Strength and Conditioning Society 2023: Sports Performance, Injury Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Health Improvement

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 8278

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
UCAM Research Center for High Performance Sport, UCAM Universidad Católica de Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
Interests: strength training; power training; sprint training; soccer; football; basketball; training load; injury prevention
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
School of Physical Education and Sports Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Interests: muscle metabolism; muscle fatigue and recovery; muscle damage; oxidative stress; high-intensity interval training; neuromuscular performance; eccentric exercise
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UCAM Research Center for High Performance Sport, UCAM Universidad Católica de Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
Interests: strength and conditioning; performance assessment; training load; team-sports; soccer

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UCAM Research Center for High Performance Sport, Catholic University of Murcia, 30107 Murcia, Spain
Interests: strength and conditioning; performance assessment; sprint and change of direction; power training; strength training; team sports; basketball; soccer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On the occasion of the Strength and Conditioning Society (SCS) 6th Annual Conference and Hellenic Society of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise (EEVFA) 11th International Congress of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise held in the headquarters of the Hellenic Olympic Committee, we are delighted to host this Special Issue of Sports (Basel), the SCS’ publishing partner. The Special Issue aims to disseminate evidence-based training approaches and publish studies related to applied strength and conditioning practices with implications for sports performance, injury prevention, rehabilitation, and health improvement. We are particularly interested in providing authors that submitted an abstract to the SCS 6th Annual Conference with the opportunity to publish the full-text version of their work in this Special Issue. Nevertheless, we extend the invitation to all authors who wish to submit their research with athletes from different sports, competitive levels, age categories, and training backgrounds.

Sports performance is complex and multifactorial, and studies focused on strength, power, and speed training and testing practices, aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, injury risk mitigation and health improvement in athletic populations are required to provide practitioners with up-to-date scientific evidence. We recognize that conducting research in real-world settings is challenging and that the methodological approaches used in these situations may differ from those employed in laboratory settings. However, we are aware that the results from applied research are more likely to be implemented in high-performance sport environments. Original articles, reviews, case studies, short reports and opinion pieces are welcomed.

Dr. Pedro E. Alcaraz
Prof. Dr. Gregory C. Bogdanis
Dr. Konstantinos Spyrou
Dr. Tomás T. Freitas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • athletic performance
  • injury
  • testing
  • health
  • strength-power training
  • speed development
  • endurance
  • training programming

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Does Total Playing Time Affect the Neuromuscular, Physiological, and Subjective Recovery of Futsal Players during a Congested Period?
by Konstantinos Spyrou, María L. Pérez Armendáriz, Pedro E. Alcaraz, Rubén Herrero Carrasco, M. A. Sajith Udayanga and Tomás T. Freitas
Sports 2024, 12(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12050139 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
The aims of this study were to analyze the effects of a congested period (three games in four days) on countermovement (CMJ) jump-landing metrics, heart rate variability (HRV), and total recovery quality (TQR) score in under-19 male futsal players, and to detect the [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to analyze the effects of a congested period (three games in four days) on countermovement (CMJ) jump-landing metrics, heart rate variability (HRV), and total recovery quality (TQR) score in under-19 male futsal players, and to detect the differences between those who played for more minutes (HIGHMIN) and less minutes (LOWMIN). Fourteen youth futsal players (age: 17.5 ± 0.5 years; body mass: 70.2 ± 8.5 kg; height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m) participated. HRV, TQR questionnaire, and CMJ metrics (i.e., CMJ height, relative peak power (PPREL), eccentric and concentric impulse, braking time, and time to peak force) were registered. A linear mixed model and effect sizes (ESs) were used to assess the differences between groups and days. Considering the total sample, a significant decrease was found in the PPREL and TQR score (p = 0.001–0.013 and ES = 0.28–0.99) on Days 2, 3, and 4 when compared to Day 1. HIGHMIN group presented a significant decrease in PPREL on Day 3 (p = 0.004; ES: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39–2.65) when compared to Day 1, and in the TRQ score on Day 3 (p = 0.002; ES: 1.98; 95% CI: 0.18–2.46) and 4 (p = 0.003; ES: 2.25; 95% CI: 0.52–3.38) when compared to Day 1. Non-significant differences were found for the rest of the metrics and in the group LOWMIN. In summary, neuromuscular performance (i.e., CMJ PPREL) and subjective recovery were impaired in players with higher playing minutes during a match-congested period when compared to those with less on-court time. Full article
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16 pages, 3475 KiB  
Article
Force Production and Electromyographic Activity during Different Flywheel Deadlift Exercises
by Sergio Maroto-Izquierdo, David García-López, Marco Beato, Iker J. Bautista, José L. Hernández-Davó, Javier Raya-González and Fernando Martín-Rivera
Sports 2024, 12(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12040095 - 29 Mar 2024
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Abstract
This study aimed to characterize and compare force production and muscle activity during four flywheel deadlift exercises (bilateral [Bi] vs. unilateral [Uni]) with different loading conditions (vertical [Ver] vs. horizontal [Hor]). Twenty-three team-sport athletes underwent assessments for exercise kinetics (hand-grip force), along with [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize and compare force production and muscle activity during four flywheel deadlift exercises (bilateral [Bi] vs. unilateral [Uni]) with different loading conditions (vertical [Ver] vs. horizontal [Hor]). Twenty-three team-sport athletes underwent assessments for exercise kinetics (hand-grip force), along with surface electromyography (sEMG) of the proximal (BFProx) and medial biceps femoris (BFMed), semitendinosus (ST), and gluteus medius (GM). Mean and peak force were highest (p < 0.001) in Bi + Ver compared with Bi + Hor, Uni + Ver, and Uni + Hor. Although no significant differences were observed between Bi + Hor and Uni + Ver, both variants showed higher (p < 0.001) average force and peak eccentric force when compared with Uni + Hor. The presence of eccentric overload was only observed in the vertically loaded variants. Bi + Ver and Uni + Ver showed higher (p < 0.05) sEMG levels in BFProx and BFMed compared with the Uni + Hor variant. In addition, Uni + Ver registered the largest GM and ST sEMG values. In conclusion, the vertical variants of the flywheel deadlift exercise led to higher muscle force production and sEMG compared with their horizontal counterparts. Both Bi + Ver and Uni + Ver may be effective in promoting an increase in hamstring muscles activity and muscle force at long muscle length, while the Uni + Ver variant may be more effective in promoting GM and ST involvement. Full article
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12 pages, 630 KiB  
Article
Effects of Warm-Ups with Weighted Vests and Resistance Bands on Physical Fitness and Combat Ability of Kumite Karate Athletes
by Christos Ioannides, Chrysanthi Despotopoulou, Marios Hadjicharalambous and Nikolaos Zaras
Sports 2024, 12(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12030079 - 12 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a dynamic warm-up either with weighted vests (WVs) or with resistance bands (RBs) may enhance the physical fitness and combat ability of kumite karate athletes. Nine male athletes (age range from 16 to 30 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a dynamic warm-up either with weighted vests (WVs) or with resistance bands (RBs) may enhance the physical fitness and combat ability of kumite karate athletes. Nine male athletes (age range from 16 to 30 years), participated in this study. Athletes followed three different warm-up programs in a randomized order: (a) with their body mass only (C), (b) with a WV of 10% load of their body mass and (c) with a wearable RB of 10% tension of their body mass. Following the warm-up, athletes performed the following tests: countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (LJ), punch and kick reaction time, bench press throws, T-Half test and the kick frequency test. CMJ remained unaltered following the WV and RB warm-up compared to the C. Standing long jump increased significantly following the RB warm-up compared to the C (2.2 ± 1.7%, p = 0.011). Punch reaction time was significantly shortened following the RB warm-up compared to C (−7.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.019). No changes were observed for kick reaction time, bench press throws or the T-Half test. The kick decrement index, measured from the kick frequency test, was significantly decreased following the RB warm-up compared to the C (33.1 ± 20.2%, p = 0.011). These results suggest that an RB warm-up may significantly enhance the physical fitness and combat ability in kumite karate athletes. Full article
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11 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Post-Activation Performance Enhancement (PAPE) Increases Jumping Power in Elite Female Volleyball Athletes
by Rahel Heynen, Micah Gross, Thomas Betschen and Klaus Hübner
Sports 2024, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12010022 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1886
Abstract
This study investigated PAPE effects of two conditioning activities (CA) and recovery times on the peak jumping power (PP) of elite female volleyball athletes. Players performed CA separately: three sets of three repetitions of back squats with 85% of 1RM (BS) or one [...] Read more.
This study investigated PAPE effects of two conditioning activities (CA) and recovery times on the peak jumping power (PP) of elite female volleyball athletes. Players performed CA separately: three sets of three repetitions of back squats with 85% of 1RM (BS) or one set of five depth drops (DD). PP was measured with countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) before (pre-test) and two minutes (post-test 1) and six hours (post-test 2) after each CA. BS significantly reduced PP at post-test 1 (CMJ and SJ: p < 0.04, d between −0.36 and −0.28). At post-test 2, following BS, PP for both jump forms was significantly greater than at post-test 1 (p < 0.001, d between 0.54 and 0.55) and at pre-test (p < 0.048, d between 0.21 and 0.30). DD increased PP significantly (CMJ and SJ p < 0.05, d between 0.40 and 0.41) relative to pre-test at post-test 2 (there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test 1). Comparing BS with DD, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05). The greatest PAPE effects were observed six hours after BS. CA are recommended for female athletes to improve jumping performance, but individual responses should be determined prior to use. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 275 KiB  
Review
The Best Current Research on Patellar Tendinopathy: A Review of Published Meta-Analyses
by Rafael Llombart, Gonzalo Mariscal, Carlos Barrios and Rafael Llombart-Ais
Sports 2024, 12(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12020046 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Patellar tendinopathy is a frequent overuse injury in sports that can cause significant pain and disability. It requires evidence-based guidelines on effective prevention and management. However, optimal treatments remain uncertain. We aimed to analyze available meta-analyses to summarize treatment recommendations, compare therapeutic modalities, [...] Read more.
Patellar tendinopathy is a frequent overuse injury in sports that can cause significant pain and disability. It requires evidence-based guidelines on effective prevention and management. However, optimal treatments remain uncertain. We aimed to analyze available meta-analyses to summarize treatment recommendations, compare therapeutic modalities, examine included trials, and offer methodological suggestions to improve future systematic reviews. Meta-analyses were systematically searched for in PubMed (PROSPERO: CRD42023457963). A total of 21 meta-analyses were included. The AMSTAR-2 scale assessed study quality, which was low, with only 23.8% of the meta-analyses being of moderate quality, and none were considered to be of high quality. Heterogeneous outcomes are reported. Multiple platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections appear superior to eccentric exercises and provide lasting improvements compared to eccentric exercises when conservative treatments fail. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) also seems superior to non-operative options and similar to surgery for patellar tendinopathy in the long term. However, evidence for eccentric exercise efficacy remains unclear due to inconclusive findings. Preliminary findings also emerged for genetic risk factors and diagnostic methods but require further confirmation. This review reveals a lack of high-quality evidence on optimal patellar tendinopathy treatments. While PRP and ESWT show promise, limitations persist. Further rigorous meta-analyses and trials are needed to strengthen the evidence base and guide clinical practice. Methodological enhancements are proposed to improve future meta-analyses. Full article

Other

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54 pages, 487 KiB  
Conference Report
SCS 6th Annual Meeting—EEVFA—11th International Congress of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise, Athens, Greece, 2023
by Pedro E. Alcaraz, Elena Marín-Cascales, Anthony J. Blazevich, Tomás T. Freitas, Olyvia Donti, Konstantinos Spyrou and Gregory C. Bogdanis
Sports 2024, 12(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports12050126 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
On behalf of the Strength and Conditioning Society (SCS) and the Hellenic Society of Biochemistry and Exercise Physiology (EEVFA), we are pleased to present the abstracts of the SCS 6th Annual Meeting and EEVFA—11th International Congress of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise. The [...] Read more.
On behalf of the Strength and Conditioning Society (SCS) and the Hellenic Society of Biochemistry and Exercise Physiology (EEVFA), we are pleased to present the abstracts of the SCS 6th Annual Meeting and EEVFA—11th International Congress of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise. The event was held at the Hellenic Olympic Committee headquarters in Athens, Greece, on 19–22 October 2023, and comprised several invited sessions from international and national speakers on a variety of topics related to biochemistry and exercise physiology, strength and conditioning practices and their application to health, injury prevention and sports performance. These included strength training in high-performance sports, sport science and training–competition load management in elite environments, biochemistry and exercise physiology and prescription, nutrition and biomechanics, among others. The conference also included different practical workshops conducted by renowned academics and practitioners on eccentric training, change of direction ability and strength and power training in professional team-sports, and ergospirometry and exercise prescription in specific populations. Finally, the event disseminated up-to-date strength and conditioning research by providing practitioners and researchers with the opportunity to present their most recent findings. In this regard, all abstracts of the communications presented at the SCS 6th Annual Meeting—EEVFA—11th International Congress of Biochemistry and Physiology of Exercise can be found in this Conference Report. Full article
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