# Seasonality and Efficiency of the Hotel Industry in the Balearic Islands: Implications for Economic and Environmental Sustainability

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Economic and Environmental Implications of Tourism Seasonality

## 3. The Production Function of Hotel Companies and Data Used for the Research

- (a)
- The production function of hotel companies.

- (b)
- Data used for the research

## 4. Materials and Methods

_{1},…,x

_{N}), to produce a set of M outputs, y = (y

_{1},…,y

_{M}). It is also assumed that inputs and outputs are all non-negative. The technology used in the hotel sector to transform inputs into outputs can be defined as:

_{k’}, ${y}_{km}$ is the amount of the m

^{th}output (m = 1,...,M) produced by DMU

_{k}, ${x}_{kn}$ is the amount of the n

^{th}input (n = 1,...,N) consumed by DMU

_{k}, and λ

_{k}is the weight assigned to DMU

_{k}(k = 1,2,…,K). Furthermore, VRS are assumed through the restriction—Equation (3c).

_{x}, g

_{y}) as the direction vector.

_{y}, with the maximum contraction of inputs in direction g

_{x}:

_{i}while maintaining the remaining inputs x

_{−i}and the output vector at their observed levels [60].

_{i}, 0),0]

## 5. Results

## 6. Discussion

## 7. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Kernel probability density (radial). Y axis: Kernel probability density (K(u)), X axis: Efficiency Scores. Source: the authors.

**Figure 4.**Kernel probability density (DDFs)—input: Capital. (red) “Not Open”; (blue) “Open”; (green) “All”. Y axis: Kernel probability density (K(u)), X axis: Efficiency Scores. Source: the authors.

**Figure 5.**Kernel probability density (DDFs)—input: Labor. (red) “Not Open”; (blue) “Open”; (green) “All”. Y axis: Kernel probability density (K(u)), X axis: Efficiency Scores. Source: the authors.

**Figure 6.**Kernel probability density (DDFs)—input: Intermediate inputs. (red) “Not Open”; (blue) “Open”; (green) “All”. Y axis: Kernel probability density (K(u)), X axis: Efficiency Scores. Source: the authors.

Mean | SD | |
---|---|---|

Inputs | ||

Fixed capital | 1471 | 1418 |

Staffing costs | 539 | 378 |

Other operating expenses | 510 | 472 |

Outputs | ||

Sales | 1637 | 1234 |

Radial Efficiency | |
---|---|

Open | 0.7811 |

Not Open | 0.7075 |

All | 0.7387 |

Capital | Labor | Intermediate inputs | |
---|---|---|---|

Open | 0.3450 | 0.6125 | 0.6719 |

Not Open | 0.1922 | 0.5591 | 0.5604 |

All | 0.2553 | 0.5812 | 0.6065 |

KS test | Capital | Labor | Intermediate inputs | Radial |
---|---|---|---|---|

p-value | 0.004 | 0.044 | 0.008 | 0.015 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Sáez-Fernández, F.J.; Jiménez-Hernández, I.; Ostos-Rey, M.d.S.
Seasonality and Efficiency of the Hotel Industry in the Balearic Islands: Implications for Economic and Environmental Sustainability. *Sustainability* **2020**, *12*, 3506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093506

**AMA Style**

Sáez-Fernández FJ, Jiménez-Hernández I, Ostos-Rey MdS.
Seasonality and Efficiency of the Hotel Industry in the Balearic Islands: Implications for Economic and Environmental Sustainability. *Sustainability*. 2020; 12(9):3506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093506

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Sáez-Fernández, Francisco Javier, Ignacio Jiménez-Hernández, and María del Sol Ostos-Rey.
2020. "Seasonality and Efficiency of the Hotel Industry in the Balearic Islands: Implications for Economic and Environmental Sustainability" *Sustainability* 12, no. 9: 3506.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093506