Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases

A special issue of Transplantology (ISSN 2673-3943). This special issue belongs to the section "Transplant Immunology and Immunosuppressive Drugs".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 11941

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Department of Internal Medicine and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
Interests: glomerulonephritis; immunity and inflammatory processes in renal diseases; hemodialysis; kidney transplantation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renal diseases encompass a wide spectrum of conditions, from primary and secondary glomerulonephritis and acute and chronic kidney disease to renal replacement therapies (including kidney transplantation).

The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, including dysregulation of both innate and adaptative immune systems, hypoxia, oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, metabolic alterations, and changes in cellular and molecular pathways, are multifaceted and strictly inter-related.

Historically, immunity and inflammatory processes have been recognized to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases and contribute significantly to the development of complications and disease progression.

However, increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies highlights that these processes are more complex than previously thought and may be implicated in emerging renal-disease-related complications, such as early senescence and vascular calcification.

The characterization of new pathogenetic mechanisms and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of renal diseases might provide new therapeutic targets to improve the management of these high-clinical-impact conditions.

For this Special Issue of the Transplantology, we invite the submission of original research papers and review articles on the involvement of immunity and inflammatory processes in specific areas of investigation, including:

- the pathogenesis of primary or secondary glomerular disease;
- recurrence of primary or secondary glomerular disease after kidney transplantation;
- therapeutic approaches to primary or secondary glomerular disease in native and transplanted kidney;
- risk of infection or cancer in patients with renal disease or kidney transplant;
- vascular calcification;
- diabetes kidney disease and new-onset diabetes after transplantation;
- acute or chronic kidney disease;
- renal anemia;
- muscle atrophy;
- complications of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis; and
- complications of kidney transplantation
- pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of acute and chronic kidney graft rejection.

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in JCM.

Prof. Dr. Pasquale Esposito
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Transplantology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • glomerulonephritis
  • recurrent glomerulonephritis
  • acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • kidney transplantation
  • kidney graft rejection
  • renal replacement therapy
  • cytokines
  • T cell subsets
  • inflammation
  • innate immunity
  • costimulation
  • inflammasome
  • senescense

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 250 KiB  
Article
Effects of Late Conversion from Twice-Daily to Once-Daily Slow Release Tacrolimus on the Insulin Resistance Indexes in Kidney Transplant Patients
by Valeria Cademartori, Fabio Massarino, Emanuele L. Parodi, Ernesto Paoletti, Rodolfo Russo, Antonella Sofia, Iris Fontana, Francesca Viazzi, Pasquale Esposito and Giacomo Garibotto
Transplantology 2021, 2(1), 49-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/transplantology2010005 - 3 Feb 2021
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Abstract
The use of tacrolimus (Tac) may be involved in the development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) in a dose-related manner. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a standard twice-daily formulation of Tac (TacBID) vs. the once-daily slow-release formulation (TacOD) on [...] Read more.
The use of tacrolimus (Tac) may be involved in the development of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) in a dose-related manner. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a standard twice-daily formulation of Tac (TacBID) vs. the once-daily slow-release formulation (TacOD) on the basal insulin resistance indexes (Homa and McAuley), and related metabolic parameters, in a cohort of kidney transplant patients. We retrospectively evaluated 20 stable renal transplant recipients who were switched from TacBID to TacOD. Blood levels of Tac were analyzed at one-month intervals from 6 months before to 8 months after conversion. Moreover, Homa and McAuley indexes, C-peptide, insulin, HbA1c, uric acid, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol serum levels and their associations with Tac levels were evaluated. We observed a significant decrease in Tac exposure (8.5 ± 2 ng/mL, CV 0.23 vs. 6.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL, CV 0.31, TacBID vs. TacOD periods, p < 0.001) and no significant changes in Homa (1.42 ± 0.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.7, p > 0.05) and McAuley indexes (7.12 ± 1 vs. 7.58 ± 1.4, p > 0.05). Similarly, blood levels of glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipids, and uric acid were unchanged between the two periods, while C-peptide resulted significantly lower after conversion to TacOD. These data suggest that in kidney transplant recipients, reduced Tac exposure has no significant effects on basal insulin sensitivity indexes and metabolic parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)

Review

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9 pages, 2746 KiB  
Review
Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) MRI in Glomerular Disease
by Daniel R. Nemirovsky, Puneet Gupta, Sophia Hu, Raymond Wong and Avnesh S. Thakor
Transplantology 2021, 2(2), 109-117; https://doi.org/10.3390/transplantology2020011 - 2 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Renal hypoxia has recently been implicated as a key contributor and indicator of various glomerular diseases. As such, monitoring changes in renal oxygenation in these disorders may provide an early diagnostic advantage that could prevent potential adverse outcomes. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance [...] Read more.
Renal hypoxia has recently been implicated as a key contributor and indicator of various glomerular diseases. As such, monitoring changes in renal oxygenation in these disorders may provide an early diagnostic advantage that could prevent potential adverse outcomes. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) is an emerging noninvasive technique for assessing renal oxygenation in glomerular disease. Although BOLD MRI has produced promising initial results for the use in certain renal pathologies, the use of BOLD imaging in glomerular diseases, including primary and secondary nephrotic and nephritic syndromes, is relatively unexplored. Early BOLD studies on primary nephrotic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome secondary to diabetes mellitus, and nephritic syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus have shown promising results to support its future clinical utility. In this review, we outline the advancements made in understanding the use of BOLD MRI for the assessment, diagnosis, and screening of these pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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17 pages, 663 KiB  
Review
Fertility and Pregnancy in End Stage Kidney Failure Patients and after Renal Transplantation: An Update
by Maurizio Salvadori and Aris Tsalouchos
Transplantology 2021, 2(2), 92-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/transplantology2020010 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
Sexual life and fertility are compromised in end stage kidney disease both in men and in women. Successful renal transplantation may rapidly recover fertility in the vast majority of patients. Pregnancy modifies anatomical and functional aspects in the kidney and represents a risk [...] Read more.
Sexual life and fertility are compromised in end stage kidney disease both in men and in women. Successful renal transplantation may rapidly recover fertility in the vast majority of patients. Pregnancy modifies anatomical and functional aspects in the kidney and represents a risk of sensitization that may cause acute rejection. Independently from the risks for the graft, pregnancy in kidney transplant may cause preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. The nephrologist has a fundamental role in correct counseling, in a correct evaluation of the mother conditions, and in establishing a correct time lapse between transplantation and conception. Additionally, careful attention must be given to the antirejection therapy, avoiding drugs that could be dangerous to the newborn. Due to the possibility of medical complications during pregnancy, a correct follow-up should be exerted. Even if pregnancy in transplant is considered a high risk one, several data and studies document that in the majority of patients, the long-term follow-up and outcomes for the graft may be similar to that of non-pregnant women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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Other

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8 pages, 771 KiB  
Case Report
Persistent Neutropenia after ABOi Kidney Transplantation: A Case Report
by Gabriele Gualtiero Andenna, Marilena Gregorini, Chiara Elena, Miriam Fusi, Rosa Colangelo, Eleonora Francesca Pattonieri, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Carmelo Libetta and Teresa Rampino
Transplantology 2021, 2(2), 183-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/transplantology2020017 - 16 May 2021
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Abstract
Post-transplant neutropenia (PTN) is frequently reported in the first-year after transplantation. Although prevalence and clinical consequences are widely described, there are no guidelines to manage diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of persistent PTN occurred in a patient undergoing a kidney [...] Read more.
Post-transplant neutropenia (PTN) is frequently reported in the first-year after transplantation. Although prevalence and clinical consequences are widely described, there are no guidelines to manage diagnosis and treatment. We report here a case of persistent PTN occurred in a patient undergoing a kidney transplant from an AB0-incompatible living donor. The desensitization protocol consisted of Rituximab administration and immunoadsorption while the pre-transplant protocol, which was initiated 14 days before the transplant, included Tacrolimus, Mofetil Mycophenolate (MMF), antimicrobial and antiviral prophylaxis. Induction therapy consisted of anti-thymocyte globulins and steroids, while maintenance after transplantation consisted of steroid, tacrolimus and MMF. When the first occurrence of leukopenia was observed six weeks after the transplant, firstly antimicrobial/antiviral prophylaxis was stopped and later also MMF treatment was interrupted but severe neutropenia relapsed after MMF resuming treatment. Immunological and virological causes were excluded. The patient was treated with Filgrastim. Bone marrow biopsy, which was performed to exclude a hematological cause of severe persistent neutropenia, revealed a bone marrow hypoplasia with neutrophils maturation interrupted at the early stages. This case highlights the need to establish diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for PTN which take in consideration all the therapeutic steps including the pre-transplant phase in particular in the context of AB0i where immunosuppression is more consistent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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