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Development Sustainable with Diet and Physical Activity on Health and Performance

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Health, Well-Being and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 26251

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Physical Education and Sports, University of Granada, 18010 Granada, Spain
2. HEME Research Group, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, 10003 Cáceres, Spain
3. Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-7344, Iran
4. Sports Scientist, Sepahan Football Club, Isfahan 81887-78473, Iran
Interests: sports performance; growth of youth and maturation; external load monitoring; training load; well-being; soccer training; injury prevention; strength and conditioning; sports nutrition and supplement; quality of life; reliability; validity of devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad San Jorge, 50830 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: physical performance; adolescent and maturation; exercise testing; body composition; exercise intervention; physical activity assessment; injury prevention; reliability; and validity of devices

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Interests: mineral metabolism; diabetes and obesity prevention across the lifespan; athletic performance; body composition; resting and energy metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are calling for countries to contribute to a global culture of health. SDGs attempt to promote prosperity while also protecting the planet. In addition, the slogan of developing sports and friendship in the Olympic Games among the people of the world has paved the way for the scientific development of people's performance in all age groups and different societies. In addition, the goals contribute a critical framework for COVID-19 recuperation, that can guarantee to "Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages".

In the context of sustainable development, nutrition and physical activity are key factors for developing and maintaining good health and performance. Sustainable diets are a kind of diet with low environmental impact which contribute to food and nutrition security and to healthy life, while also, optimizing natural and human resources for present and future generations (FAO, 2010). Physical activity is an effective strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases and road traffic deaths, decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by air pollution, and improve mental health. Therefore, there is a strong synergy between nutrition and physical activity and SGDs.

In this Special Issue, we focus on four aims that are vital to sustainable development:

  1. To improve scientific knowledge of ensuring healthy living in athletes and various people in the community;
  2. To increase evidence on promoting well-being for all at all ages between athletes and amateurs;
  3. To increase the development of scientific foundations with quality of life and physical activity on health and performance of different communities;
  4. To increase awareness of diet about the health and performance of different communities.

Dr. Hadi Nobari
Dr. Elena Mainer-Pardos
Dr. Stella Lucia Volpe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • athletes
  • adolescent
  • body composition
  • diet
  • physical activity
  • exercise training
  • human well-being
  • performance
  • nutrition
  • non-communicable diseases

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
A Study on Female Consumers’ Perceptions of the Health Value of Visual Elements of Weight Loss Health Product Packaging
by Fan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Yanlong Guo and Han Zhang
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813624 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 935
Abstract
The obesity epidemic has evolved into a significant problem globally and poses a serious threat to the health of society. Despite increasing international research on obesity food packaging, the health value of visual elements in weight loss supplement packaging varies according to regional [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic has evolved into a significant problem globally and poses a serious threat to the health of society. Despite increasing international research on obesity food packaging, the health value of visual elements in weight loss supplement packaging varies according to regional cultures and consumer groups. The scope of this study is the health perceptions of obese urban Chinese women regarding the design of visual elements of weight loss health product packaging. This study constructed a visual element index system for weight loss health product packaging in order to design a related questionnaire. The research team administered the online questionnaire to 305 obese women (aged 18–45+) in urban China from 22 June to 2 July 2022. The factors influencing the perceived health value of weight loss supplement packaging in the female obese group were examined using SPSS 26.0. A t-test analysis was conducted to derive the difference in the correlation between purchase status and brand identity. Linear regression analysis showed that age groups differed in package color and package shape, respectively. The study concluded that, first, there were differences in the perceptions of weight loss health product packaging among respondents with different purchase statuses; second, the older the respondents were, the more they perceived white packaging as having health value (p < 0.05); third, the health marker’s shape had little or no statistical significance on the individuals (p > 0.05); fourth, respondents who were older were more likely to think a cylindrical design has a benefit for their health than a square box shape (p < 0.05) and an anthropomorphic shape was more likely to produce a healthy weight loss effect than cylindrical packaging (p < 0.05); and younger people thought that an anthropomorphic shape was more likely to make them recognize the health effect than square box-shaped packaging (p < 0.05). Full article
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11 pages, 647 KiB  
Article
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation and Mirror Therapy Methods Are Comparable Methods of Rehabilitation after a First-Ever Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Study
by Wojciech Borowicz, Kuba Ptaszkowski, Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz and Joanna Rosińczuk
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215246 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Stroke is a serious cause of premature death among adults and the reason for much long-term disability. Understanding the mechanisms of disability and the potential for recovery of stroke patients should be one of the highest priorities of the health care system. Neurorehabilitation [...] Read more.
Stroke is a serious cause of premature death among adults and the reason for much long-term disability. Understanding the mechanisms of disability and the potential for recovery of stroke patients should be one of the highest priorities of the health care system. Neurorehabilitation of post-stroke patients focuses on functional recovery by activating mechanisms of natural reorganization. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and mirror therapy (MT) are neurorehabilitation methods activating brain plasticity, and their clinical utility for stroke survivors is still under studied. This study compared two neurorehabilitation methods using PNF or MT on functional recovery in patients after a first-ever ischemic stroke. This prospective and interventional randomized clinical study involved a group of 50 patients (34 males and 16 females) with first-ever ischemic stroke, aged 48–82 years being in the recovery-compensation stage and admitted to the unit for early post-stroke rehabilitation. Patients were randomly enrolled into two groups in terms of rehabilitation method used: PNF (n = 26) or MT (n = 24). Barthel Index (BI) was used for assessing functional status at baseline (M0), and 3 (M1) and 6 weeks (M2) after intervention), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used for assessing a disability level at baseline (M0), and 6 weeks (M2) after the intervention. Statistically significant differences were noted in the two study groups in BI (main effect: <0.05). There was an improvement in the MT group between M1 and M2 by 3.6 points, M1 and M3 by 6.9 points, and M2 and M3 by 6.9 points. For the PNF group, there were differences between M1 and M2 by 4.1 points, M1 and M3 by 7.2 points, and M2 and M3 by 3.1 points. Moreover, statistically significant differences were noted in both groups in mRS (main effect: p < 0.05). There was a decrease of 2.2 points in the MT group between M1 and M2 measurements. For the PNF group, there were differences between M1 and M2 by 2.3 points. There were no statistically significant differences between the MT and PNF groups in both BI and mRS scores (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both PNF and MT neurorehabilitation methods could be useful for improving functional status and reducing disability level in patients after first-ever stroke during the regenerative-compensatory stage. Full article
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11 pages, 2002 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Heart Rate Variability and Its Association with High-Intensity Running, Psychometric Status, and Training Load in Elite Female Soccer Players during Match Weeks
by Daniel Juárez Santos-García, David Recuenco Serrano, José Carlos Ponce-Bordón and Hadi Nobari
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 14815; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142214815 - 10 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1671
Abstract
In order to maximize adaptations to reach high performance, sports coaches must regularly monitor the healing process following competitions or important training sessions and maintain psychometric status. As a result, the objective of this study was to track heart rate variability (HRV) in [...] Read more.
In order to maximize adaptations to reach high performance, sports coaches must regularly monitor the healing process following competitions or important training sessions and maintain psychometric status. As a result, the objective of this study was to track heart rate variability (HRV) in elite Spanish female soccer players during match weeks and examine its connection to high-intensity running, psychometric status, and training load. Changes in the nocturnal HRV measured along the square root of differences between adjacent RR intervals of 4 h (rMSSD 4 h) during the first phase of slow wave sleep (rMSSD 5 min), resting heart rate (RHR 4 h and RHR 5 min) were recorded with Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 (Firstbeat Technologies, Jyvaskyla, Finland). Training and match loads were recorded with rating perceived exertion and high-intensity running data by using a global positioning system (GPS) device (SPI-Pro X, GPSports). Ultimately, the psychometric test was recorded by a 5-item questionnaire, and all data were analyzed across three weeks of a competitive season. The day of the match found the lowest HRV, while the day following the match found a substantial (p < 0.01) rise in rMSSD 4 h and rMSSD 5 min. Similarly, these variables showed significant differences two days after the match. Similarly, these variables showed significant differences two days after the match. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the RHR 4 h and RHR 5 min (p < 0.01) and rMSSD 4 h and rMSSD 5 min (p < 0.05) and variables after two days with a higher training load. The results gathered from the psychometric tests, and the various HR markers showed significant associations. As a result, HRV, RHR, and psychometric assessments are probably sensitive to changes in load within a microcycle, providing a straightforward and non-invasive technique to assess changes in the recovery/fatigue status of top-level female soccer players. Full article
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13 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Variations in the Accumulated Workload and the Change of Direction Ability in Elite Young Soccer Players
by Hadi Nobari, Akhilesh Kumar Ramachandran, Mário Moreira, Saeed Khani, Davood Khezri and Elena Mainer-Pardos
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5535; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095535 - 5 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Background: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between training workload (WL) parameters with variations in the change of direction (COD) in under-16 soccer players. Methods: Twenty-seven under-16 elite soccer players were daily monitored for their WL across 15 [...] Read more.
Background: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between training workload (WL) parameters with variations in the change of direction (COD) in under-16 soccer players. Methods: Twenty-seven under-16 elite soccer players were daily monitored for their WL across 15 weeks during the competitive soccer season. Additionally, players were assessed two times for anthropometric measures (weight, height, sitting height and leg length), COD performance (modified 505 test) and maturity offset measured using the peak height velocity (PHV). Results: A correlational analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the variation in COD performance and accumulated WL parameters. Moreover, a regression analysis was executed to explain the variations in the percentage of COD performance considering the accumulated WL parameters and PHV of the season (r = 0.93; p ≤ 0.01) and training monotony during the early-season (r = 0.53; p ≤ 0.05). There were associations between the acute workload during the start of the season and the COD during the end of the season (r = 0.47; p ≤ 0.05). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that 55% of the variation in COD performance between the early and end of season could be explained by the acute or chronic WL, training monotony or strain and the PHV. Conclusions: This information might be useful for practitioners and coaches aiming to improve the COD performance in youth soccer players during an entire competitive season. Full article
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9 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Steps Cycle in the Action of Throwing in Competition in Men’s Elite Handball
by Jaime Tuquet, Antonio Cartón, Luis A. Marco-Contreras, Elena Mainer-Pardos and Demetrio Lozano
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5291; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095291 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
The aim of this article was to analyze the step cycle that precedes the throwing action in elite men’s handball and its relationship with different factors, such as throwing distance, throwing technics, throw speed, whether it occurs in jump or standing, the last [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to analyze the step cycle that precedes the throwing action in elite men’s handball and its relationship with different factors, such as throwing distance, throwing technics, throw speed, whether it occurs in jump or standing, the last step, and efficiency. Twenty-four complete matches were analyzed, with a total of 1013 throws in three international elite men’s handball championships. The results show that the most used step cycle is the one performed with two steps. There is a significant relationship between the step cycle and the throw distance, with two-step throws being the most used from outside 9 m (29.8%, p < 0.001), three-step throws at a distance between 6 and 9 m (35.9%, p < 0.001), and zero- and one-step throws from 6 m (30.5%, p < 0.001). Likewise, the last step with natural footing is the most used (93.7%, p < 0.001) with a complete cycle of steps, followed by false foot with more than three steps (27.3%, p < 0.001), and two feet with zero steps (12.6%, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the skill to take advantage of the dynamic improvement offered by the mastery of the step cycle, adapting to the different situations of the game, could be an essential characteristic of the player to effectively complete the throwing action. Full article
14 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Effects of Multicomponent Exercise Training Program on Biochemical and Motor Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Dementia
by Oussama Gaied Chortane, Raouf Hammami, Sofiene Amara, Sabri Gaied Chortane, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Rafael Oliveira and Hadi Nobari
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074112 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise training program on motor function and biochemical markers in patients with Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, divided into the intervention group (IG; aged 84 ± 3.1 years) [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise training program on motor function and biochemical markers in patients with Alzheimer’s-type dementia. Twenty patients with Alzheimer disease, divided into the intervention group (IG; aged 84 ± 3.1 years) and the control group (CG; aged 86 ± 2.6 years) were included in this study. The intervention group was enrolled into an exercise training program for three months (two sessions of 60 min per week). The CG was instructed to follow their daily rhythm of life (e.g., rest, reading) without a physical training program. After 3 months of participation in a multicomponent exercise program, gait speed, balance and walking parameters were all improved in the intervention group as measured with the Berg Balance Scale, the Tinetti test, the 6-min walking test and the timed up and go test (p < 0.05 for all; percentage range of improvements: 3.17% to 53.40%), except the walking while talking test, and biochemical parameters were not affected (p > 0.05). Our results demonstrate that exercise improves postural control, aerobic capacity and mobility functions in patients with Alzheimer disease. Physical exercise is a safe and effective method for treating physical disorders in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and can easily be integrated in various programs for the management of Alzheimer disease. Full article
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22 pages, 6512 KiB  
Article
Using Global Positioning System to Compare Training Monotony and Training Strain of Starters and Non-Starters across of Full-Season in Professional Soccer Players
by Nader Alijanpour, Hadi Nobari, Lotfali Bolboli, Roghayyeh Afroundeh and Amador Garcia-Ramos
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3560; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063560 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1695
Abstract
Soccer is an attractive and popular team sport that has high physiological and fitness stress, and therefore requires special and controlled training programs during the season. The aim of this study was to describe the weekly average and changes in training monotony (TM) [...] Read more.
Soccer is an attractive and popular team sport that has high physiological and fitness stress, and therefore requires special and controlled training programs during the season. The aim of this study was to describe the weekly average and changes in training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) throughout different periods of the season in professional football players based on the number of accelerations and decelerations, and also to analyze the difference between starters and non-starters players in TM and TS. Nineteen professional players from a soccer team competing in the Iranian Premier League (age, 28 ± 4.6 years; height, 181.6 ± 5.8 cm; body mass, 74.5 ± 5.6 kg, and body mass index, 21.8 ± 1.0 kg/m2) participated in a cohort study. Participants were divided into two groups based on the time of participation in the weekly competition: starters (N = 10) or non-starters (N = 9). The physical activities of the players were recorded during the training sessions and competitive matches of 43 weeks using GPSPORTS systems Pty Ltd. During pre- and end-season TS was not significantly different between starters and non-starters, while during early- and mid-season starters showed a higher TS than non-starter (p < 0.05). TS was higher during early- and mid-season compared to pre- and end-season. In all zones on both the TM and TS variables, non-starters experienced higher change percentages and coefficient of variation. TM during the season in all zones of accelerations was not significantly different between starters and non-starters. while during mid-season starters showed a higher TM than non-starters in all zones of decelerations (p < 0.05). TM data showed fluctuations and w-shaped graphs in the week-by-week survey. These results indicate that training during early- and mid-season is not enough for the physical development of non-starters soccer players. Coaches should be more careful when designing training for non-starters players, and they could consider the use of game simulation, preparatory match or intra-team match, or individual training programs. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 1075 KiB  
Review
Fighting the Consequences of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mindfulness, Exercise, and Nutrition Practices to Reduce Eating Disorders and Promote Sustainability
by Sara Baldassano, Anna Alioto, Alessandra Amato, Carlo Rossi, Giulia Messina, Maria Roberta Bruno, Roberta Stallone and Patrizia Proia
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032120 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
Over the past two years, the world’s population has been tested by the COVID-19 health emergency. This has changed population habits worldwide by encouraging a sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition. Isolation and reduction of social life, for most of the population, was mandatory but [...] Read more.
Over the past two years, the world’s population has been tested by the COVID-19 health emergency. This has changed population habits worldwide by encouraging a sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition. Isolation and reduction of social life, for most of the population, was mandatory but it quickly became a new lifestyle. Nowadays, we are encountering the consequences with an increase in nutritional associated disorders and conditions that cause illnesses in the general population. These disorders include diet excesses that lead to obesity and diet deficiencies and malnutrition which could rapidly lead to death. These eating disorders are very complex to manage because they become mental disorders which can negatively impact physical or mental health. This work will disucss the benefits associated with the mindfulness–exercise–nutrition (MEN) technique. From a nutritional point of view it will focus on the nutritional effect of a plant-based diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD) which has a high tryptophan content which can increase serotonin (the “feel good” hormone) levels. The MEN technique takes a multidisciplinary approach and aims to integrate healthy behaviors into clinical practice using healthy eating, active living, and mindfulness. This method includes controlled physical movements, stretching techniques such as yoga, and aerobic exercise to achieve optimal mental and physical health. This literature review, carried out using the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, aims to investigate the latest research on this topic. This study may be useful for healthcare professionals and clinicians and may help patients to be more self-aware, encouraging them to lead a healthier lifestyle, make thoughtful choices, and ameliorate their mental health. The final aim of this study is to promote physiological homeostasis and well-being. Full article
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22 pages, 437 KiB  
Review
Physical Activity and Nutritional Pattern Related to Maturation and Development
by Alvaro Bustamante-Sanchez, Bella Esperanza Villegas-Mora, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Jose Francisco Tornero-Aguilera, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Hadi Nobari and Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Sustainability 2022, 14(24), 16958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142416958 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
In order to better understand the implications of physical activity and nutrition in child development, we conducted the present narrative with the aim to analyze the physical activity and nutritional patterns related to maturation and development. To reach our study objective, a consensus [...] Read more.
In order to better understand the implications of physical activity and nutrition in child development, we conducted the present narrative with the aim to analyze the physical activity and nutritional patterns related to maturation and development. To reach our study objective, a consensus and critical review were conducted by analyzing primary sources such as academic research and secondary sources such as databases, web pages, and bibliographic indexes following procedures of previous critical narrative reviews. We employed the MedLine (Pubmed), Cochrane (Wiley), PsychINFO, Embase, and CinAhl databases to search the MeSH-compliant keywords of exercise, physical activity, nutrition, maturation, development, child, neonatal, infantry, and cognitive development. We used manuscripts published from 1 January 2012 to 1 September 2022, although previous studies were included to explain some information in several points of the review. We found that physical activity and nutrition are basic pillars for the correct development and maturation of the child. Factors associated with development as a species such as breastfeeding, the correct intake of micro and macronutrients, and the performance of both passive and active physical activity will modulate the correct motor and cognitive development in preschool age, childhood, and adolescence. Full article

Other

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6 pages, 1603 KiB  
Case Report
A Very Unusual Case of Physical Disability after Spinal Epidural Hematoma in the Course of Sport-Related Head Injury
by Jan Gnus, Sebastian Fedorowicz, Karolina Radzikowska and Anna Kołcz
Sustainability 2022, 14(22), 15409; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142215409 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is blood accumulation between the dura mater of the spinal canal and the bone of the vertebrae. It is estimated to be an extremely rare incidence, affecting approximately 0.1 of 100,000 patients. When the suspected cause is a sport-related [...] Read more.
Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is blood accumulation between the dura mater of the spinal canal and the bone of the vertebrae. It is estimated to be an extremely rare incidence, affecting approximately 0.1 of 100,000 patients. When the suspected cause is a sport-related injury in the majority of cases it affects the trauma region. The aim of this case report was to outline the case of a 60-year-old man who was admitted to the Emergency Department due to acute, severe pain in the lumbar region which lasted 30 min. It occurred that 54 h prior to the admission, he suffered a head injury due to sport-related trauma during recreational skiing. When waiting for the laboratory and imaging test results the patient developed bilateral paralysis of the lower limbs. The MR examination results showed SEH at the level Th9-L1; therefore, immediate neurosurgical laminectomy was performed. After 36 months of rehabilitation, the patient can walk independently. In summary, SEH without immediate and appropriate treatment is linked with very poor clinical outcome. Moreover, a high mortality rate of 7% and the fact that more than half of patients do not return to full physical health incentives its inclusion in differential diagnosis every time when symptoms of spinal cord involvement are found. Furthermore, delayed aftermath in the form of paresis of the lower limbs requires long-term and intensive physical rehabilitation. Full article
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16 pages, 1577 KiB  
Brief Report
A Brief Overview of the Effects of Exercise and Red Beets on the Immune System in Patients with Prostate Cancer
by Hadi Nobari, Saber Saedmocheshi, Kelly Johnson, Katsuhiko Suzuki and Marcos Maynar-Mariño
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116492 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5776
Abstract
Research over the past few decades has focused on the use of functional ingredients such as an active lifestyle and proper diet as a treatment for many diseases in the world. Recent studies have shown a variety of health benefits for red beets [...] Read more.
Research over the past few decades has focused on the use of functional ingredients such as an active lifestyle and proper diet as a treatment for many diseases in the world. Recent studies have shown a variety of health benefits for red beets and their active ingredients such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, blood pressure and fat reduction, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects. This review article examines the effects of exercise and red beet consumption and the effective mechanisms of these two interventions on cellular and molecular pathways in prostate cancer. However, there is a significant relationship between an active lifestyle and proper diet with the incidence of cancer, and the use of these natural interventions for cancer patients in the treatment protocol of avoidance patients. Furthermore, this review article attempts to examine the role and effect of exercise and beetroot nutrition on prostate cancer and provide evidence of the appropriate effects of using natural interventions to prevent, reduce, and even treat cancer in stages. In addition, we examine the molecular mechanisms of the effectiveness of exercise and beetroot consumption. Finally, the use of natural interventions such as exercising and eating beets due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties, due to the lack or low level of side effects, can be considered an important intervention for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Full article
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