Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction

A special issue of World Electric Vehicle Journal (ISSN 2032-6653).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 8998

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Electronic Engineering and Intelligentization, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, China
Interests: power engineering computing; power grids; PI control; invertors; machine control; substations; voltage control; Fourier transforms; IEC standards; Internet; Matlab; XML; active filters; angular velocity control; autonomous aerial vehicles; backpropagation; closed loop systems; computer vision; computerised monitoring; convolutional neural nets; data analysis; digital communication; distributed power generation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interaction between electric vehicles and smart grids is a key area for achieving smart, efficient and sustainable energy systems. The concept of interaction between electric vehicles and grids refers to a deep integration and interaction to achieve the optimal allocation and shared use of energy resources. This interactive relationship is bi-directional; not only can EVs receive electricity from the grid for charging, but they can also feed the stored electricity back to the grid for energy regulation. Through the interaction between electric vehicles and the grid, load balancing of the power system, flexibility of energy consumption and the efficient utilization of renewable energy can be realized. The interaction between electric vehicles and power grids has great significance. First, it can improve the convenience and flexibility of charging electric vehicles. By building an intelligent charging infrastructure and promoting vehicle-to-grid technology, electric vehicles can be remotely monitored, intelligently dispatched and flexibly charged, improving user convenience and charging efficiency. Second, the interaction between electric vehicles and the grid helps optimize grid load management. Through the application of intelligent charging systems, the charging load of electric vehicles can be monitored and adjusted in real time to avoid excessive pressure on the power grid. At the same time, charging strategies can be optimized according to the grid demand and user demand to realize the balance and optimal scheduling of the power system load. In addition, the volatility and intermittency of renewable energy makes it challenging to balance supply and demand with the grid, but by coordinating with EVs, the surplus power from renewable energy can be stored in EV batteries for grid dispatch at any time, improving the utilization efficiency and system stability of renewable energy. The interaction between electric vehicles and the grid cannot be achieved without the support of related technologies and applications. Smart charging systems, vehicle-to-grid technology, load management systems, etc., are key technologies used to realize the interaction between EVs and the grid. Corresponding policies and specifications are also required.

Prof. Dr. Zhaoyun Zhang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sequential charging
  • V2G
  • load management
  • renewable energy coordination
  • data interaction and communication
  • intelligent algorithms
  • time-of-use tariffs
  • load forecasting

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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33 pages, 13822 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Nationwide Benefits of Vehicle–Grid Integration during Distribution Network Planning and Power System Dispatching
by Giuliano Rancilio, Alessia Cortazzi, Giacomo Viganò and Filippo Bovera
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040134 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 928
Abstract
The diffusion of electric vehicles is fundamental for transport sector decarbonization. However, a major concern about electric vehicles is their compatibility with power grids. Adopting a whole-power-system approach, this work presents a comprehensive analysis of the impacts and benefits of electric vehicles’ diffusion [...] Read more.
The diffusion of electric vehicles is fundamental for transport sector decarbonization. However, a major concern about electric vehicles is their compatibility with power grids. Adopting a whole-power-system approach, this work presents a comprehensive analysis of the impacts and benefits of electric vehicles’ diffusion on a national power system, i.e., Italy. Demand and flexibility profiles are estimated with a detailed review of the literature on the topic, allowing us to put forward reliable charging profiles and the resulting flexibility, compatible with the Italian regulatory framework. Distribution network planning and power system dispatching are handled with dedicated models, while the uncertainty associated with EV charging behavior is managed with a Monte Carlo approach. The novelty of this study is considering a nationwide context, considering both transmission and distribution systems, and proposing a set of policies suitable for enabling flexibility provision. The results show that the power and energy demand created by the spread of EVs will have localized impacts on power and voltage limits of the distribution network, while the consequences for transmission grids and dispatching will be negligible. In 2030 scenarios, smart charging reduces grid elements’ violations (−23%, −100%), dispatching costs (−43%), and RES curtailment (−50%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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15 pages, 2248 KiB  
Article
A Novel Dynamic Li-Ion Battery Model for the Aggregated Charging of EVs
by Ahmed M. Asim, Osama A. Ahmed, Amr M. Ibrahim, Walid Aly El-Khattam and Hossam E. Talaat
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120336 - 04 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Implementing successful aggregated charging strategies for electric vehicles to participate in the wholesale market requires an accurate battery model that can operate at scale while capturing critical battery dynamics. Existing models either lack precision or pose computational challenges for fleet-level coordination. To our [...] Read more.
Implementing successful aggregated charging strategies for electric vehicles to participate in the wholesale market requires an accurate battery model that can operate at scale while capturing critical battery dynamics. Existing models either lack precision or pose computational challenges for fleet-level coordination. To our knowledge, most of the literature widely adopts battery models that neglect critical battery polarization dynamics favoring scalability over accuracy, donated as constant power models (CPMs). Thus, this paper proposes a novel linear battery model (LBM) intended specifically for use in aggregated charging strategies. The LBM considers battery dynamics through a linear representation, addressing the limitations of existing models while maintaining scalability. The model dynamic behavior is evaluated for the four commonly used lithium-ion chemistries in EVs: lithium iron phosphate (LFP), nickel manganese cobalt (NMC), lithium manganese oxide (LMO), and nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA). The results showed that the LBM closely matches the high-fidelity Thevenin equivalent circuit model (Th-ECM) with substantially improved accuracy over the CPM, especially at higher charging rates. Finally, a case study was carried out for bidding in the wholesale energy market, which proves the ability of the model to scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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16 pages, 3235 KiB  
Article
Low-Carbon Incentive Guidance Strategy for Electric Vehicle Agents Based on Carbon Emission Flow
by Huazhao Fu, Yi Zhao, Qichao Chen, Mingfei Ban, Xiaoyi Qian, Wenyao Sun, Yu Liu and Hang Xu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(12), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14120327 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
The cleanliness of charging power determines whether electric vehicles can fully utilize their low-carbon properties. This paper, taking into account the impact of temperature on the energy consumption of electric vehicle air conditioning, uses the Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate the typical daily [...] Read more.
The cleanliness of charging power determines whether electric vehicles can fully utilize their low-carbon properties. This paper, taking into account the impact of temperature on the energy consumption of electric vehicle air conditioning, uses the Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate the typical daily charging load of electric vehicle clusters in different seasons. Secondly, based on the Shapley value carbon responsibility allocation method, a reasonable range of carbon emission responsibilities for different electric vehicle agents is calculated, and a tiered carbon pricing method is proposed accordingly. Then, using carbon emission flow theory, we calculate the carbon emissions generated by the different agents’ charging amounts and corresponding carbon emission costs. Finally, a low-carbon incentive guidance model is constructed with the signal of tiered carbon prices and the goal of minimizing operating costs to re-optimize the charging load distribution of electric vehicles. Case studies showcase that the proposed method is effective in reducing power system carbon emissions and electric vehicle charging costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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16 pages, 2771 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Voltage Stability in Distribution Networks via Metaheuristic Algorithm-Driven Reactive Power Compensation from MDHD EVs
by Chen Zhang, Kourosh Sedghisigarchi, Rachel Sheinberg, Shashank Narayana Gowda and Rajit Gadh
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110310 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1535
Abstract
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging [...] Read more.
The deployment of medium-duty and heavy-duty (MDHD) electric vehicles (EVs), characterized by their substantial battery capacity and high charging power demand, poses a potential threat to voltage stability within distribution networks. One possible solution to voltage instability is reactive power compensation from charging MDHD EVs. However, this process must be carefully facilitated in order to be effective. This paper introduces an innovative distribution network voltage stability solution by first identifying the network’s weakest buses and then utilizing a metaheuristic algorithm to schedule reactive power compensation from MDHD EVs. In the paper, multiple metaheuristic algorithms, including genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization, moth flame optimization, salp swarm algorithms, whale optimization, and grey wolf optimization, are subjected to rigorous evaluation concerning their efficacy in terms of voltage stability improvement, power loss reduction, and computational efficiency. The proposed methodology optimizes power flow with the salp swarm algorithm, which was determined to be the most effective tool, to mitigate voltage fluctuations and enhance overall stability. The simulation results, conducted on a modified IEEE 33 bus distribution system, convincingly demonstrate the algorithm’s efficacy in augmenting voltage stability and curtailing power losses, supporting the reliable and efficient integration of MDHD EVs into distribution networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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15 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Grid-Sim: Simulating Electric Fleet Charging with Renewable Generation and Battery Storage
by Johannes Human Giliomee and Marthinus Johannes Booysen
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100274 - 01 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1447
Abstract
The inevitable electrification of the sub-Saharan African paratransit system poses substantial threats to an already crippled electricity supply network. The integration of any electric vehicle fleet in this region will require in-depth analyses and understanding of the grid impact due to charging. This [...] Read more.
The inevitable electrification of the sub-Saharan African paratransit system poses substantial threats to an already crippled electricity supply network. The integration of any electric vehicle fleet in this region will require in-depth analyses and understanding of the grid impact due to charging. This allows informative decisions for sufficient planning to be made for the required network infrastructure or the implementation of applicable ‘load-shifting’ techniques. This paper presents Grid-Sim, a software tool that enables comprehensive analysis of the grid impact implications of electrifying vehicle fleets. Grid-Sim is applied to assess the load profiles, energy demand, load-shifting techniques, and associated emissions for two charging stations serving an electrified minibus taxi fleet of 202 vehicles in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is found that the current operation patterns result in a peak grid power draw of 12 kW/taxi, grid-drawn energy of 87.4 kWh/taxi/day, and, subsequently, 93 kg CO2/taxi/day of emissions. However, when using the built-in option of including external batteries and a solar charging station, the average peak power draw reduces by 66%, and both grid-drawn energy and emissions reduce by 58%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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Review

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19 pages, 5936 KiB  
Review
Annotated Survey on the Research Progress within Vehicle-to-Grid Techniques Based on CiteSpace Statistical Result
by Ruifeng Shi, Shuaikang Peng, Tai Chang and Kwang Y. Lee
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110303 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1911
Abstract
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology has received a lot of attention as a smart interconnection solution between electric vehicles and the grid. This paper analyzes the relevant research progress and hotpots of V2G by using CiteSpace 6.1.R6 software to construct a visualization graph, which includes keyword co-occurrence, clustering, and burstiness, and further systematically summarizes the main trends and key results of V2G research. First, the connection between electric vehicles and the grid is outlined and the potential advantages of V2G technology are emphasized, such as energy management, load balancing, and environmental sustainability. The important topics of V2G, including renewable energy consumption, power dispatch, regulation and optimization of the grid, and the smart grid, are discussed. This paper also emphasizes the positive impacts of V2G technologies on the grid, including reduced carbon emissions, improved grid reliability, and the support for renewable energy integration. Current and future challenges for V2G research, such as standardization, policy support, and business models, are also considered. This review provides a comprehensive perspective for scholars and practitioners in V2G research and contributes to a better understanding of the current status and future trends of V2G technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Vehicles and Smart Grid Interaction)
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