Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 4832

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China
Interests: medical waste; mercury waste; waste lead battery; hazardous waste

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Interests: medical waste; mercury waste; waste lead battery; hazardous waste
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Interests: medical waste; mercury waste; waste lead battery; hazardous waste

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will focus on the characteristics of pollutant generation and discharge in the process of solid waste/hazardous waste generation, discharge, disposal and resource utilization; focus on the latest progress in solid waste/hazardous waste harmlessness, reduction and recycling technology, energy conservation and environmental protection; will focus on the innovation and development of a solid waste/hazardous waste system, technical system, market system and regulatory system; and exchange the latest innovative technologies and management practices applied in this field worldwide.

The scope of this Special Issue includes, but is not limited to, the following:

  1. Research on the application of non-thermal plasma and environment-friendly functional material coupling technology in the field of solid waste/hazardous waste thermal treatment and the utilization process;
  2. Research on solid waste/hazardous waste disposal, resource utilization and secondary pollution control process technology and industrialization.
  3. Research on technologies and management methods related to pollution reduction, carbon reduction and synergistic efficiency in the enterprises, industry and industrial realms.

Dr. Yang Chen
Dr. Qinzhong Feng
Dr. Liyuan Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mercury-containing waste
  • lead-containing waste
  • medical waste, hazardous waste, recovery and resource utilization technology
  • environmentally sound management
  • standard and regulations

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Co-Product of Pracaxi Seeds: Quantification of Epicatechin by HPLC-DAD and Microencapsulation of the Extract by Spray Drying
by Raimundo Lopes da Silva, Lindalva Maria de Meneses Costa Ferreira, José Otávio Carréra Silva-Júnior, Attilio Converti and Roseane Maria Ribeiro-Costa
Processes 2024, 12(5), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12050997 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 361
Abstract
In the industrial processing of fruits, co-products are generated, which are often not used. The pracaxi co-product, obtained by cold pressing its seeds, contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, which in this work were extracted and microencapsulated by spray drying. The pracaxi extract [...] Read more.
In the industrial processing of fruits, co-products are generated, which are often not used. The pracaxi co-product, obtained by cold pressing its seeds, contains phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity, which in this work were extracted and microencapsulated by spray drying. The pracaxi extract was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD), and its antioxidant activity was quantified by the ABTS and DPPH assays. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents in the extract and microparticles were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Microparticles were then characterized regarding their moisture content, morphology (by scanning electron microscopy), size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. The FTIR spectra revealed functional groups that may be related to phenolic compounds. The extract showed good antioxidant activity according to both selected assays, while the HPLC-DAD analysis evidenced epicatechin as the main compound, whose content was quantified and validated according to the guidelines of recognized national and international agencies. The total polyphenol contents were 20.61 ± 0.20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g in the extract and 18.48 ± 0.10 mg GAE/g in the microparticles, while the total flavonoid contents were 28.29 ± 0.70 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g and 13.73 ± 0.10 mg QE/g, respectively. Microparticles had a low moisture content, spherical shape, size less than 1 μm and negative zeta potential. Furthermore, they were able to satisfactorily retain phenolic compounds, although in a smaller amount compared to the extract due to small losses resulting from degradation during the drying process. These results, taken as a whole, demonstrate that the pracaxi co-product can be a promising candidate in obtaining products of interest for the cosmetic and food sectors by aiming to exploit its antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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14 pages, 1573 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk in Soil within the Zheng–Bian–Luo Urban Agglomeration
by Xiaolong Chen, Hongfeng Zhang, Cora Un In Wong, Fanbo Li and Sujun Xie
Processes 2024, 12(5), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12050996 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 388
Abstract
As urbanization accelerates, the contamination of urban soil and the consequent health implications stemming from urban expansion are increasingly salient. In recent years, a plethora of cities and regions nationwide have embarked on rigorous soil geological surveys with a focus on environmental quality, [...] Read more.
As urbanization accelerates, the contamination of urban soil and the consequent health implications stemming from urban expansion are increasingly salient. In recent years, a plethora of cities and regions nationwide have embarked on rigorous soil geological surveys with a focus on environmental quality, yielding invaluable foundational data. This research aims to develop scientifically robust and rational land-use planning strategies while assessing the levels of heavy metal pollution and associated risks. The urban agglomeration encompassing Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Kaifeng (referred to as Zheng–Bian–Luo Urban Agglomeration) in Henan Province was designated as the study area. Leveraging the Nemerow comprehensive index method alongside the Hakanson potential ecological risk assessment method, this study delved into the pollution levels and potential ecological ramifications of nine heavy metals, namely Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Co. Research indicates that the hierarchy of individual potential ecological risks ranges from most to least significant as follows: Cd > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Zn > As > Mn > Co. The concentrations of Cd in both Zhengzhou and Kaifeng surpassed the established background levels. Furthermore, the mean single-factor pollution index values for the heavy metals Cd and Zn exceeded 1, signifying a state of minor pollution. The Nemerow comprehensive index P of Cd and Zn is between 1 < Pcomp ≤ 2, which is considered mild pollution. The comprehensive P values of the other seven metal elements are all less than 0.7, reaching a clean (alert) level. Predominantly, the primary potential risk factor in the superficial soil of the Zheng–Bian–Luo urban agglomeration is Cd, while the ecological risk implications associated with other heavy metal elements are comparatively minimal. The soil environmental quality within the designated study area remains secure, although certain localized areas pose potential risks of heavy metal pollution. A comprehensive assessment of the current state of soil heavy metal pollution is essential to establish a theoretical foundation and provide technical support for soil environmental protection, pollution mitigation, and sustainable utilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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19 pages, 5959 KiB  
Article
Raman Technology for Process Control: Waste Shell Demineralization for Producing Transparent Polymer Foils Reinforced with Natural Antioxidants and Calcium Acetate By-Products
by Simona Cîntă Pînzaru, Iuliana-Cornelia Poplăcean, Karlo Maškarić, Dănuț-Alexandru Dumitru, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Tudor-Liviu Tămaș, Fran Nekvapil and Bogdan Neculai
Processes 2024, 12(4), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040832 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Waste biogenic materials derived from seafood exploitation represent valuable resources of new compounds within the blue bioeconomy concept. Here, we describe the effectiveness of Raman technology implementation as an in-line tool for the demineralization process control of crustaceans or gastropods. Transparent chitin polymeric [...] Read more.
Waste biogenic materials derived from seafood exploitation represent valuable resources of new compounds within the blue bioeconomy concept. Here, we describe the effectiveness of Raman technology implementation as an in-line tool for the demineralization process control of crustaceans or gastropods. Transparent chitin polymeric foils and calcium acetate by-products were obtained from three waste crustacean shells (C. sapidus, S. mantis, and M. squinado) using a slow, green chemical approach employing acetic acid. Progressive mineral dissolution and increasing of the Raman characteristic signal of chitin is shown in a time-dependent manner using NIR-Raman spectroscopy, while resonance Raman shows intact carotenoids in reacted shells after 2 weeks. Chitin foil products are species-specific, and the demineralization bath of the waste shell mixture can be effectively tracked by Raman tools for solvent control and decision making for the recovery of calcium acetate by-products. Comparatively obtained calcium acetate from Rapana venosa snail shells, the subject of Raman analyses, allowed assessing by-product identity, hydration status, purity, and suitability as recrystallized material for further use as a pharmaceutical compound derived from different crustaceans or gastropod species. Cross validation of the results was done using FT-IR, XRD, and SEM-EDX techniques. A hand-held flexible TacticID Raman system with 1064 nm excitation demonstrated its effectiveness as a rapid, in-line decision making tool during process control and revealed excellent reproducibility of the lab-based instrument signal, suitable for in situ evaluation of the demineralization status and solvent saturation control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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21 pages, 8134 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in Chenzhou City
by Yingfeng Kuang, Xiaolong Chen and Chun Zhu
Processes 2024, 12(3), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030623 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The objective of this inquiry is to illuminate the attributes of heavy metal contamination and evaluate the potential ecological hazards inherent in the surface soil of Chenzhou City. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on 600 systematically collected soil samples within the study area, [...] Read more.
The objective of this inquiry is to illuminate the attributes of heavy metal contamination and evaluate the potential ecological hazards inherent in the surface soil of Chenzhou City. A comprehensive analysis was conducted on 600 systematically collected soil samples within the study area, utilizing enrichment factors, geo-accumulation indices, comprehensive pollution indices, potential ecological hazard indices, and health risk assessment models to evaluate the degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil, potential ecological risks, and associated health hazards. The findings reveal that the average enrichment factor (EF) for each heavy metal is below 2, with the hierarchy from highest to lowest being Hg > Cd > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr > As. Approximately 78.67% of soil samples exhibit no pollution to weak pollution levels based on heavy metal enrichment factors. Moreover, the comprehensive pollution index (IPIN) indicates that 95.17% of soil samples are within safe and pollution-free levels, indicating an overall environmentally secure setting. However, 2.67% of samples display heightened potential ecological risk levels, primarily concentrated in the southwestern region of the study area, influenced by nearby industrial activities. Additionally, it is noteworthy that both the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health hazards emanating from soil heavy metals to adult individuals lie within tolerable thresholds. Among these, arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) have been discerned as the principal non-carcinogenic agents. It is of particular significance that only a solitary soil specimen, located in the southwestern quadrant of the investigative region, manifests detectable health perils for children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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15 pages, 4010 KiB  
Article
Synergetic Mechanism of Multiple Industrial Solid Waste-Based Geopolymer Binder for Soil Stabilization: Optimization Using D-Optimal Mixture Design
by Xiaoli Wang, Xiancong Wang, Pingfeng Fu, Bolan Lei, Jinjin Shi and Miao Xu
Processes 2024, 12(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030436 - 21 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
In order to improve the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste and the road quality, a novel low-carbon and environmental friendly soil stabilizer is proposed. In this study, steel slag (SS), carbide slag (CS), blast furnace slag (BFS), fly ash (FA), and [...] Read more.
In order to improve the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste and the road quality, a novel low-carbon and environmental friendly soil stabilizer is proposed. In this study, steel slag (SS), carbide slag (CS), blast furnace slag (BFS), fly ash (FA), and desulfurized gypsum (DG) were used as raw materials to develop a multiple industrial solid waste-based soil stabilizer (MSWSS). The optimal mix ratio of the raw materials determined by D-optimal design was as follows: 5% SS, 50% CS, 15% BFS, 15% DG, and 15% FA. The 7-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of MSWSS-stabilized soil was 1.7 MPa, which was 36% higher than stabilization with ordinary portland cement (OPC) and met the construction requirements of highways. After 7 days of curing, the UCS of MSWSS-stabilized soil was significantly higher than that in the OPC group. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the prominent hydration products were ettringite (AFt) and C-S-H gel. The results showed that an amount of AFt and C-S-H were formed in the initial stage of curing, resulting in a rapid improvement in early UCS. As the curing proceeded, the content of AFt and C-S-H increased constantly and grew intertwined with each other, which lead to the denser microstructure of stabilized soil and better mechanical strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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14 pages, 6631 KiB  
Article
New Trends in Pollution Prevention and Control Technology for Healthcare and Medical Waste Disposal in China
by Liyuan Liu, Yue Gong, Yanrong Miao, Jianbo Guo, Hongfei Long, Qinzhong Feng and Yang Chen
Processes 2024, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12010007 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1291
Abstract
This study explores the progression of global healthcare and medical waste (HMW) disposal technologies and emerging practices in China including the COVID-19 pandemic period through patent technology innovation analysis. Trends were identified through both the Derwent Innovation Index database and bibliometric methods. Based [...] Read more.
This study explores the progression of global healthcare and medical waste (HMW) disposal technologies and emerging practices in China including the COVID-19 pandemic period through patent technology innovation analysis. Trends were identified through both the Derwent Innovation Index database and bibliometric methods. Based on the bibliometric analysis of 4128 patents issued from 2002 to 2021, the development status and research trends of HMW disposal technology were revealed. Regarding patents, China significantly advanced post-2011. However, a large number of applications are filed only in China and are more focused on domestic rather than overseas markets. As the pandemic remains a threat, and increasing amounts of medical waste are generated, new technologies are being sought in China that will be safer for humans and the environment, and will also be in line with the zero waste technology trend. Incineration and waste crushing are core methodologies in medical waste disposal. Future directions pivot towards innovations in large-scale and distributed processing equipment, automation and unmanned systems and high-temperature steam disinfection collaborative disposal methods—including the “High temperature steam–municipal solid waste incineration collaborative technology” and the “High temperature steam–thermal magnetic gasification collaborative technology”. This patent analysis enhances our understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on HMW disposal practices, guiding improved policymaking and research in the HMW sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid and Hazardous Waste Disposal and Resource Utilization)
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