Multiple Sclerosis, Complications and Therapeutics 2.0

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Therapeutic Vaccines and Antibody Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2021) | Viewed by 3481

Special Issue Editors

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3011, Australia
Interests: immunology; protein crystallography; medicinal chemistry; cellular and molecular biology; extensive translational research; clinical trials; vaccines; drugs; healthy ageing; chronic diseases; inflammation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Interests: immunotherapy; vaccines; multiple sclerosis; type-1 diabetes; probiotics
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 3030, Australia
Interests: immunology; inflammation; vaccines; chronic disease; autoimmune diseases; brain diseases; healthy ageing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 2.5 million people globally suffer from MS. With the present global population growing to an unprecedented height of 6.5 billion in 2005 and anticipated to reach 7.6 billion by 2020, the prevalence and onset of MS in children and particularly adults is expected to rise exponentially. It is estimated that approximately 400,000 people suffer from MS in the US, with 500,000 Europeans and 18,000 Australians also suffering the disease. There are different subtypes of the disease characterized by increasing severity; benign MS, relapse/remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). According to the international Federation of MS Societies, the estimated breakdown of the four types of MS described above is as follows: benign MS (20%), RRMS (25%), SPMS (40%) and PPMS (15%).

The MS market is expected to more than double in value across the major markets from 2006 to reach $10.7 billion in 2019 and is one of the fastest growing CNS therapy areas. One of the drivers behind this growth is the uptake of specific drugs in interferon naïve patients. Despite the market’s growth the MS market is relatively immature with only 5 products specifically indicated for the disease.

The MS specific therapies that are currently on the market include

  • Schering AG’s Betaferon/Betaseron (interferon beta-1b)
  • Biogen’s Avonex (interferon beta-1a)
  • Teva’s Copaxone (glatiramer acetate)
  • Serono/Pfizer’s Rebif (interferon beta-1a)
  • Amgen/Serono’s Novantrone (mitoxantrone)

The current drugs available are extremely expensive costing up to $17,000 depending on the country. Due to the limited affordable treatment options, there is no effective therapy able to stop progression of disease (beta interferon-1a approved for delaying progression of MS) there is a very high unmet need in the MS market particularly in the following areas:

  • Altering / stopping disease progression
  • Inducing and maintaining remission
  • Improved drug delivery methods
  • Cheaper drugs / therapies

For improved MS treatments it is relatively weak as compared to other CNS disorders, although there are a number of different drug classes in development including;

  • Monoclonal Antibodies - to block destructive immune cells entering brain and spinal cord
  • Immunosuppressant’s - suppress immune system and prevent myelin damage
  • Potassium channel blockers - improve the conduction of demyelinated fibers
  • Protein growth factors - to limit demyelination and oligodendrocyte injury
  • Immunotherapy / Vaccines - to switch immune response to protect neurons and prevent demyelination

This special issue is now open and is seeking research papers and reviews on MS therapeutics from animal models to human clinical studies, and MS complications and side effects of certain therapeutics.

Prof. Dr. Vasso Apostolopoulos
Dr. Narges Dargahi
Dr. Jack Feehan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Multiple sclerosis
  • animal studies
  • Clinical trials
  • Vaccines
  • Altered peptide ligands
  • Immune therapies
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Immunosuppressants
  • Growth Factors
  • Potassium channel blockers
  • Toxicology
  • Side effects
  • Tolerance
  • Peptides
  • Delivery systems
  • Particulate vaccines
  • Natural products
  • Anti-inflammatories
  • Complications

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

15 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
Myelin Peptide–Mannan Conjugate Multiple Sclerosis Vaccines: Conjugation Efficacy and Stability of Vaccine Ingredient
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121456 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2781
Abstract
Myelin peptide–mannan conjugates have been shown to be potential vaccines in the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. The conjugates are comprised from the epitope peptide and the polysaccharide mannan which transfers as a carrier the antigenic peptide to dendritic cells that process and present [...] Read more.
Myelin peptide–mannan conjugates have been shown to be potential vaccines in the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis. The conjugates are comprised from the epitope peptide and the polysaccharide mannan which transfers as a carrier the antigenic peptide to dendritic cells that process and present antigenic peptides at their surface in complex with MHC class I or class II resulting in T-cell stimulation. The conjugation of antigenic peptide with mannan occurs through the linker (Lys–Gly)5, which connects the peptide with the oxidized mannose units of mannan. This study describes novel methods for the quantification of the vaccine ingredient peptide within the conjugate, a prerequisite for approval of clinical trials in the pursuit of multiple sclerosis therapeutics. Myelin peptides, such as MOG35–55, MBP83–99, and PLP131–145 in linear or cyclic form, as altered peptide ligands or conjugated to appropriate carriers, possess immunomodulatory properties in experimental models and are potential candidates for clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiple Sclerosis, Complications and Therapeutics 2.0)
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