Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Computer".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 8836

Special Issue Editor

College of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
Interests: quantum secret sharing; quantum artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Quantum cryptography is one of the most important research fields in quantum technology; it aims at conceptually new solutions for information transfer, encoding, retrieval, processing, or security using essentially nonclassical properties of quantum states. Quantum cryptography provides information-theoretical secure private communication between remote parties. In fact, a lot of symmetries and asymmetries exist in quantum cryptography. The aim of this Special Issue is therefore to focus on these properties and to further stimulate progress in the field. We are collecting articles and short reviews contributing to the development of quantum cryptography using discrete- and continuous-variable as well as advanced hybrid approaches.

We welcome submissions on theoretical or experimental advancements in topics including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Quantum key distribution (QKD);
  • Quantum secret sharing (QSS);
  • Quantum direct communication (QDC);
  • Free-space or fiber-based quantum communication.

Dr. Qin Liao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • security of QKD with imperfect device
  • discrete-variable QKD
  • continuous-variable QKD
  • quantum secret sharing
  • quantum random number generation
  • quantum direct communication
  • fiber-based quantum communication
  • free-space quantum communication
  • quantum teleportation
  • quantum information processing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 11180 KiB  
Article
Note about Passive Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution over Turbulent Atmospheric Channel
by Yun Mao, Yiwu Zhu, Yijun Wang and Ying Guo
Symmetry 2022, 14(10), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14102128 - 13 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
Continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) has been implemented over the atmospheric channels over free space. However, atmospheric turbulence weakens the quality of the transmitting quantum signals and hence decreases the secret key rate of the system. Here, we suggest an atmospheric turbulence [...] Read more.
Continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) has been implemented over the atmospheric channels over free space. However, atmospheric turbulence weakens the quality of the transmitting quantum signals and hence decreases the secret key rate of the system. Here, we suggest an atmospheric turbulence channel model that involves atmospheric turbulence bubbles and demonstrates the implementation feasibility of passive CVQKD with spectrum resources in the terahertz band over the atmospheric turbulence channel. We achieve the channel transmittance characterized by the refractive index and the wavefront distortions. Moreover, an adaptive optics (AO) unit is used for performance improvement while considering the effect of the thermal noise and excess noise on the atmospheric turbulence bubble-modeled channel. Numerical simulations show that the AO-involved detection scheme can result in reductions in excess noise when being faced with the floating clouds and mist in atmospheric turbulence, which results in performance improvements in terms of secret key rate, which confirms the utility of the high-rate and long-distance CVQKD in terahertz (THz) for practical implementations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography)
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27 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
A Quantum-Based Signcryption for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Networks
by Sagarika Ghosh, Marzia Zaman, Bernard Plourde and Srinivas Sampalli
Symmetry 2022, 14(8), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14081625 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are ubiquitous in industrial control processes, such as power grids, water supply systems, traffic control, oil and natural gas mining, space stations and nuclear plants. However, their security faces the threat of being compromised due to [...] Read more.
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are ubiquitous in industrial control processes, such as power grids, water supply systems, traffic control, oil and natural gas mining, space stations and nuclear plants. However, their security faces the threat of being compromised due to the increasing use of open-access networks. Furthermore, one of the research gaps involves the emergence of quantum computing, which has exposed a new type of risk to SCADA systems. Failure to secure SCADA systems can lead to catastrophic consequences. For example, a malicious attack can take control of the power supply to a city, shut down the water supply system, or cause malfunction of a nuclear reactor. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify the new type of attack based on quantum computing and design a novel security scheme to defend against traditional attacks as well as the quantum attack. The methodology of the proposed signcryption is built on the foundation of the classical Bennett and Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic scheme and does not involve computationally expensive third-party validation. The proposed signcryption scheme provides both encryption and intrusion detection. In particular, it detects the man-in-the-middle attack that can lead to other types of attacks. We have simulated the proposed algorithm using the Quantum Information Toolkit in Python. Furthermore, we have validated and analyzed the proposed design through security verification tools, namely, Scyther and PRISM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography)
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14 pages, 1864 KiB  
Article
Free-Space Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Imperfect Detector against Uniform Fast-Fading Channels
by Lu Fan, Yiming Bian, Yichen Zhang and Song Yu
Symmetry 2022, 14(6), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14061271 - 20 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Free-space continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on atmospheric laser communications is expected to play an important role in the global continuous-variable quantum key distribution network. The practical homodyne detector model is applied in free-space continuous-variable quantum key distribution which models the imperfect characteristics [...] Read more.
Free-space continuous-variable quantum key distribution based on atmospheric laser communications is expected to play an important role in the global continuous-variable quantum key distribution network. The practical homodyne detector model is applied in free-space continuous-variable quantum key distribution which models the imperfect characteristics including the detection efficiency and the electronic noise. In the conventional model, we must calibrate them simultaneously. In the modified model, only one of the imperfections needs to be calibrated to simplify the calibration process of the practical experiments, also known as one-time calibration. The feasibility of the modified detector model against the fast-fading channel is proved. The results of the symmetry operations are considered when presenting detailed security analysis. Some remarkable features of the uniform fast-fading channel were found from the simulation results. The performances of the conventional model and the modified model are similar but the modified model has the advantage of achieving one-time calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography)
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13 pages, 43273 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Continuous Variable Quantum Teleportation with Noiseless Linear Amplifier in Seawater Channel
by Hao Wu, Xu Liu, Hang Zhang, Xinchao Ruan and Ying Guo
Symmetry 2022, 14(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14050997 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT) is one of the technologies currently explored to implement global quantum networks. Entanglement source is an indispensable resource to realize CVQT, and its distribution process has natural symmetry. Though there are many results for CVQT over optical fiber [...] Read more.
Continuous variable quantum teleportation (CVQT) is one of the technologies currently explored to implement global quantum networks. Entanglement source is an indispensable resource to realize CVQT, and its distribution process has natural symmetry. Though there are many results for CVQT over optical fiber or atmospheric channel, little attention is paid to seawater channel. In this paper, a model based on seawater chlorophyll concentration is used to study the attenuation effect of seawater on light. In our scheme, a noiseless linear amplifier is utilized for enhancing the performance of CVQT under seawater channel. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has an improvement in terms of fidelity and maximum transmission distance compared with the original scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography)
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29 pages, 8250 KiB  
Article
Phase-Matching Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution
by Peng Huang, Tao Wang, Duan Huang and Guihua Zeng
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030568 - 13 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) allows remote parties to share information-theoretical secure keys while defending all the side-channel attacks on measurement devices. However, the secure transmission distance and the secret key rate are quite limited due to the high untrusted equivalent excess [...] Read more.
Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) allows remote parties to share information-theoretical secure keys while defending all the side-channel attacks on measurement devices. However, the secure transmission distance and the secret key rate are quite limited due to the high untrusted equivalent excess noise in the Gaussian modulation. More particularly, extremely high-efficiency homodyne detections are required for even non-zero secure transmission distances, which directly restrict its practical realization. Here, we propose a CV-MDI-QKD protocol by encoding the key information into matched discrete phases of two groups of coherent states, which decreases the required detection efficiency for ideally asymmetric cases, and makes it possible to practically achieve secure key distribution with current low-efficiency homodyne detections. Besides, a proof-of-principle experiment with a locally generated oscillator is implemented, which, for the first time, demonstrates the realizability of CV-MDI-QKD using all fiber-based devices. The discrete-modulated phase-matching method provides an alternative direction of an applicable quantum key distribution with practical security. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Asymmetry in Quantum Cryptography)
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