Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 September 2022) | Viewed by 22032

Special Issue Editors

Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan
Interests: battery management system; cloud management; distributed energy storage system; X-ray power design; short-pulse power converter for plasma
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (PO Box 123), Australia
Interests: renewable energy integration and stabilization; voltage stability; micro grids and smart grids; robust control; electric vehicles; building energy management systems; battery energy storage systems and distributed generations
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The demand for energy or power conversion is gradually rising, including the rapid growth of renewable energy, electrification of transportation, industrial automation, energy storage systems, electric vehicle, as well as data storage systems. Consequently, power electronics have become key techniques in power systems. However, we often face design challenges including reliability and power efficiency, reduced size and weight, etc.

This Special Issue on “Applications of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System” will contain the results of the most advanced and latest research and will particularly focus on the development and practical considerations for power conversion and next-generation power electronic techniques. The topics covered in this issue comprise, but are not limited to, the following items.

  • new technologies for power converters design;
  • energy storage technologies;
  • smart grid and microgrid;
  • sustainable electrical energy systems;
  • renewable energy technologies;
  • hybrid and electric vehicles

Prof. Dr. Chang-Hua Lin
Prof. Dr. Jahangir Hossain
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • power converter
  • energy management systems
  • energy storage technologies
  • renewable energy conversion
  • smart grid and microgrid
  • sustainable electrical energy systems
  • renewable energy technologies
  • hybrid and electric vehicle

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
Robust Intelligent Tracking Control Technique for Single-Phase SPWM Inverters
Processes 2023, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11010013 - 21 Dec 2022
Viewed by 959
Abstract
This paper presents a robust intelligent tracking-control technique which is subsequently applied to single-phase SPWM inverters. The proposed technique mixes advanced sliding mode control (ASMC) with grey-Markov model (GMM). The advanced sliding mode control allows the system state to converge quickly to the [...] Read more.
This paper presents a robust intelligent tracking-control technique which is subsequently applied to single-phase SPWM inverters. The proposed technique mixes advanced sliding mode control (ASMC) with grey-Markov model (GMM). The advanced sliding mode control allows the system state to converge quickly to the origin in a limited amount of time. Unfortunately, a chattering problem frequently occurs when the inverter suffers drastically from highly nonlinear or internal parameters changes. The large power losses and high harmonic distortion emerge in the inverter output. The role that the grey-Markov model plays is to reduce the chattering of the ASMC during system uncertainty overestimation, or to reduce the steady-state error caused by underestimation of system uncertainty. In conjunction with the GMM and the ASMC, fast transient response, low distortion of the sinusoidal output-voltage and reduced chattering can be obtained. Simulation results of the proposed single-phase SPWM inverter are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The experimental results have been validated through digital signal processors, enabling the single-phase SPWM inverter output to effectively improve the transient tracking speed and steady-state performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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14 pages, 4165 KiB  
Article
Swing Steadiness Regulation of Electric Vehicles with Improved Neural Network PID Algorithm
Processes 2022, 10(10), 2106; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10102106 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 993
Abstract
With the intensification of global environmental pollution and the energy crisis, the new energy EV industry is developing rapidly, and FWID-EV is a popular direction for future vehicle development. For the sake of improving the swing regulate steadiness and safety of EV, the [...] Read more.
With the intensification of global environmental pollution and the energy crisis, the new energy EV industry is developing rapidly, and FWID-EV is a popular direction for future vehicle development. For the sake of improving the swing regulate steadiness and safety of EV, the study uses a particle swarm algorithm to optimize and improve the BP neural network PID, and designs an EV steering regulator to regulate the transverse swing torque and slip rate of EV to improve the safety and steadiness of EV steering. The research results display that the maximum value of the transverse swing angular velocity of the regulation algorithm is 0.156 rad/s, that the car slip rate is controlled within 0.046, and the steadiness is high, and that the maximum values of the car torque under the double shift line and snake conditions are 100 N-m and 179.4 N-m, respectively, which can effectively avoid the danger caused by steering. This demonstrates that the improved neural network PID regulator can effectively distribute the steering torque of the EV and improve the steering steadiness and safety of the EV while maintaining the driving dynamics. The use of the improved neural network PID algorithm to achieve the steering steadiness regulation of EV is of great significance to improve the safety of new energy EV, and helps to promote the widespread use of new energy EV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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70 pages, 36135 KiB  
Article
Improving the Dynamic Performance of a Variable Speed DFIG for Energy Conversion Purposes Using an Effective Control System
Processes 2022, 10(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030456 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1154
Abstract
The present paper aims to introduce an effective control system which enhances the dynamics of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) operating at fixed and variable speeds. To visualize the effectiveness of the formulated control algorithm, the performance of the DFIG is evaluated [...] Read more.
The present paper aims to introduce an effective control system which enhances the dynamics of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) operating at fixed and variable speeds. To visualize the effectiveness of the formulated control algorithm, the performance of the DFIG is evaluated using other control techniques as well. Each control algorithm is primarily described by showing its operation principles and how it is adapted to manage the DFIG’s operation. The main used control strategies are stator voltage-oriented control (SVOC), model predictive current control (MPCC), model predictive direct torque control (MPDTC), and the formulated predictive voltage control (PVC) algorithm. A detailed comparison is performed between the controllers’ performances, through which the advantages and shortcomings of each method are outlined, and finally, the most effective technique is identified amongst them. The obtained results reveal that the proposed PVC approach possesses multiple advantages such as a faster dynamic response and simpler control structure when compared with SVOC and a faster dynamic response, reduced ripples, and reduced computational burdens when compared with the MPCC and MPDTC approaches. In addition, the robustness of the proposed PVC scheme is confirmed by performing extensive performance evaluation tests considering the parameters’ variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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14 pages, 3043 KiB  
Article
Optimal Quick-Response Variable Structure Control for Highly Efficient Single-Phase Sine-Wave Inverters
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122132 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1356
Abstract
This paper puts forward an optimal quick-response variable structure control with a single-phase sine-wave inverter application, which keeps harmonic distortion as low as possible under various conditions of loading. Our proposed solution gives an improvement in architecture in which a quick-response variable structure [...] Read more.
This paper puts forward an optimal quick-response variable structure control with a single-phase sine-wave inverter application, which keeps harmonic distortion as low as possible under various conditions of loading. Our proposed solution gives an improvement in architecture in which a quick-response variable structure control (QRVSC) is combined with a brain storm optimization (BSO) algorithm. Notwithstanding the intrinsic resilience of a typical VSC with respect to changes in plant parameters and loading disruptions, the system state convergence towards zero normally proceeds at an infinitely long-time asymptotically, and chattering behavior frequently takes place. The QRVSC for ensuring speedy limited-time convergence with the system state to the balancing point is devised, whilst the BSO will be employed to appropriately regulate the parametric gains in the QRVSC for the elimination of chattering phenomena. From the mix of both a QRVSC together with a BSO, a low total harmonic distortion (THD) as well as a high dynamic response across different types of loading is generated by a closed-loop inverter. The proposed solution is implemented on a practicable single-phase sine-wave inverter under the control of a TI DSP (Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processor). It has experimentally shown the simulation findings as well as the mathematical theoretical analysis, displaying that both quick transient reaction as well as stable performance could be obtained. The proposed solution successfully inhibits voltage harmonics in compliance with IEEE 519-2014’s stringent standard of limiting THD values to less than 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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25 pages, 11637 KiB  
Article
Modified SPWM Control for a Single-Stage Differential Boost Inverter Applied in a BESS
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111861 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
This study aims to implement a single-stage differential boost inverter (SSDBI) applied in a single-stage battery energy storage system (BESS) topology that can supply power from a lower-voltage battery module to an alternating current (AC) load. Compared with the common two-stage topology, which [...] Read more.
This study aims to implement a single-stage differential boost inverter (SSDBI) applied in a single-stage battery energy storage system (BESS) topology that can supply power from a lower-voltage battery module to an alternating current (AC) load. Compared with the common two-stage topology, which has a two-stage converter and higher-voltage battery module array, the single-stage topology can reduce the number of cells and components and improve the power density. In addition, a modified sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) control was proposed to reduce the control complexity of the SSDBI while improving the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the inverter. The modified SPWM control can reduce the duty ratio of the SSDBI and the stress on the components in order to improve the AC voltage output waveform and reduce the THD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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21 pages, 10662 KiB  
Article
Bidirectional Resonant Converter for DC Microgrid Applications
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091664 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
A bidirectional resonant converter is presented and verified in this paper for an electric vehicle battery charger/discharger system. The presented circuit can achieve forward and backward power operation, low switching losses on active devices, and wide output voltage operation. The circuit structure of [...] Read more.
A bidirectional resonant converter is presented and verified in this paper for an electric vehicle battery charger/discharger system. The presented circuit can achieve forward and backward power operation, low switching losses on active devices, and wide output voltage operation. The circuit structure of the presented converter includes two resonant circuits on the primary and secondary sides of an isolated transformer. The frequency modulation approach is adopted to control the studied circuit. Owing to the resonant circuit characteristic, active devices for both forward (battery charge) and backward (battery discharge) power operation can be turned on at zero voltage switching. In order to implement a universal battery charger for different kinds of electric vehicle applications, the DC converter is demanded to have a wide output voltage range capability. The topology morphing between a full bridge resonant circuit and half bridge resonant circuit is selected to obtain high- and low-output voltage range operations so that the 200–500 V output voltage range is realized in the presented resonant converter. Compared to the conventional bidirectional converters, the proposed can be operated under a wide voltage range operation. In the end, a 1 kW laboratory prototype circuit is built, and experiments are provided to demonstrate the validity and performance of the presented bidirectional resonant converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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17 pages, 13161 KiB  
Article
Photovoltaic Module Fault Detection Based on a Convolutional Neural Network
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1635; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091635 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
With the rapid development of solar energy, the photovoltaic (PV) module fault detection plays an important role in knowing how to enhance the reliability of the solar photovoltaic system and knowing the fault type when a system problem occurs. Therefore, this paper proposed [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of solar energy, the photovoltaic (PV) module fault detection plays an important role in knowing how to enhance the reliability of the solar photovoltaic system and knowing the fault type when a system problem occurs. Therefore, this paper proposed the hybrid algorithm of chaos synchronization detection method (CSDM) with convolutional neural network (CNN) for studying PV module fault detection. Four common PV module states were discussed, including the normal PV module, module breakage, module contact defectiveness and module bypass diode failure. First of all, the defects in 16 pieces of 20W monocrystalline silicon PV modules were preprocessed, and there were four pieces of each fault state. When the signal generator delivered high frequency voltage to the PV module, the original signal was measured and captured by the NI PXI-5105 high-speed data acquisition system (DAS) and was calculated by CSDM, to establish the chaos dynamic error map as the image feature of fault diagnosis. Finally, the CNN was employed for diagnosing the fault state of the PV module. The findings show that after entering 400 random fault data (100 data for each fault) into the proposed method for recognition, the recognition accuracy rate of the proposed method was as high as 99.5%, which is better than the traditional ENN algorithm that had a recognition rate of 86.75%. In addition, the advantage of the proposed algorithm is that the mass original measured data can be reduced by CSDM, the subtle changes in the output signals are captured effectively and displayed in images, and the PV module fault state is accurately recognized by CNN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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14 pages, 9156 KiB  
Article
Compensation of Voltage Sags and Swells Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer Based on Bi-Directional H-Bridge AC/AC Converter
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091541 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2456
Abstract
In this paper, the compensation of voltage sags and swells using a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) based on a bi-directional AC/AC converter is presented for stabilizing single-phase AC line voltage. The H-bridge AC/AC converter with bi-directional switches and without bulk capacitor is adopted [...] Read more.
In this paper, the compensation of voltage sags and swells using a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) based on a bi-directional AC/AC converter is presented for stabilizing single-phase AC line voltage. The H-bridge AC/AC converter with bi-directional switches and without bulk capacitor is adopted as the power topology of the proposed system. The proposed novel topology of DVR is adopted to compensate both voltage sag and swell conditions. Additionally, the power factor is closed to unity because a bulk capacitor is not required. The inner and outer loop control is proposed to improve the response with gain scaling; gain control is adopted to reduce the overshoot. Finally, a 2 kVA prototype has been implemented to verify the performance and accuracy of the control method for the DVR system. The peak efficiency of the system is up to 94%, and it can compensate 50% voltage swells and 25% voltage sags. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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17 pages, 6052 KiB  
Article
Bridgeless Isolated AC LED Driver
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1173; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071173 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
A novel bridgeless isolated AC LED driver is developed, which improves LED utilization and application flexibility due to a coupled inductor inserted between the bidirectional switch and the LED module without any output electrolytic capacitor. By reducing the turns ratio of the coupled [...] Read more.
A novel bridgeless isolated AC LED driver is developed, which improves LED utilization and application flexibility due to a coupled inductor inserted between the bidirectional switch and the LED module without any output electrolytic capacitor. By reducing the turns ratio of the coupled inductor, the voltage across the secondary side will be decreased so as to lessen the voltage across the LED strings and hence reduce the number of LEDs, thereby making the load design of the AC LED driver more flexible. It is noted that the coupled inductor plays a role of not only galvanic isolation but also inductor behavior as well as transformer behavior. Therefore, during the turn-on period of the bidirectional switch, the coupled inductor can transfer the energy to one LED string and store the energy simultaneously, whereas during the turn-off period of the bidirectional switch, the coupled inductor can release the stored energy to the other LED string. That is, two LED strings are conducted over a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) period for any half-cycle, implying that LED utilization is upgraded. As for LED dimming, it is realized by directly tuning the control signal for the bidirectional switch without any dimming circuit. Eventually, the basic operating principles and theoretical deductions are given along with some experimental results provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed AC LED driver topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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14 pages, 3028 KiB  
Article
Novel High-Efficiency High Step-Up DC–DC Converter with Soft Switching and Low Component Voltage Stress for Photovoltaic System
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071112 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1630
Abstract
This study developed a novel, high-efficiency, high step-up DC–DC converter for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The converter can step-up the low output voltage of PV modules to the voltage level of the inverter and is used to feed into the grid. The converter can [...] Read more.
This study developed a novel, high-efficiency, high step-up DC–DC converter for photovoltaic (PV) systems. The converter can step-up the low output voltage of PV modules to the voltage level of the inverter and is used to feed into the grid. The converter can achieve a high step-up voltage through its architecture consisting of a three-winding coupled inductor common iron core on the low-voltage side and a half-wave voltage doubler circuit on the high-voltage side. The leakage inductance energy generated by the coupling inductor during the conversion process can be recovered by the capacitor on the low-voltage side to reduce the voltage surge on the power switch, which gives the power switch of the circuit a soft-switching effect. In addition, the half-wave voltage doubler circuit on the high-voltage side can recover the leakage inductance energy of the tertiary side and increase the output voltage. The advantages of the circuit are low loss, high efficiency, high conversion ratio, and low component voltage stress. Finally, a 500-W high step-up converter was experimentally tested to verify the feasibility and practicability of the proposed architecture. The results revealed that the highest efficiency of the circuit is 98%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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16 pages, 5047 KiB  
Article
Analysis of a PWM Converter with Less Current Ripple, Wide Voltage Operation and Zero-Voltage Switching
Processes 2021, 9(4), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9040580 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1525
Abstract
This paper studies and implements a power converter to have less current ripple output and wide voltage input operation. A three-leg converter with different primary turns is presented on its high-voltage side to extend the input voltage range. The current doubler rectification circuit [...] Read more.
This paper studies and implements a power converter to have less current ripple output and wide voltage input operation. A three-leg converter with different primary turns is presented on its high-voltage side to extend the input voltage range. The current doubler rectification circuit is adopted on the output side to have low current ripple capability. From the switching states of the three-leg converter, the presented circuit has two equivalent sub-circuits under different input voltage ranges (Vin = 120–270 V or 270–600 V). The general phase-shift pulse-width modulation is employed to control the presented converter so that power devices can be turned on at zero voltage in order to reduce switching loss. Compared to two-stage circuit topologies with a wide voltage input operation, the presented converter has the benefits of simple circuit structure, easy control algorithm using a general integrated circuit or digital controller, and less components. The performance of the presented circuit is confirmed and validated by an 800 W laboratory prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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14 pages, 4140 KiB  
Article
Analysis of a Series‑Parallel Resonant Converter for DC Microgrid Applications
Processes 2021, 9(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030542 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2546
Abstract
An input-series output-parallel soft switching resonant circuit with balance input voltage and primary-side current is studied and implemented for direct current (DC) microgrid system applications. Two resonant circuits are connected with input-series and output-parallel structure to have the advantages of low voltage stresses [...] Read more.
An input-series output-parallel soft switching resonant circuit with balance input voltage and primary-side current is studied and implemented for direct current (DC) microgrid system applications. Two resonant circuits are connected with input-series and output-parallel structure to have the advantages of low voltage stresses on active devices and low current stresses on power diodes. A balance capacitor is adopted on high voltage side to balance two input capacitor voltages. The LLC (inductor–inductor–capacitor) resonant circuit cells are employed in the converter to have soft switching operation for power semiconductors. The magnetic coupling component is adopted on the primary-side to automatically realize current balance of the two resonant circuits. In the end, a laboratory hardware circuit is built and tested. Experiments demonstrate and prove the validity of the resonant converter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Power Electronics Technologies in Power System)
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