Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

A special issue of Universe (ISSN 2218-1997). This special issue belongs to the section "Solar System".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 8192

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: space weather forecast; coronal mass ejections; solar wind; drag-based propagation; analytical modeling
State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center (NSSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
Interests: coronal mass ejections; solar wind; magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation; solar energetic particles; space weather forecast

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated shocks are one of the main drivers of heliospheric variability and cause interplanetary as well as planetary disturbances. Therefore, understanding and forecasting their propagation is an extremely important aspect of solar and heliospheric physics and space weather.

In recent years, many propagation models have been developed by research groups around the globe, differing in input, assumptions, and complexity and ranging from simple empirical and analytical models to complex machine learning and numerical models. Through comparison with observations, these models need to be evaluated, advanced, and even reinvented. On the other hand, to understand and forecast CME propagation, reliable observation-based input is needed as well. Our current observational capabilities include both remote sensing and in situ measurements at multiple locations in the heliosphere, and even though significant progress has been made in recent years to employ these observations for a reliable observation-based input for different propagation models, many challenges remain.

This Special Issue is devoted to studies covering various topics related to the propagation of CMEs, including but not limited to deriving reliable observation-based input, new observational techniques and methods, and new or advanced modeling efforts and evaluation. We solicit contributions on observational and modeling efforts, as well as case studies, particularly encouraging multispacecraft studies.

Dr. Mateja Dumbović
Dr. Fang Shen
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • coronal mass ejections
  • solar eruptive phenomena
  • solar wind
  • interplanetary shocks
  • interplanetary propagation
  • magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation
  • analytical modeling
  • space weather forecast

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 167 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial to the Special Issue “Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections”
by Mateja Dumbović and Fang Shen
Universe 2023, 9(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe9030140 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their associated shocks are one of the main drivers of heliosphere variability, causing both interplanetary and planetary perturbations [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

16 pages, 1285 KiB  
Article
sunRunner1D: A Tool for Exploring ICME Evolution through the Inner Heliosphere
by Pete Riley and Michal Ben-Nun
Universe 2022, 8(9), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8090447 - 27 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
Accurate forecasts of the properties of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) prior to their arrival at Earth are unquestionably a key goal for space weather. Currently, there are several promising techniques for accomplishing this, including the more focused but limited objective of predicting [...] Read more.
Accurate forecasts of the properties of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) prior to their arrival at Earth are unquestionably a key goal for space weather. Currently, there are several promising techniques for accomplishing this, including the more focused but limited objective of predicting the time of arrival (ToA) of the ICME at Earth. In this study, we describe a new tool, sunRunner1D, with the initial goal of being able to reproduce the structure and evolution of four categories of CMEs as they propagate from the corona to 1 AU. We demonstrate that sunRunner1D can reproduce the essential properties of these ICMEs to varying degrees of success. We suggest that, ultimately, this tool could assist operational forecasters in predicting space weather events, and their associated geomagnetic consequences. In the nearer term, we anticipate that it could potentially provide useful forecasts for ToA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)
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17 pages, 4018 KiB  
Article
A Three-Order, Divergence-Free Scheme for the Simulation of Solar Wind
by Man Zhang and Xueshang Feng
Universe 2022, 8(7), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8070371 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
In this paper, we present a three-order, divergence-free finite volume scheme to simulate the steady state solar wind ambient. The divergence-free condition of the magnetic field is preserved by the constrained transport (CT) method. The CT method can keep the magnetic fields divergence [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a three-order, divergence-free finite volume scheme to simulate the steady state solar wind ambient. The divergence-free condition of the magnetic field is preserved by the constrained transport (CT) method. The CT method can keep the magnetic fields divergence free if the magnetic fields is divergence free initially. Thus, a least-squares reconstruction of magnetic field with the divergence free constraints is used to make the magnetic fields global solenoidality initially. High order spatial accuracy is obtained through a non-oscillatory hierarchical reconstruction, while a high order time discretization is achieved using a three-order Runge–Kutta scheme. This new model of three order in space and time is validated by numerical results for Carrington rotation 2207. The numerical results show its capability for producing stable reliable results for structured solar wind. The high-order, divergence-free properties of this method make it an ideal tool for the simulations of coronal mass ejection in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)
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15 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Estimating the Transit Speed and Time of Arrival of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Using CME and Solar Flare Data
by Anatoly Belov, Nataly Shlyk, Maria Abunina, Artem Abunin and Athanasios Papaioannou
Universe 2022, 8(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe8060327 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1573
Abstract
The dependence of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections’ (ICMEs) transit speed on the corresponding Coronal Mass Ejections’ (CMEs) initial speed is investigated. It is shown that the transit speed and transit time depend not only on the CME’s initial speed, but also on the [...] Read more.
The dependence of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections’ (ICMEs) transit speed on the corresponding Coronal Mass Ejections’ (CMEs) initial speed is investigated. It is shown that the transit speed and transit time depend not only on the CME’s initial speed, but also on the longitude of the solar source. The longitudinal dependence of the expected transit speeds and times are obtained from the analysis of 288 CMEs, associated with solar flares, observed from 1995 to 2020. A model, estimating the transit and maximum speeds, as well as the time of arrival of an ICME to Earth, based on the initial CME speed and the longitude of the associated solar flare has been created. It is shown that taking into account the longitude of the solar source in addition to the initial CME speed significantly improves the quality of the model, especially for events in the central part of the solar disk (E10°–W10°). The simplicity of the described model makes it accessible to a wide range of users and provides opportunities for further improvement as the statistics and the number of input parameters increase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)
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15 pages, 8348 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Simulation Study of the Interactions of Three Successive CMEs during 4–5 November 1998
by Yufen Zhou and Xueshang Feng
Universe 2021, 7(11), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7110431 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
In this paper, using a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulation, we investigate the propagation and interaction of the three halo CMEs originating from the same active region during 4–5 November 1998 from the Sun to Earth. Firstly, we try to reproduce the observed [...] Read more.
In this paper, using a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulation, we investigate the propagation and interaction of the three halo CMEs originating from the same active region during 4–5 November 1998 from the Sun to Earth. Firstly, we try to reproduce the observed basic features near Earth by a simple spherical plasmoid model. We find that the first component of the compound stream at 1 AU is associated to the first CME of the three halo CMEs. During the propagation in the interplanetary space, the third CME overtakes the second one. The two CMEs merge to a new, larger entity with complex internal structure. The magnetic field of the first CME in the three successive CMEs event is compressed by the following complex ejecta. The interaction between the second and third CME results in the deceleration of the third CME and the enhancement of the density, total magnetic field and south component of the magnetic field. In addition we study the contribution of a single CME to the final simulation results, as well as the effect of the CME–CME interactions on the propagation of an isolated CME and multiple CMEs. This is achieved by analysing a single CME with or without the presence of the preceding CMEs. Our results show that the CME moves faster in a less dense, faster medium generated by the interaction of the preceding CME with the ambient medium. In addition, we show that the CME–CME interactions can greatly alter the kinematics and magnetic structures of the individual events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)
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20 pages, 2486 KiB  
Article
Three-Dimensional Parameters of the Earth-Impacting CMEs Based on the GCS Model
by Zhihui Zhong, Chenglong Shen, Dongwei Mao, Yutian Chi, Mengjiao Xu, Jiayi Liu and Yuming Wang
Universe 2021, 7(10), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe7100361 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
When a CME arrives at the Earth, it will interact with the magnetosphere, sometimes causing hazardous space weather events. Thus, the study of CMEs which arrived at Earth (hereinafter, Earth-impacting CMEs) has attracted much attention in the space weather and space physics communities. [...] Read more.
When a CME arrives at the Earth, it will interact with the magnetosphere, sometimes causing hazardous space weather events. Thus, the study of CMEs which arrived at Earth (hereinafter, Earth-impacting CMEs) has attracted much attention in the space weather and space physics communities. Previous results have suggested that the three-dimensional parameters of CMEs play a crucial role in deciding whether and when they reach Earth. In this work, we use observations from the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to study the three-dimensional parameters of 71 Earth-impacting CMEs from the middle of 2008 to the end of 2012. We find that the majority Earth-impacting CMEs originate from the region of [30S,30N] × [40E,40W] on the solar disk; Earth-impacting CMEs are more likely to have a central propagation angle (CPA) no larger than half-angular width, a negative correlation between velocity and acceleration, and propagation time is inversely related to velocity. Based on our findings, we develop an empirical statistical model to forecast the arrival time of the Earth-impacting CME. Also included is a comparison between our model and the aerodynamic drag model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections)
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