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Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 36535

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
Interests: shrinkage and self-sealing characteristics of concrete and development of ‘crack-free’ cement composites; advanced materials for structures- Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete, use of supplementing cementing materials in concrete, cement-based mortars for masonry with improved bond properties, composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes, and Fiber Reinforced Polymers; structural health monitoring of infrastructure; durability and corrosion studies of reinforced concrete; sustainable construction technologies: Rammed earth, pervious concrete, insulated wall systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The overall focus of this Special Issue will be to highlight the recent breakthroughs in development of sustainable construction materials. In addition, this issue will focus on the design and deployment of sustainable construction technologies and practices. Even though the scope of this issue is wide, original articles related to Engineering (generally but not limited to Civil Engineering) and Materials (generally construction materials) are solicited. The purpose of this Special Issue is to promote a wider use of sustainable materials and technologies in the construction industry and to reduce the carbon footprint of this industry. In this Special Issue, in addition to experimental work, articles highlighting sustainable design, life cycle analysis of materials, use of recycled materials, alternative binding materials, durability leading to increased service life, green building envelopes, hybrid structures using more than one type of construction material, etc. are sought. Articles focused on case studies and documenting the deployment of sustainable technologies are also encouraged. 

Dr. Rishi Gupta
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable construction materials
  • sustainable construction technologies
  • geopolymers
  • life cycle assessment
  • low-carbon footprint materials
  • cement-based durable composites
  • recycled materials
  • case studies
  • green building envelopes
  • sustainable hybrid structures
  • sustainable design

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

1 pages, 140 KiB  
Editorial
MDPI Sustainability: Special Issue “Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies”
by Rishi Gupta
Sustainability 2022, 14(4), 2289; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14042289 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
At the time this editorial was being written, the uncertainties induced by the global pandemic were continuing to affect millions of people around the world [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)

Research

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24 pages, 14806 KiB  
Article
Developments in Tall Wood and Hybrid Buildings and Environmental Impacts
by Asif Iqbal
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11881; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111881 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5347
Abstract
Wood has been gaining popularity as a building material over the last few decades. There has been significant progress in technology during this period to push the limits of wood construction. At the same time, it has become more economically competitive to build [...] Read more.
Wood has been gaining popularity as a building material over the last few decades. There has been significant progress in technology during this period to push the limits of wood construction. At the same time, it has become more economically competitive to build with wood beyond low-rises. As a result, there has been a noteworthy shift in public perception in terms of acceptance of wood as a material for high-rise buildings. There is a growing list of tall wood buildings that have been constructed in different continents over the last decade. With worldwide population growth and increased urbanization, the trend is expected to continue. Considerable urgency for using sustainable resources to tackle the threat of climate change has resulted in a surge in demand as well as applications in recent decades. This paper reviews the significant technical advances that have contributed to those achievements and are expected to facilitate further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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16 pages, 4725 KiB  
Article
Development of Functional Rubber-Based Impact-Absorbing Pavements for Cyclist and Pedestrian Injury Reduction
by Christina Makoundou, Cesare Sangiorgi, Kenth Johansson and Viveca Wallqvist
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11283; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011283 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
Cyclists, pedestrians and elderly people’s specific needs in urban road infrastructures are often neglected. They rarely benefit from safety measures or innovations. Inspired by playgrounds and aiming to reduce vulnerable road users (VRUs) injuries, the development of the rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements (IAP) offers [...] Read more.
Cyclists, pedestrians and elderly people’s specific needs in urban road infrastructures are often neglected. They rarely benefit from safety measures or innovations. Inspired by playgrounds and aiming to reduce vulnerable road users (VRUs) injuries, the development of the rubber-based impact-absorbing pavements (IAP) offers a possibility to rethink the design of urban pavements and address safety on roads, which constitutes a major challenge in terms of attaining more sustainable, resilient, and safe cities. Therefore, bituminous mixtures with four different crumb rubber contents, 0%, 14%, 28%, and 33% (in total weight), were produced by partial aggregates substitution using the dry process. After the assessment of the geometrical and volumetric properties, the mechanical performances were evaluated. Finally, the samples were tested to measure the abrasion and impact attenuation with the well-known head injury criterion (HIC), at different temperatures from −10 to 40 °C, to obtain a wide range of values referring to possible weather conditions. A significant effect of the rubber percentage and layer thickness on impact attenuation was observed. All observations and results confirm the feasibility of the IAP concept and its positive effect on future injury-prevention applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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19 pages, 4664 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model for the Design of HSFC and UHSFC Jackets with Various Steel Fiber Volume Fraction Ratios for the Retrofitting of RC Beam-Column Joints
by Alexander-Dimitrios Tsonos and George Kalogeropoulos
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11209; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011209 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
High-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete (HSFC) and ultra-high strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete (UHSFC) jackets have been proved experimentally to be much more effective with respect to other strengthening schemes in improving the hysteresis performance of existing substandard reinforced concrete (RC) structural members. In this [...] Read more.
High-strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete (HSFC) and ultra-high strength steel fiber-reinforced concrete (UHSFC) jackets have been proved experimentally to be much more effective with respect to other strengthening schemes in improving the hysteresis performance of existing substandard reinforced concrete (RC) structural members. In this paper, an existing analytical model for the prediction of the shear capacity of RC beam-column joints strengthened with a HSFC or UHSFC jacket is extended to provide design formulation of these innovative HSFC and UHSFC jackets. An authoritative validation of the proposed formulation is also achieved by comparisons of experimental results of 50 beam-column joint specimens with the analytical predictions of the model. Test data used for verification have been collected from the literature based on experimental studies of the authors and other researchers. The merits of the HSFC and UHSFC jacketing technique are also highlighted in the state of practice. Design and application of the proposed fiber-reinforced concrete jackets in deficient existing RC beam-column joints provides a sustainable strengthening technique by contributing to the reduction in the cost and to labor-intensive procedures of common jackets by completely replacing the installation of reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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18 pages, 5950 KiB  
Article
Effect of Activating Solution Modulus on the Synthesis of Sustainable Geopolymer Binders Using Spent Oil Bleaching Earths as Precursor
by P. Delgado-Plana, A. Rodríguez-Expósito, S. Bueno-Rodríguez, L. Pérez-Villarejo, D. M. Tobaldi, J. A. Labrincha and D. Eliche-Quesada
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7501; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137501 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2188
Abstract
The valorization of spent oil bleaching earths (SOBE) is crucial for the protection of the environment and the reuse of resources. In this research, alkali-activated binders were manufactured at room temperature using SOBE as a precursor by varying the mass ratio between the [...] Read more.
The valorization of spent oil bleaching earths (SOBE) is crucial for the protection of the environment and the reuse of resources. In this research, alkali-activated binders were manufactured at room temperature using SOBE as a precursor by varying the mass ratio between the activating solutions of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and 6 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (activating solution modulus) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio = 1/1; 1/2; 1/3; 1/4) to investigate the influence on the technological properties of the materials. This process intends to evaluate the potential of SOBE, heat-treated at 550 °C (1 h), as a precursor of the reaction (source of aluminosilicates). Samples produced with higher amounts of sodium silicate developed a denser structure, with lower porosity and a higher amount of geopolymer gel. Maximum flexural (8.35 MPa) and compressive (28.4 MPa) strengths of samples cured at room temperature for 28 days were obtained with a Na2SiO3/NaOH mass ratio of 1/1. The study demonstrates that SOBE waste can be used as a precursor in the manufacture of geopolymer binders that show a good compromise between physical, mechanical and thermally insulating characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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19 pages, 5148 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of the Novel Rehabilitation Method of Seismically Damaged RC Joints Using C-FRP Ropes and Comparison with Widely Applied Method Using C-FRP Sheets—Experimental Investigation
by Emmanouil Golias, Adamantis G. Zapris, Violetta K. Kytinou, George I. Kalogeropoulos, Constantin E. Chalioris and Chris G. Karayannis
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116454 - 06 Jun 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
The necessity of ensuring the long-term sustainability of existing structures is rising. An important issue concerning existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures in seismically active regions is that a significant number of them lack the required earthquake-resistant capacities to meet the increased design earthquake [...] Read more.
The necessity of ensuring the long-term sustainability of existing structures is rising. An important issue concerning existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures in seismically active regions is that a significant number of them lack the required earthquake-resistant capacities to meet the increased design earthquake demands. Inexpensive, fast and long-term strengthening strategies for repairing/strengthening RC structures are urgently required, not only after destructive earthquakes, but even before they occur. Retrofitting existing buildings extending their service life rather than demolishing and rebuilding new ones is the best option in terms of economic gain and environmental protection. This paper experimentally investigates the effectiveness of externally applied (i) carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (C-FRP) ropes in X-type form and (b) C-FRP sheets that are bonded on both sides of the joint area of RC beam-column joint connections. Six comparative full-scale exterior RC beam-column joint specimens were tested under reverse cyclic deformation. Two of them were control specimens, two were strengthened using C-FRP ropes (novel technique) and two were retrofitted using C-FRP sheets (widely used technique). Extensive comparisons and discussion of the test results derive new quantitative and qualitative results concerning the seismic capacity and the service life extension of the strengthened RC members using the proposed retrofitting scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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16 pages, 2433 KiB  
Article
Axial Stress-Strain Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Reinforced with Macro-Polypropylene Fibres
by Muhammad Junaid Munir, Syed Minhaj Saleem Kazmi, Yu-Fei Wu, Xiaoshan Lin and Muhammad Riaz Ahmad
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5741; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105741 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
The addition of macro-polypropylene fibres improves the stress-strain performance of natural aggregate concrete (NAC). However, limited studies focus on the stress-strain performance of macro-polypropylene fibre-reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Considering the variability of coarse recycled aggregates (CRA), more studies are needed to investigate [...] Read more.
The addition of macro-polypropylene fibres improves the stress-strain performance of natural aggregate concrete (NAC). However, limited studies focus on the stress-strain performance of macro-polypropylene fibre-reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). Considering the variability of coarse recycled aggregates (CRA), more studies are needed to investigate the stress-strain performance of macro-polypropylene fibre-reinforced RAC. In this study, a new type of 48 mm long BarChip macro-polypropylene fibre with a continuously embossed surface texture is used to produce BarChip fibre-reinforced NAC (BFNAC) and RAC (BFRAC). The stress-strain performance of BFNAC and BFRAC is studied for varying dosages of BarChip fibres. Results show that the increase in energy dissipation capacity (i.e., area under the curve), peak stress, and peak strain of samples is observed with an increase in fibre dosage, indicating the positive effect of fibre addition on the stress-strain performance of concrete. The strength enhancement due to the addition of fibres is higher for BFRAC samples than BFNAC samples. The reduction in peak stress, ultimate strain, toughness and specific toughness of concrete samples due to the utilisation of CRA also reduces with the addition of fibres. Hence, the negative effect of CRA on the properties of concrete samples can be minimised by adding BarChip macro-polypropylene fibres. The applicability of the stress-strain model previously developed for macro-synthetic and steel fibre-reinforced NAC and RAC to BFNAC and BFRAC is also examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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23 pages, 8906 KiB  
Article
The Efficacy of Whole Oyster Shells for Removing Copper, Zinc, Chromium, and Cadmium Heavy Metal Ions from Stormwater
by Zhiying Xu, Caterina Valeo, Angus Chu and Yao Zhao
Sustainability 2021, 13(8), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13084184 - 09 Apr 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3501
Abstract
This research investigates the use of a common food waste product for removing four different types of metals typically found in stormwater. Whole, unprocessed oyster shells are explored for use in stormwater management infrastructure that addresses water quality concerns. The role of the [...] Read more.
This research investigates the use of a common food waste product for removing four different types of metals typically found in stormwater. Whole, unprocessed oyster shells are explored for use in stormwater management infrastructure that addresses water quality concerns. The role of the shells’ surface area, exposure time, and the solution’s initial concentration on the removal efficiency were examined. Beaker scale experimental results demonstrated very good efficiency by the oyster shells for removing copper ions (80–95%), cadmium ions (50–90%), and zinc ions (30–80%) but the shells were not as effective in removing hexavalent chromium (20–60%). There was a positive relationship between initial concentration and removal efficiency for copper and zinc ions, a negative relationship for hexavalent chromium, and no relationship was found for cadmium ions. There was also a positive relationship between surface area and removal efficiency, and exposure time and removal efficiency. However, after a certain exposure time, the increase in removal efficiency was negligible and desorption was occasionally observed. A mid-scale experiment to mimic real-world conditions was conducted in which continuous inflow based on a 6-h design storm was applied to 2.7 kg of whole, unprocessed oyster shells. The shells provided an 86% and an 84% removal efficiency of cadmium and copper ions, respectively, in one day of hydraulic retention time. No removal was observed for hexavalent chromium, and zinc ion removal was only observed after initial leaching. This work has significant implications for sustainable stormwater infrastructure design using a material commonly found in municipal food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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26 pages, 8158 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning Aided Design and Prediction of Environmentally Friendly Rubberised Concrete
by Xu Huang, Jiaqi Zhang, Jessada Sresakoolchai and Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Sustainability 2021, 13(4), 1691; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041691 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Not only can waste rubber enhance the properties of concrete (e.g., its dynamic damping and abrasion resistance capacity), its rational utilisation can also dramatically reduce environmental pollution and carbon footprint globally. This study is the world’s first to develop a novel machine learning-aided [...] Read more.
Not only can waste rubber enhance the properties of concrete (e.g., its dynamic damping and abrasion resistance capacity), its rational utilisation can also dramatically reduce environmental pollution and carbon footprint globally. This study is the world’s first to develop a novel machine learning-aided design and prediction of environmentally friendly concrete using waste rubber, which can drive sustainable development of infrastructure systems towards net-zero emission, which saves time and cost. In this study, artificial neuron networks (ANN) have been established to determine the design relationship between various concrete mix composites and their multiple mechanical properties simultaneously. Interestingly, it is found that almost all previous studies on the ANNs could only predict one kind of mechanical property. To enable multiple mechanical property predictions, ANN models with various architectural algorithms, hidden neurons and layers are built and tailored for benchmarking in this study. Comprehensively, all three hundred and fifty-three experimental data sets of rubberised concrete available in the open literature have been collected. In this study, the mechanical properties in focus consist of the compressive strength at day 7 (CS7), the compressive strength at day 28 (CS28), the flexural strength (FS), the tensile strength (TS) and the elastic modulus (EM). The optimal ANN architecture has been identified by customising and benchmarking the algorithms (Levenberg–Marquardt (LM), Bayesian Regularisation (BR) and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG)), hidden layers (1–2) and hidden neurons (1–30). The performance of the optimal ANN architecture has been assessed by employing the mean squared error (MSE) and the coefficient of determination (R2). In addition, the prediction accuracy of the optimal ANN model has ben compared with that of the multiple linear regression (MLR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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16 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Evaluation of Geopolymer Concrete Made with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash
by Priyanka Morla, Rishi Gupta, Peiman Azarsa and Ashutosh Sharma
Sustainability 2021, 13(1), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13010398 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3520
Abstract
Environmental pollution caused by CO2 releasing from the production of cement is a great challenge for the construction industry and has triggered exploration into more sustainable alternatives. Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) is a potential sustainable solution that does not involve the use of [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution caused by CO2 releasing from the production of cement is a great challenge for the construction industry and has triggered exploration into more sustainable alternatives. Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) is a potential sustainable solution that does not involve the use of cement as a binder. GPC is produced by mixing the alumino-silicate source materials such as fly-ash with alkali activators such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) and potassium silicate (K2SiO3). Unlike Ordinary Portland Concrete (OPC), the characteristics of GPC depend on the precursor materials and therefore vary for different mixes. Consequently, corrosion behavior needs to be evaluated separately for individual mixes. This has narrowed the scope of existing published work on corrosion behavior of GPC. In this study, GPC and OPC specimens were prepared and exposed to accelerated corrosion exposure. Half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance were used to evaluate the corrosion rate in GPC and OPC. Under accelerated conditions, the corrosion rate of the GPC specimens was between 10 µm/year and 20 µm/year exhibiting a moderate to high rate of corrosion. Meanwhile, the corrosion rate of the OPC specimens was between 40 µm/year and 60 µm/year indicating a very high corrosion activity. It can be concluded that GPC has a higher resistance to chloride-induced corrosion; with a low corrosion rate and lower mass loss percentage, compared to OPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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16 pages, 5592 KiB  
Article
Novel Integration of Geopolymer Pavers, Silva Cells and Poplar Trees for In-Situ Treatment of Car-Wash Wastewater
by Rishi Gupta, Neeta Raj Sharma, Caterina Valeo, Mohit Garg, Ashutosh Sharma, Sakshi Aneja, Shiv O. Prasher and C. Peter Constabel
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8472; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208472 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
This paper presents an eco-friendly, low-impact development (LID) approach, developed and implemented at a car wash site for a cleaner and greener environment. In this approach, the contaminated water discharged after car washing is treated as it is directed through an engineered, ecology-based [...] Read more.
This paper presents an eco-friendly, low-impact development (LID) approach, developed and implemented at a car wash site for a cleaner and greener environment. In this approach, the contaminated water discharged after car washing is treated as it is directed through an engineered, ecology-based water-management design. The design involves poplar (Populus deltoides) trees, Silva Cells®, and Fly-ash based Geopolymer concrete pavers working collectively to minimize the percolation of contaminants into the soil. In this novel system, each component has a vital role. For instance, the extensive roots of the poplar trees enable water filtration owing to phytoremediation effect; while the Silva Cells® promote stormwater management, planting of poplar trees and serve as a foundation for paver blocks. Lastly, the paver blocks made from industrial waste allow it to withstand urban load and infiltrate water runoff, thereby reducing runoff quantities. To evaluate the efficacy of contaminant uptake by this system, pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity, which are indicators of water quality levels, were monitored pre- and post-treatment. The percentage change in total dissolved solids indicates the potential of this treatment system for effective treatment of the contaminated car wash water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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Review

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31 pages, 2840 KiB  
Review
Stormwater Runoff Treatment Using Pervious Concrete Modified with Various Nanomaterials: A Comprehensive Review
by Vahid Alimohammadi, Mehdi Maghfouri, Delaram Nourmohammadi, Pejman Azarsa, Rishi Gupta and Mohammad Saberian
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8552; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158552 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4266
Abstract
Clean water is a vital need for all living creatures during their lifespan. However, contaminated stormwater is a major issue around the globe. A wide range of contaminants, including heavy metals, organic and inorganic impurities, has been discovered in stormwater. Some commonly utilized [...] Read more.
Clean water is a vital need for all living creatures during their lifespan. However, contaminated stormwater is a major issue around the globe. A wide range of contaminants, including heavy metals, organic and inorganic impurities, has been discovered in stormwater. Some commonly utilized methods, such as biological, physical and chemical procedures, have been considered to overcome these issues. However, these current approaches result in moderate to low contaminant removal efficiencies for certain classes of contaminants. Of late, filtration and adsorption processes have become more featured in permeable concretes (PCs) for the treatment of stormwater. As nanoparticles have vast potential and unique characterizations, such as a higher surface area to cure polluted stormwater, employing them to improve permeable concretes’ capabilities in stormwater treatment systems is an effective way to increase filtration and adsorption mechanisms. The present study reviews the removal rate of different stormwater contaminants such as heavy metals, organic and other pollutants using nanoparticle-improved PC. The application of different kinds of nanomaterials in PC as porous media to investigate their influences on the properties of PC, including the permeability rate, compressive strength, adsorption capacity and mix design of such concrete, was also studied. The findings of this review show that different types of nanomaterials improve the removal efficiency, compressive strength and adsorption capacity and decrease the infiltration rate of PC during the stormwater treatment process. With regard to the lack of comprehensive investigation concerning the use of nanomaterials in PC to treat polluted stormwater runoff, this study reviews 242 published articles on the removal rate of different stormwater contaminants by using PC improved with nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Sustainable Materials and Construction Technologies)
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