Hidden Dark Sector in High Energy Physics

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 6821

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CERN-EP, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
Interests: ATLAS experiment at LHC at CERN; Higgs physics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Standard Model (SM), while extremely powerful as a description of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, is not a natural candidate to explain dark matter. Theoretical and experimental motivations exist for the existence of a hidden or dark sector of phenomena that couples either weakly or in a special way to SM fields. Hidden sectors near the weak scale are motivated by naturalness, thermal dark matter, electroweak baryogenesis but also represent a generic expectation for physics beyond the SM. If there is such a family of particles and interactions, they may be accessible experimentally at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and at future high energy colliders. As a prototypical hidden sector can be considered, there is the compelling possibility of a spontaneously broken dark U(1)D gauge symmetry, mediated by a vector boson called the dark photon (ZD). The search for such a hidden sector is an important component of the LHC physics program. The LHC provides a unique tool to explore such models where these new states can be produced using, for example, exotic Higgs boson decays to light scalars or light vectors and inclusive dark photon decays or associated productions as a portal to this hidden or dark sector that has remained inaccessible up to now.

Dr. Theodota Lagouri
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • high energy collider physics
  • LHC
  • hidden dark sector
  • exotic Higgs decays
  • dark photon
  • dark matter (DM)
  • beyond the Standard Model (BSM)

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 711 KiB  
Article
Particle Physics of the Dark Sector
by Oliver Baker, Andrei Afanasev, Theodota Lagouri, Jingjing Pan and Christian Weber
Symmetry 2022, 14(11), 2238; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14112238 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The mystery associated with a proposed Dark Sector of phenomena that are separate from the standard model of particle physics is described. A Dark Sector may possess matter particles, force carriers which mediate their interactions, and new interactions and symmetries that are beyond [...] Read more.
The mystery associated with a proposed Dark Sector of phenomena that are separate from the standard model of particle physics is described. A Dark Sector may possess matter particles, force carriers which mediate their interactions, and new interactions and symmetries that are beyond the standard model of particle physics. Various approaches for Dark Sector searches are described, including those at the energy frontier at the Large Hadron Collider, in astrophysical interactions with both terrestrial experiments and those in space-born platforms. Searches using low energy photons from microwave energies in cryogenic environments to x-ray energies are also described. While there is no noncontroversial evidence for Dark Sector phenomena presently, new searches with more modern equipment and analysis methods are exploring regions of phase space that have not been available before now, indicating ongoing interest and excitement in this research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hidden Dark Sector in High Energy Physics)
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Review

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31 pages, 994 KiB  
Review
Dark Photon Searches via Higgs Boson Production at the LHC and Beyond
by Sanjoy Biswas, Emidio Gabrielli and Barbara Mele
Symmetry 2022, 14(8), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14081522 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Many scenarios beyond the standard model, aiming to solve long-standing cosmological and particle physics problems, suggest that dark matter might experience long-distance interactions mediated by an unbroken dark U(1) gauge symmetry, hence foreseeing the existence of a massless dark photon. [...] Read more.
Many scenarios beyond the standard model, aiming to solve long-standing cosmological and particle physics problems, suggest that dark matter might experience long-distance interactions mediated by an unbroken dark U(1) gauge symmetry, hence foreseeing the existence of a massless dark photon. Contrary to the massive dark photon, a massless dark photon can only couple to the standard model sector by means of effective higher dimensional operators. Massless dark photon production at colliders will then in general be suppressed at low energy by a UV energy scale, which is of the order of the masses of portal (messenger) fields connecting the dark and the observable sectors. A violation of this expectation is provided by dark photon production mediated by the Higgs boson, thanks to the non-decoupling Higgs properties. Higgs boson production at colliders, followed by the Higgs decay into a photon and a dark photon, provides then a very promising production mechanism for the dark photon discovery, being insensitive in particular regimes to the UV scale of the new physics. This decay channel gives rise to a peculiar signature characterized by a monochromatic photon with energy half the Higgs mass (in the Higgs rest frame) plus missing energy. We show how such resonant photon-plus-missing-energy signature can uniquely be connected to a dark photon production. Higgs boson production and decay into a photon and a dark photon as a source of dark photons is reviewed at the Large Hadron Collider, in light of the present bounds on the corresponding signature by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations. Perspectives for the dark photon production in Higgs-mediated processes at future e+e colliders are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hidden Dark Sector in High Energy Physics)
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60 pages, 2068 KiB  
Review
Collider Searches for Dark Matter through the Higgs Lens
by Spyros Argyropoulos, Oleg Brandt and Ulrich Haisch
Symmetry 2021, 13(12), 2406; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13122406 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3131
Abstract
Despite the fact that dark matter constitutes one of the cornerstones of the standard cosmological paradigm, its existence has so far only been inferred from astronomical observations, and its microscopic nature remains elusive. Theoretical arguments suggest that dark matter might be connected to [...] Read more.
Despite the fact that dark matter constitutes one of the cornerstones of the standard cosmological paradigm, its existence has so far only been inferred from astronomical observations, and its microscopic nature remains elusive. Theoretical arguments suggest that dark matter might be connected to the symmetry-breaking mechanism of the electroweak interactions or of other symmetries extending the Standard Model of particle physics. The resulting Higgs bosons, including the 125 GeV spin-0 particle discovered recently at the Large Hadron Collider, therefore represent a unique tool to search for dark matter candidates at collider experiments. This article reviews some of the relevant theoretical models as well as the results from the searches for dark matter in signatures that involve a Higgs-like particle at the Large Hadron Collider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hidden Dark Sector in High Energy Physics)
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