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Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic and Business Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 77058

Special Issue Editors

Department of Applied Economics, Universidad de Sevilla, 41004 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: energy economics; renewable energy; economic growth; sustainable economy transition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economics, Faculty of Law, Campus Ramón y Cajal, 41018 Seville, Spain
Interests: energy & water resources; microeconomics; tourism sector
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of the tourism sector is clear, as its economic activity not only represents around 10% of world GDP and 7% of employment (UNWTO, 2018) but also increases worldwide economic activity. In 2017, according to the aforementioned report, international tourism increased by 7% (reaching a total of 1326 million tourists), while total revenues from international tourism increased by 5% (reaching US $1.34 billion). Sectoral growth may have also influenced urban development. Some of these effects may be positive, but others may not. Additionally, urbanization may influence the tourism attraction capacity of territorial areas, and economic growth.

The Special Issue of Sustainability on “Tourism, Economic Growth, and Sustainability” wants to look into the following topics:

  • Tourism and sustainability;
  • Tourism and energy use;
  • Tourism and emissions;
  • Tourism EKC;
  • Tourism, economic growth, and urbanization;
  • Tourism-led growth hypothesis;
  • Tourism and water consumption;
  • Tourism development in local areas/cities;
  • Measures to promote sustainable tourism;
  • Cultural heritage or products, tourism, and economic development;
  • Heritage, conservation, tourism, and sustainable development;
  • Sustainable urban and rural tourism.

Prof. Dr. María Del P. Pablo-Romero
Dr. Javier Sánchez-Rivas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • tourism
  • tourism development
  • energy use
  • emissions
  • water consumption
  • sustainable tourism
  • cultural heritage
  • tourism-led growth

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 1674 KiB  
Article
Efficiency in the Holiday and Other Short-Stay Accommodation Industry
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229493 - 15 Nov 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
This study extends previous empirical efficiency research by focusing on a tourism sector which has limited evidence to date: the holiday and other short-stay accommodation industry (tourist apartments and hostels). The sample comprises 12,864 firm-level observations during the period 2005–2016. First, we calculate [...] Read more.
This study extends previous empirical efficiency research by focusing on a tourism sector which has limited evidence to date: the holiday and other short-stay accommodation industry (tourist apartments and hostels). The sample comprises 12,864 firm-level observations during the period 2005–2016. First, we calculate the efficiency index using a non-radial Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Second, we test the association between efficiency index and contextual factors using both Tobit and bootstrapped regression. Another major contribution is the use of a radial DEA model to confirm the results of the study. The current study offers new insights by focusing on an industry with scarce evidence, using radial and non-radial DEA approaches, and examining a wide variety of efficiency drivers. The efficiency results are examined by year, region and tourist destination type (including tourism dimensions such as rural, cultural and wine tourism). This is an important novelty of the study. The main findings reveal that the most efficient tourism destinations correspond to mixed or diversified destinations: those that combine some dimensions such as cultural, rural and wine tourism. The regressions models show that environmental, macroeconomic and business variables are drivers of tourism competitiveness. Taken together, the study goes a step further in the efficiency field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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23 pages, 4545 KiB  
Article
Oleotourism: A Comparison of Three Mediterranean Countries
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 8995; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12218995 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2775
Abstract
The recent trends in the tourism industry, as well as the attention paid by scholars, practitioners, and institutions, show the relevance of natural tourism as a lever for local development (United Nations World Tourism Organization -UNWTO-, 2005). In this scenario, the business of [...] Read more.
The recent trends in the tourism industry, as well as the attention paid by scholars, practitioners, and institutions, show the relevance of natural tourism as a lever for local development (United Nations World Tourism Organization -UNWTO-, 2005). In this scenario, the business of oleotourism, namely, a form of domestic tourism based on activities related to olive oil production, its tasting, and some connected rural experiences such as harvesting, is continuously—albeit slowly—growing in Europe and especially in the Mediterranean area. Scholars agree that oleotourism plays a key role for multiple reasons, due to its relations to local territories, firms, resources, and other forms of tourism, also favoring sustainable development. Due to the interplay with the local context, the authors plan to combine and compare the evidence from three Mediterranean countries offering examples of tourism initiatives based on olive oil, namely, Spain, Italy, and Croatia. The similarities and differences emerging from the comparison will expand the understanding of this phenomenon and lead to the highlighting of key features and choices in favoring its development in the coming years. Therefore, this research, through the analysis of both theoretical and practical evidences and data from the local contexts, aims to identify additional knowledge for scholars, managers, and policy-makers. The results of the analysis allow the authors to conclude that, although each of the three countries is in a different stage of development, they all have elements that seem to be common to this type of tourism. Finally, it is concluded that oleotourism can be characterized as a form of sustainable tourism, given the preservation of local customs and landscapes, the participation of the resident community, or the development of quality and food safety labels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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36 pages, 4652 KiB  
Article
Spillover Index Approach in Investigating the Linkage between International Tourism and Economic growth in Central and Eastern European Countries
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7604; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187604 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2446
Abstract
The present study analyses the relationship between economic growth and tourism growth at the level of Central and East European countries, using the spillover indices approach. Based on the monthly data obtained for the period 2000–2019, the analysis of this paper presents certain [...] Read more.
The present study analyses the relationship between economic growth and tourism growth at the level of Central and East European countries, using the spillover indices approach. Based on the monthly data obtained for the period 2000–2019, the analysis of this paper presents certain empirical results. Firstly, the relationship economic growth-international tourism grow is not stable over time, both from the point of view of its size and its direction, which suggests that the specific activities of international tourism contribute to the economic growth and hypotheses according to which international tourism growth causes economic growth are time-dependent. Secondly, the relationship economic growth-international tourism growth is dependent on certain major events, such as the economic and financial crisis that started in 2008 and the debt crises from 2010. The results obtained show that the impact of these events influences the direction of the relationship between international tourism and economic growth which becomes more accentuated during the economic growth periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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26 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Globalization, Country Risks, and Trade in Tourism Services: Evidence from China
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5869; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145869 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3942
Abstract
This study applies the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the impacts of globalization and country risks on China’s tourism service trade over the period 1984–2015. The results reveal that in the long run, globalization has a significant negative impact on tourism [...] Read more.
This study applies the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to examine the impacts of globalization and country risks on China’s tourism service trade over the period 1984–2015. The results reveal that in the long run, globalization has a significant negative impact on tourism service exports and tourism service trade balances, while a significant positive impact on tourism service imports. In the short run, globalization has a significant negative impact on tourism service imports, while a significant positive impact on tourism service exports and trade balances. Country stability could roughly mitigate these negative and positive impacts of globalization on tourism service trade in both the short and long run. Moreover, the speed of adjustment from the short run to long run equilibrium path is relatively fast. These results are important for China’s policy makers when formulating a strategy for the development of tourism service trade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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24 pages, 1580 KiB  
Article
Tourism and the SDGs: An Analysis of Economic Growth, Decent Employment, and Gender Equality in the European Union (2009–2018)
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5480; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135480 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4601
Abstract
In 2015, the United Nations (UN) approved the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development to improve the lives of countries and societies. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) incorporated the agenda into the tourism industry. This study has as its primary objective an exploratory analysis [...] Read more.
In 2015, the United Nations (UN) approved the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development to improve the lives of countries and societies. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) incorporated the agenda into the tourism industry. This study has as its primary objective an exploratory analysis of tourism activity in the EU-28 countries over the decade 2009–2018 and its adaptation to the Sustainable Development Goals through the lens of employment. This study focuses on the goals of decent employment and economic growth (O8) and gender equality (O5). The results obtained suggest that, in general, the eastern countries of the EU-28 show better values for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) (8) and SDG (5) with respect to both employment and the wage gap. However, these countries have lower GDP-weighted remunerations, which can become an opportunity to obtain higher shares of tourism activity within the EU. It is concluded that there is a need to reinforce the awareness of the fabric of the tourism business and for public administrations to favor stable and decent employment and a reduction in the current gender wage gap. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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14 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
The Decline of Tourist Destinations: An Evolutionary Perspective on Overtourism
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3653; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093653 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5789
Abstract
The term overtourism has generated considerable attention both in academic discourse and public debate. The actual or perceived impact of overtourism on destinations has significant ecological, social, and cultural consequences. However, a crucial question remains unanswered: What does overtourism do to a destination’s [...] Read more.
The term overtourism has generated considerable attention both in academic discourse and public debate. The actual or perceived impact of overtourism on destinations has significant ecological, social, and cultural consequences. However, a crucial question remains unanswered: What does overtourism do to a destination’s tourism industry itself? At the core of this question is whether overtourism is a self-limiting phenomenon or a cumulative one, and how precisely overtourism shapes patterns of quantitative or qualitative decline of a destination’s tourism sector. This article offers a conceptual discussion of the impact of overtourism on a destination’s local tourism sector by refining the latter stages of Butler’s tourist area lifecycle through forms of path decline known from evolutionary economic geography. By combining these two theorical approaches and refining the typology of path decline from evolutionary economic geography to the case of tourism under an overtourism scenario, this article suggests that, in the absence of exogenous changes due to policy interventions or public pressure, under an overtourism scenario, a destination’s tourism sector might contract, downgrade, dislocate, and eventually even disappear. Further research should focus on how to prevent these forms of path decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
17 pages, 1332 KiB  
Article
Seasonality and Efficiency of the Hotel Industry in the Balearic Islands: Implications for Economic and Environmental Sustainability
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3506; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093506 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4623
Abstract
Tourism seasonality generates negative environmental and economic impacts. This paper analyzes the effects of seasonality on the efficiency of the hotel industry in the Balearic Islands (Spain). To that end, a sample of hotel establishments is divided into two groups (those that close [...] Read more.
Tourism seasonality generates negative environmental and economic impacts. This paper analyzes the effects of seasonality on the efficiency of the hotel industry in the Balearic Islands (Spain). To that end, a sample of hotel establishments is divided into two groups (those that close down during the off-season and those that do not). Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied to assess the radial efficiency of each of the selected hotels; then, directional distance functions (DDFs) are used to measure the degree of efficiency with which these hotels use each of the inputs that form part of their production process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the said technique has been applied to the hospitality industry to examine the effects of seasonality. The results of this study suggest that those establishments that do not close down their operations are markedly more efficient than the ones that do. Moreover, they are more efficient in the use of each input. Therefore, a reduction in the levels of tourism seasonality would improve the economic sustainability of the hotels and reduce the environmental pressure at peak times. Finally, in line with the theoretical hypotheses formulated, the results regarding the specific efficiency levels for each input show that the greater the degree of flexibility with which these inputs are used, the higher the efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Foreign Tourists in World Heritage Sites: A Motivation-Based Segmentation
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3263; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083263 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
The inclusion on the lists published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)—World Heritage Site (WHS), Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), and World Heritage Sites in Danger—suggests, first of all, the acknowledgement of something worth protecting and, secondly, an increase in [...] Read more.
The inclusion on the lists published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)—World Heritage Site (WHS), Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), and World Heritage Sites in Danger—suggests, first of all, the acknowledgement of something worth protecting and, secondly, an increase in the strength of tourist attraction to the affected destination, especially among specific visitors. The identification and classification of tourists that are seen to be more interested in heritage is the stated aim of this work, based on models already proposed in the scientific literature. For this purpose, a survey was conducted that interviewed a representative sample of international tourists visiting the city of Córdoba. A multi-variant technique of case-cluster was applied. In addition, a discriminant analysis was used to validate the clusters of the cases obtained. For analyzing the differences between the different groups obtained, some non-parametrical statistical procedures were applied. The results obtained allowed for the visualization of a model that shows the empirical evidence regarding the presence of four types of foreign tourists that are considered valid for segmentation in the city of Córdoba as a WHS tourist destination: the alternative tourist, emotional tourist, cultural tourist, and heritage tourist. These results allow public and private managers to design specific strategies to increase visitor satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 3570 KiB  
Article
The Spatial Distribution, Influencing Factors, and Development Path of Inbound Tourism in China—An Empirical Analysis of Market Segments Based on Travel Motivation
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062508 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3263
Abstract
According to China’s tourism statistics, the inbound tourism market is composed of eight types of travel motivations (sightseeing, leisure, business meeting (business-m), visiting relatives and friends (visiting-rf), shopping, religious worship (religious-w), culture and sports (culture-s), and health care (health-c)), and the spatial distribution [...] Read more.
According to China’s tourism statistics, the inbound tourism market is composed of eight types of travel motivations (sightseeing, leisure, business meeting (business-m), visiting relatives and friends (visiting-rf), shopping, religious worship (religious-w), culture and sports (culture-s), and health care (health-c)), and the spatial distribution of each type of travel motivation is significantly different. Four inbound sub-markets (foreigners, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) were selected as our research object. Through empirical analysis of the variable elasticity of eight different inbound motive market segments, we found that the sensitivities (elasticity) of the influencing factors (traffic conditions (traffic-c), destination image (destination-i), industry structure (industry-s), infrastructure, consumer price index (CPI), resource endowment (resource-e), and dressing index (ICL)) are different. Therefore, investment options in the target market can have differential treatment based on the rate of marginal return on investment. In accordance with the characteristics of different market segments, we suggest more feasible development paths and countermeasures, providing a decision-making basis for the accurate development of the inbound tourism market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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24 pages, 762 KiB  
Article
Make It Memorable: Tourism Experience, Fun, Recommendation and Revisit Intentions of Chinese Outbound Tourists
Sustainability 2020, 12(5), 1904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051904 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 10320
Abstract
Due to the fact that Chinese tourists are becoming the main players in the international tourism market, with large growth potential, this research empirically identifies the psychological factors that affect Chinese outbound tourists’ memorable tourism experiences (MTEs), and investigates the relationships among MTEs, [...] Read more.
Due to the fact that Chinese tourists are becoming the main players in the international tourism market, with large growth potential, this research empirically identifies the psychological factors that affect Chinese outbound tourists’ memorable tourism experiences (MTEs), and investigates the relationships among MTEs, the “fun” emotion, and their recommendation and revisit intentions based on the stimulus–organism–response (S-O-R) model. In addition, the moderating role of perceived risk between the causal relationships among the “fun” emotion and recommendation and revisit intentions is identified. A total of 560 survey participants who had experienced overseas tourism in the last two years were selected as the target population, and the data from 413 valid surveys were empirically analyzed via structural equation modeling (SEM). Chinese outbound tourists’ MTEs, such as hedonism, novelty, meaningfulness, and social interaction, are found to positively influence their experience of the “fun” emotion, such as emotional spark and flow. Additionally, it is found that when Chinese outbound tourists have achieved a high level of the “fun” emotion, their intentions to recommend and revisit their destination will be stronger. In addition, perceived risk is found to have a negative moderating role in the causal relationships among emotional spark and recommendation and revisit intentions, and also has negative moderating effects on the causal relationship between flow and recommendation intentions. This study provides important practical insights for how international tourist destination marketers and managers provide Chinese tourists with MTEs, and how to elicit the “fun” emotion and loyalty behaviors from Chinese tourists via the investigation of the mechanism of MTEs, fun, and recommendation and revisit intentions. It is also found that it is beneficial for international tourist destination managers to lower the level of tourists’ perceived risk to improve tourists’ recommendation and revisit intentions. These findings can aid in the development of more effective strategies to increase the market share and the international competitiveness of destinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 1286 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Tourism: A Competitiveness Strategy Perspective in Baja California
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6934; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11246934 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4692
Abstract
Sustainability plays an important role in society by improving long-term quality of life, including future generations, seeking harmony between economic growth, social development and the protection of the environment. For decades, companies focused their efforts on maximizing returns for their stakeholders, setting aside [...] Read more.
Sustainability plays an important role in society by improving long-term quality of life, including future generations, seeking harmony between economic growth, social development and the protection of the environment. For decades, companies focused their efforts on maximizing returns for their stakeholders, setting aside the preservation of the environment by making indiscriminate use of local resources, which had a direct impact on the social and economic well-being of it, however today the organizations analyze and evaluate the demands, tastes and preferences of new generations as a competitive strategy, because they seek healthier and safer spars, showing increasing interest in social indicators, economics and mid-environment, denying sustainable strategies for their stakeholders. The combination of statistical techniques of descriptive and contingency analysis the sustainability of the tourist micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) of the state of Baja California through the application of the travel and tourism competitive index. The main findings show that the sustainable good practices implemented by micro-entrepreneurs so far has allowed them to develop competitive value strategies focused on their Stakeholders, seeing an increase in their competitiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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19 pages, 741 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Destination Image on Tourist Loyalty and Intention to Visit: Testing a Multiple Mediation Approach
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6401; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226401 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 76 | Viewed by 14510
Abstract
Pakistan holds an important geographical status, but extremism and sabotage have severely damaged the tourism industry. In the present study, we examined the impact of destination image (DI) on tourist loyalty (TL) and intension to visit (IV) in Pakistan. Additionally, the study analyzed [...] Read more.
Pakistan holds an important geographical status, but extremism and sabotage have severely damaged the tourism industry. In the present study, we examined the impact of destination image (DI) on tourist loyalty (TL) and intension to visit (IV) in Pakistan. Additionally, the study analyzed the mediation effects of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and tourist satisfaction (TS) on these relationships. Data was collected from 780 tourists in Pakistan. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) to obtain the results. Our results demonstrated the positive relationships among DI, eWOM, TS, TL, and IV. This study also disclosed that eWOM has a partial mediation effect on the DI–TL relationship, and both eWOM and TS fully mediate the association between DI and IV. Hence, tourist satisfaction can be enhanced by eWOM and destination image, which directly effect tourist loyalty and intention to visit in Pakistan. The proposed framework and research findings will help stakeholders significantly to recognize the multi-facet association in the tourism industry of Pakistan. Testing the above relationships through multiple mediators is a relatively novel idea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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21 pages, 654 KiB  
Article
Servant Leadership Style and High-Performance Work System Practices: Pathway to a Sustainable Jordanian Airline Industry
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6191; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226191 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7613
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine how servant leadership (SL) and high-performance work systems (HPWS) practices enable organizational performance, as shown by employee retention and employee satisfaction. Data was obtained from 300 full time employees in a private airline company in [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine how servant leadership (SL) and high-performance work systems (HPWS) practices enable organizational performance, as shown by employee retention and employee satisfaction. Data was obtained from 300 full time employees in a private airline company in Jordan. The data was collected in three rounds, each separated by one-week time-lag. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships and revealed that both servant leadership and HPWS practices were positively linked with employee satisfaction and retention, which were used as indicators of organizational sustainability. In order to understand how servant leadership and HPWS influence employee satisfaction and retention, we investigated the mediating role of employee engagement and discovered that it serves as a critical mechanism. The study affirmed that, in line with studies carried out in the west, servant leadership is also an effective leadership characteristic in the context of Jordan. Furthermore, the study helps to clarify the reason that servant leadership and HPWS lead to positive outcomes, due to the fact that these improve the engagement of employees. Thus, we understand that the increases in employee retention and satisfaction are due to the enhanced engagement of employees, and we show that engagement can be improved both by servant leadership and the application of HPWS in organizations. Consequently, the effectiveness and sustainability of the airline companies in Jordan will need to focus on primarily improving employee engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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21 pages, 2290 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Tourism and Renewable Energy: Binomial for Local Development in Cocachimba, Amazonas, Peru
Sustainability 2019, 11(18), 4891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11184891 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 5800
Abstract
This article addresses the relationship between sustainable tourism and the use of renewable energy sources. To this end, we evaluate the spatial–temporal tourist flow evolution as well as the wind/solar energy potential in Cocachimba, which is located in the Amazonas region of Peru. [...] Read more.
This article addresses the relationship between sustainable tourism and the use of renewable energy sources. To this end, we evaluate the spatial–temporal tourist flow evolution as well as the wind/solar energy potential in Cocachimba, which is located in the Amazonas region of Peru. This is a place that has seen a considerable increase in tourist activity in the past decade. This is a result of its rich flora and fauna, but especially because of the presence of the Gocta waterfall, considered the third highest in the world. Currently, business initiatives associated with a variety of touristic services have been started. However, there is still a lack of infrastructure, which negatively impacts the tourists’ ability to stay overnight. In order to improve the resident-directed services quality and sustainable tourism, we propose the incorporation of sustainable lodging houses that are based, as previously described, on the usage of clean energy sources, which are harmless to the natural environment. To respond effectively to all this, a methodology based on the use of highly reliable sources and databases, statistical analysis, and highly supported physical calculations was used. The study shows that during the peak season there is insufficient lodging. Furthermore, by incorporating sustainable lodging houses, a reduction in fixed costs for the lodging establishments can be reached. We also found that the solar/wind potential possesses the minimal conditions necessary in order to implement heating systems and sustainable electrification based on conventional systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism, Economic Growth and Sustainability)
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