Source, Formation, Environmental Impact, and Health Effect of Air Pollution

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2023) | Viewed by 4939

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: boundary layer meteorology; air quality; numerical simulation; atmospheric environment; urban pollution
Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Meteorological Administration, Shenyang 110166, China
Interests: boundary layer meteorology; air pollution; field observation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Interests: agricultural environmental pollution; climate change; climate resource utilization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Technology, Nanchang 330013, China
Interests: air pollution−atmospheric boundary-layer interaction; atmospheric physics and boundary-layer meteorology; large-eddy simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air pollution is a major environmental risk to human health and ecosystems. Air pollutants can be either natural or human-made, in the form of solids, liquids, or gases. According to the World Health Organization, there are six major air pollutants, including particle matter, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long- and short-term exposure to air pollution has a different toxicological impact on humans. To mitigate air pollution, it is critical to understand both the source and fate of pollutants in the atmosphere. Additionally, the atmospheric deposition of pollutants can lead to negative effects on the main ecosystem services provided by terrestrial plants, such as biodiversity conservation, production of food, and carbon sequestration. Manuscripts submitted to this Special Issue may include but are not limited to the following:

  1. Observations and modeling of air pollutants at local to global scales;
  2. Physical and chemical characteristics of air pollutants and their relationships with meteorology;
  3. Emission, transport, transformation, and deposition of air pollutants;
  4. Impacts of air pollution on human health and the ecosystem.

Dr. Yucong Miao
Dr. Xiaolan Li
Dr. Qi Hu
Dr. Cheng Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • meteorological condition
  • pollutants’ emissions
  • transport
  • deposition
  • human health
  • ecosystem

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Forecast of Fine Particles in Chengdu under Autumn–Winter Synoptic Conditions
by Jingchao Yang, Ge Wang and Chao Zhang
Toxics 2023, 11(9), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11090777 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
We conducted an evaluation of the impact of meteorological factor forecasts on the prediction of fine particles in Chengdu, China, during autumn and winter, utilizing the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)733 objective weather classification software and the Community Multiscale Air Quality [...] Read more.
We conducted an evaluation of the impact of meteorological factor forecasts on the prediction of fine particles in Chengdu, China, during autumn and winter, utilizing the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)733 objective weather classification software and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model. This analysis was performed under four prevailing weather patterns. Fine particle pollution tended to occur under high-pressure rear, homogeneous-pressure, and low-pressure conditions; by contrast, fine particle concentrations were lower under high-pressure bottom conditions. The forecasts of fine particle concentrations were more accurate under high-pressure bottom conditions than under high-pressure rear and homogeneous-pressure conditions. Moreover, under all conditions, the 24 h forecast of fine particle concentrations were more accurate than the 48 and 72 h forecasts. Regarding meteorological factors, forecasts of 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind speed were more accurate under high-pressure bottom conditions than high-pressure rear and homogeneous-pressure conditions. Moreover, 2 m relative humidity and 10 m wind speed were important factors for forecasting fine particles, whereas 2 m air temperature was not. Finally, the 24 h forecasts of meteorological factors were more accurate than the 48 and 72 h forecasts, consistent with the forecasting of fine particles. Full article
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14 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Predictive Modeling of Indoor Environmental Parameters for Assessing Comfort Conditions in a Kindergarten Setting
by Radostin Mitkov, Dessislava Petrova-Antonova and Petar O. Hristov
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 709; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080709 - 17 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
People tend to spend the majority of their time indoors. Indoor air properties can significantly affect humans’ comfort, health, and productivity. This study utilizes measurement data of indoor conditions in a kindergarten in Sofia, Bulgaria. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and long short-term [...] Read more.
People tend to spend the majority of their time indoors. Indoor air properties can significantly affect humans’ comfort, health, and productivity. This study utilizes measurement data of indoor conditions in a kindergarten in Sofia, Bulgaria. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network (RNN) models were developed to predict CO2 levels in the educational facility over the next hour based on 2.5 h of past data and allow for near real-time decision-making. The better-performing model, LSTM, is also used for temperature and relative humidity forecasting. Global comfort is then estimated based on threshold values for temperature, humidity, and CO2. The predicted R2 values ranged between 0.938 and 0.981 for the three parameters, while the prediction of global comfort conditions achieved a 91/100 accuracy. Full article
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18 pages, 4589 KiB  
Article
Modeling Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Boundary Layer Meteorology and Aerosol Pollution in the Central Liaoning City Cluster, China
by Dongdong Wang, Yangfeng Wang, Xiaolan Li, Lidu Shen, Chenhe Zhang, Yanjun Ma and Ziqi Zhao
Toxics 2023, 11(8), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11080683 - 9 Aug 2023
Viewed by 894
Abstract
The influence of urbanization on the frequent winter aerosol pollution events in Northeast China is not fully understood. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF–Chem) coupled with urban canopy (UC) models was used to simulate the impact of urbanization on an [...] Read more.
The influence of urbanization on the frequent winter aerosol pollution events in Northeast China is not fully understood. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF–Chem) coupled with urban canopy (UC) models was used to simulate the impact of urbanization on an aerosol pollution process in the Central Liaoning city cluster (CLCC), China. To investigate the main mechanisms of urban expansion and UC on the winter atmospheric environment and the atmospheric diffusion capacity (ADC) in the CLCC, three simulation cases were designed using land-use datasets from different periods and different UC schemes. A comparative analysis of the simulation results showed that the land-use change (LU) and both LU and UC (LUUC) effects lead to higher surface temperature and lower relative humidity and wind speed in the CLCC by decreasing surface albedo, increasing sensible heat flux, and increasing surface roughness, with a spatial distribution similar to the distribution of LU. The thermal effect leads to an increase in atmospheric instability, an increase in boundary layer height and diffusion coefficient, and an increase in the ADC. The LU and LUUC effects lead to a significant decrease in near-surface PM2.5 concentrations in the CLCC due to changes in meteorological conditions and ADC within the boundary layer. The reduction in surface PM2.5 concentrations due to the LU effect is stronger at night than during daytime, while the LUUC effect leads to a greater reduction in surface PM2.5 concentrations during the day, mainly due to stronger diffusion and dilution caused by the effect of urban turbulence within different levels caused by the more complex UC scheme. In this study, the LU and LUUC effects result in greater thermal than dynamic effects, and both have a negative impact on surface PM2.5 concentrations, but redistribute pollutants from the lower urban troposphere to higher altitudes. Full article
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18 pages, 5545 KiB  
Article
Mitigation Effect of Dense “Water Network” on Heavy PM2.5 Pollution: A Case Model of the Twain-Hu Basin, Central China
by Yan Zhu, Yongqing Bai, Jie Xiong, Tianliang Zhao, Jiaping Xu, Yue Zhou, Kai Meng, Chengzhen Meng, Xiaoyun Sun and Weiyang Hu
Toxics 2023, 11(2), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics11020169 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
The influence of the underlying surface on the atmospheric environment over rivers and lakes is not fully understood. To improve our understanding, this study targeted the Twain-Hu Basin (THB) in central China, with a unique underlying surface comprising a dense “water network” over [...] Read more.
The influence of the underlying surface on the atmospheric environment over rivers and lakes is not fully understood. To improve our understanding, this study targeted the Twain-Hu Basin (THB) in central China, with a unique underlying surface comprising a dense “water network” over rivers and lakes. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to simulate the impact of this dense “water network” on a wintertime heavy PM2.5 pollution event in the THB. On this basis, the regulating effects of density and area of the lake groups, with centralized big lakes (CBLs) and discrete small lakes (DSLs), on PM2.5 concentrations over the underlying surface of the dense “water network” in the THB were clarified, and the relative contributions of thermal factors and water vapor factors in the atmospheric boundary layer to the variation of PM2.5 concentrations were evaluated. The results show that the underlying surface of dense “water networks” in the THB generally decreases the PM2.5 concentrations, but the influences of different lake-group types are not uniform in spatial distribution. The CBLs can reduce the PM2.5 concentrations over the lake and its surroundings by 4.90–17.68% during the day and night. The ability of DSLs in reducing PM2.5 pollution is relatively weak, with the reversed contribution between −5.63% and 1.56%. Thermal factors and water vapor–related factors are the key meteorological drivers affecting the variation of PM2.5 concentrations over the underlying surface of dense “water networks”. The warming and humidification effects of such underlying surfaces contribute positively and negatively to the “purification” of air pollution, respectively. The relative contributions of thermal factors and water vapor–related factors are 52.48% and 43.91% for CBLs and 65.96% and 27.31% for DSLs, respectively. The “purification” effect of the underlying surface with a dense “water network” in the THB on regional air pollution highlights the importance of environmental protection of inland rivers and lakes in regional environmental governance. In further studies on the atmospheric environment, long-term studies are necessary, including fine measurements in terms of meteorology and the environment and more comprehensive simulations under different scenarios. Full article
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