. The greatest reduction occurred at 20~40 cm in vegetable fields (40.29%) and 0~20 cm in cereal fields (34.45%). Compared to NPK, NPKM significantly increased the AP at 0~60 cm in vegetable fields, with the greatest increase (52.44%) at 20~40 cm. The AP at 0~40 cm in cereal fields significantly increased under the NPKM treatment, with the greatest increase at 0~20 cm (76.72%). Compared to CP, RP significantly decreased TP leaching by 16.02% and 31.50% in vegetable and cereal fields, respectively. Compared to NPK, NPKM significantly increased TP leaching in vegetable fields (30.43%); no significant difference in leaching occurred in cereal fields. P leaching, in response to RP, was influenced by the P amounts applied (34.49%); soil organic matter (14.49%); and TP (12.12%). P leaching in response to NPKM was influenced by multiple factors: rainfall (16.05%); soil organic matter (12.37%); soil bulk density (12.07%); TP (11.65%); pH (11.41%). NPKM was more beneficial for improving yields in cereal fields with low soil fertility and lower P-leaching risks. Full article
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21 pages, 6464 KiB  
Article
Response of Food Production and Trade to the Global Socio-Ecological System Network
by Wenqi Xie, Gang Zhou, Haijuan Yang, Xin Chen, Chao Wang and Jieying Ji
Land 2023, 12(9), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12091762 - 11 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
Food production and trade play a fundamental role in the globalized food system. However, the phenomena of decreasing food production and trade interruptions are becoming increasingly common. Currently, there is a lack of simultaneous research on food production and import trade. This study [...] Read more.
Food production and trade play a fundamental role in the globalized food system. However, the phenomena of decreasing food production and trade interruptions are becoming increasingly common. Currently, there is a lack of simultaneous research on food production and import trade. This study compiles socio-economic environmental data from 146 countries and regions worldwide and employs mobile window and network analysis methods to illustrate how food production quantity influences the social-ecological system. The research findings indicate that in the majority of regions worldwide (102 countries), food demand is met through the local food supply, with a predominant distribution in coastal and inland areas. However, 31% of countries or regions primarily achieve food security through import trade, and many of them are island nations and peninsular countries. This discovery provides valuable insights for understanding the diversity and dependency within the global food system. Based on the impact of food production quantity on the global socio-ecological system network, this study reveals the uneven strengths of connections between nodes and inconsistent connection directions. Building upon these findings, we propose recommendations concerning agricultural policies, human-environment relationships, agricultural transformation, and climate change to help prevent and manage food insecurity risks. Full article
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12 pages, 3150 KiB  
Article
Spatial Properties of Soil Physical Quality Index S in Black Soil Croplands under Permanent Gully Erosion
by Yangbo He, Xingsheng Song, Xinyue Li, Yuhao Gao, Jingde Yang, Junxi Chen, Jiazhou Chen and Chongfa Cai
Land 2023, 12(9), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12091641 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Soil physical quality (SPQ) is a limiting factor affecting crop production. However, the impact of gully erosion on the SPQ index S, defined by Dexter as the inflection point of the soil water retention curve (SWRC), remains unclear, especially when considering different latitudinal [...] Read more.
Soil physical quality (SPQ) is a limiting factor affecting crop production. However, the impact of gully erosion on the SPQ index S, defined by Dexter as the inflection point of the soil water retention curve (SWRC), remains unclear, especially when considering different latitudinal regions. This study aimed to apply Dexter’s S-theory to evaluate the distribution of index S in black soils adjacent to various gully positions and investigate its relationship with bulk density (Bd), soil organic matter (SOM), and particle percentage. Soil properties (SWRC, Bd, SOM, and particle percentage) from nine gullies in croplands in three latitudinal regions (Harbin, Hailun, and Nenjiang in Heilongjiang province) were determined at the gully edge (GE0) and 50 m beyond the edge into the croplands (GE50) at the following gully units: head, mid-upper, middle, mid-lower, tail, and conjunctions between main gully and gully branch. The S-index was calculated using parameters such as n, θs, and θr, with SWRC data fitted into the van Genuchten model. The results showed spatial variations in the S-index across latitudinal regions, with slightly higher S-values in Harbin than in Hailun and Nenjiang. The S-index also showed noticeable differences at GE0 and GE50 and at the junctions between the main gully and its branches. Approximately 51% of the samples at GE0 and 28.2% of the samples at GE50 had S-values below 0.035, which Dexter proposed as the boundary between good and poor SPQ, indicating a degradation of SPQ at the gully-surrounding areas. A decreased S-index in the gully vicinity was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with increased bulk density (1.33 vs. 1.21 g cm−3 for GE0 and GE50) and decreased SOM (36.80 vs. 39.36 g kg−1 for GE0 and GE50). In summary, this study indicates that gully erosion affects the farmland S-index at the gully-surrounding areas through SOM and Bd. Accordingly, measures suited to the increase in the S-index of the gully-surrounding areas may be implemented to maximize the crop yield of farmlands. Full article
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18 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
Interested but Uncertain: Carbon Markets and Data Sharing among U.S. Crop Farmers
by Guang Han and Meredith T. Niles
Land 2023, 12(8), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12081526 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The potential for farmers and agriculture to sequester carbon and contribute to global climate change goals is widely discussed. However, there is currently low participation in agricultural carbon markets and a limited understanding of farmer perceptions and willingness to participate. Furthermore, farmers’ concerns [...] Read more.
The potential for farmers and agriculture to sequester carbon and contribute to global climate change goals is widely discussed. However, there is currently low participation in agricultural carbon markets and a limited understanding of farmer perceptions and willingness to participate. Furthermore, farmers’ concerns regarding data privacy may complicate participation in agricultural carbon markets, which necessitates farmer data sharing with multiple entities. This study aims to address research gaps by assessing farmers’ willingness to participate in agricultural carbon markets, identifying the determinants of farmers’ willingness regarding carbon markets participation, and exploring how farmers’ concerns for data privacy relate to potential participation in agricultural carbon markets. Data were collected through a multistate survey of 246 farmers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multinomial regression models. We find that the majority of farmers (71.8%) are aware of carbon markets and would like to sell carbon credits, but they express high uncertainty about carbon market information, policies, markets, and cost impacts. Just over half of farmers indicated they would share their data for education, developing tools and models, and improving markets and supply chains. Farmers who wanted to participate in carbon markets were more likely to have higher farm revenues, more likely to share their data overall, more likely to share their data with private organizations, and more likely to change farming practices and had more positive perceptions of the impact of carbon markets on farm profitability. In conclusion, farmers have a general interest in carbon market participation, but more information is needed to address their uncertainties and concerns. Full article
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21 pages, 5382 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Projection of Rainfall Erosivity Distribution in the Hengduan Mountains
by Xinlan Liang, Lei Zhang, Shuqin He, Ke Song and Zicheng Zheng
Land 2023, 12(7), 1435; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12071435 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
This study examines the spatiotemporal variations of rainfall erosivity in the Hengduan Mountains, known for their rugged terrain and high potential for soil erosion risks, over the past 30 years. Additionally, it investigates the changing trends of rainfall erosivity between 2025 and 2040 [...] Read more.
This study examines the spatiotemporal variations of rainfall erosivity in the Hengduan Mountains, known for their rugged terrain and high potential for soil erosion risks, over the past 30 years. Additionally, it investigates the changing trends of rainfall erosivity between 2025 and 2040 under the Sustainable Development Pathway 2–4.5 (SSP2–4.5), using four Global Climate Models (GCMs) based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6). The results indicate: (1) The annual distribution of rainfall erosivity in the Hengduan Mountains exhibited significant seasonal variations, ranking in the order of summer > autumn > spring > winter on a seasonal scale. (2) Over the past 30 years, there has been a slight decrease in annual precipitation and a corresponding slight increase in rainfall erosivity. Periodic extreme values occur every 6–8 years. (3) Spatially, rainfall erosivity demonstrates a decreasing gradient from southeast to northwest. There is a significant positive correlation between rainfall erosivity and precipitation, while a significant negative correlation exists with elevation in the vertical direction. Furthermore, the northeastern part of the Hengduan Mountains exhibits an increasing trend of rainfall erosivity, while the southern region experiences a decreasing trend. (4) Considering the joint driving forces of increased precipitation and erosive rainfall events, rainfall erosivity is expected to significantly increase in the future, posing a more severe risk of soil erosion in this region. Full article
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