Endocrine Disruptors: Effects on the Immune and Nervous Systems and Animal Welfare

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2022) | Viewed by 5607

Special Issue Editors

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Messina, 98155 Messina, Italy
Interests: veterinary pharmacology; toxicology; pharmacological activity of natural substances; nutraceuticals; dietary contaminants; animal welfare
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, Via Palatucci Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: circulation serotonin concentration as a pivotal biomarker of animal stress; studies of ecotoxicology and risk from xenobiotics; investigation on the effects of xenobiotics with potential endocrine or carcinogenic activity on fish models; studies on the in vivo and in vitro effects of anti-inflammatory substances; research for contaminants in fresh and processed foods for humans
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The endocrine disruptors are a group of heterogeneous substances of both natural and synthetic origin, which are persistent and omnipresent in all environmental compartments. The World Health Organization defines endocrine-disrupting as “exogenous substances or mixtures that alter functions of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or sub-populations”. The identification of molecules that act as endocrine disruptors, and the study of the effects of endocrine disruptors is a fundamental step in understanding and preventing harmful effects, even in the long term across future progeny. The immune system and the nervous System are both “plastic” systems that are capable of adapting and responding to different stimuli, including the presence of molecules such as endocrine disruptors; moreover, they are able to influence numerous physiological functions as well as to trigger pathological mechanisms in different animal species. The purpose of this Special Issue is to gather information and knowledge on molecules capable of acting as endocrine disruptors, and in particular to gather more information on the effects of endocrine disruptions on the immune and nervous systems and, thus, on animal welfare. All animal species, from aquatic to human, are exposed to endocrine disruptors actions through environmental factors, industrial processes, as well as through the food chain.

Dr. Enrico Gugliandolo
Dr. Rosalia Crupi
Dr. Patrizia Licata
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2024 KiB  
Article
Attenuation of Hypothyroidism-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Modulating Serotonin Mediation
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10020122 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Thyroid hormones play an important role in the modeling of neural networks in the brain. Besides its metabolic effects, thyroid dysfunction, and hypothyroidism in particular, is frequently associated with cognitive decline and depressive-like behavior. The current study aimed to examine the changes in [...] Read more.
Thyroid hormones play an important role in the modeling of neural networks in the brain. Besides its metabolic effects, thyroid dysfunction, and hypothyroidism in particular, is frequently associated with cognitive decline and depressive-like behavior. The current study aimed to examine the changes in behavior, cognition, and memory in rats with propylthiouracil-induced overt hypothyroidism. The behavior and cognition were assessed using the open field test, T-maze, and novel object recognition test. We found significant differences in the behavioral patterns of the hypothyroid animals showing a reduction in locomotor activity, frequency of rearing, and impaired memory function compared to the euthyroid controls. As serotonin is an essential biomarker regulating cognition and mood, we tried to modulate the serotonin mediation in hypothyroid animals through tryptophan administration. Treatment with 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-OH-TRP) intraperitoneally for 10 days or directly into the hippocampus as a single injection led to attenuation of the hypothyroidism-induced cognitive and memory decline. A staggering amount of research is suggesting that the common denominators in the pathophysiology of depression and the behavior changes in hypothyroidism are the hippocampal complex and the distorted serotonin metabolism. In our study, it was observed a significant alleviation of cognitive impairment and an improvement of memory performance in hypothyroid rats after 5-OH-TRP administration. Current results are promising and may serve as groundwork for further investigation of functional and structural changes in the hippocampus during a hypothyroid state, and in particular, the effects of serotonin mediation in hypothyroid-associated depressive-like behavior. Full article
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14 pages, 3670 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Behavioral Changes and Tissue Damages in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after Exposure to the Herbicide Glyphosate
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(10), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8100218 - 05 Oct 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3018
Abstract
Pesticides can induce changes in behavior and reduce the survival chance of aquatic organisms. In this study, the toxic effects of glyphosate suspension (Glyphosate Aria 41% SL, Tehran Iran) on behavior and tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assessed. For [...] Read more.
Pesticides can induce changes in behavior and reduce the survival chance of aquatic organisms. In this study, the toxic effects of glyphosate suspension (Glyphosate Aria 41% SL, Tehran Iran) on behavior and tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assessed. For this purpose, a 96 h LC50 of glyphosate suspension (68.788 mL·L−1) was used in the toxicity test. All individuals were divided into control and treatment groups with four replicates. Exposure operations were performed under two conditions: increasing concentration of suspension from 0 to 68.788 mL·L−1; then, decreasing to the first level. The swimming pattern was recorded by digital cameras during the test and tissue samples were collected at the end of the test. There were significant differences between the swimming pattern of treated individuals and control ones during both steps. The sublethal concentration of glyphosate led to hypertrophy, hyperplasia and hyperemia in the gill of fish. However, changes were obvious only after sampling. The exposed fish also displayed clinical signs such as darkening of the skin and increasing movement of the operculum. Moreover, glyphosate suspension affected swimming patterns of fish suggest that the swimming behavior test can indicate the potential toxicity of environmental pollutants and be used as a noninvasive, useful method for managing environmental changes and assessing fish health conditions by video monitoring. Full article
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