Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 7692

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Interests: internal combustion engines; energy and exergy analysis; fuels; marine energy systems; greenhouse gases control
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Interests: thermodynamics; heat and mass transfer; heat exchangers; energy efficiency; building energy analysis; renewable energy; energy conversion and management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Numerical analysis developed into a crucial tool for the understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow properties in various engineering applications. This topic encompasses computational approaches, numerical tools and methods for the heat and mass transfer problems, single- and multi-phase fluid flow, nanofluidics, and phase change phenomena. The goal is to develop reliable and experimentally validated numerical approaches that can be used for the optimization of the thermal-hydraulic performance of heat exchangers, heat pumps, turbomachinery, HVAC&R components, renewable energy systems, internal combustion engines, and energy conversion.

This Special Issue is open to original research articles using computational approaches, numerical tools and methods for the investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow in engineering applications. Review articles about the latest developments and research efforts in this field are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Tomislav Mrakovčić
Prof. Dr. Paolo Blecich
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • numerical methods for heat and mass transfer
  • laminar and turbulent flow models
  • multiphase flow
  • microscale and nanoscale heat transfer and fluid flow
  • nanofluids and fluid additives
  • heat exchangers
  • turbomachinery
  • HVAC&R components
  • combustion and greenhouse gases
  • energy conversion

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 4450 KiB  
Article
A Predictive Model for Wellbore Temperature in High-Sulfur Gas Wells Incorporating Sulfur Deposition
by Qiang Fang, Jinghong He, Yang Wang, Hong Pan, Hongming Ren and Hao Liu
Processes 2024, 12(6), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12061073 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
HSG (high-sulfur gas) reservoirs are prevalent globally, yet their exploitation is hindered by elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide. A decrease in temperature and pressure may result in the formation of sulfur deposits, thereby exerting a notable influence on gas production. Test instruments are [...] Read more.
HSG (high-sulfur gas) reservoirs are prevalent globally, yet their exploitation is hindered by elevated levels of hydrogen sulfide. A decrease in temperature and pressure may result in the formation of sulfur deposits, thereby exerting a notable influence on gas production. Test instruments are susceptible to significant corrosion due to the presence of hydrogen sulfide, resulting in challenges in obtaining bottom hole temperature and pressure test data. Consequently, a WTD (wellbore temperature distribution) model incorporating sulfur precipitation was developed based on PPP (physical property parameter), heat transfer, and GSTP (gas–solid two-phase) flow models. The comparison of a 2.53% temperature error and a 4.80% pressure error with actual field test data indicates that the established model exhibits high accuracy. An analysis is conducted on the impact of various factors, such as production, sulfur layer thickness, reservoir temperature, and reservoir pressure, on the distribution of the wellbore temperature field and pressure field. Increased gas production leads to higher wellhead temperatures. The presence of sulfur deposits reduces the flow area and wellhead pressure. A 40% concentration of hydrogen sulfide results in a 2 MPa pressure drop compared to a 20% concentration. Decreased reservoir pressure and temperature facilitate the formation of sulfur deposits at the wellhead. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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16 pages, 4861 KiB  
Article
Study on the Dynamic Characteristics of Single Cavitation Bubble Motion near the Wall Based on the Keller–Miksis Model
by Wei Han, Zhenye Gu, Rennian Li, Jiandong Mi, Lu Bai and Wanquan Deng
Processes 2024, 12(4), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12040826 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 519
Abstract
The dynamic model of cavitation bubbles serves as the foundation for the study of all cavitation phenomena. Solving the cavitation bubble dynamics equation can better elucidate the physical principles of bubble dynamics, assisting with the design of hydraulic machinery and fluid control. This [...] Read more.
The dynamic model of cavitation bubbles serves as the foundation for the study of all cavitation phenomena. Solving the cavitation bubble dynamics equation can better elucidate the physical principles of bubble dynamics, assisting with the design of hydraulic machinery and fluid control. This paper employs a fourth-order explicit Runge–Kutta numerical method to solve the translational Keller–Miksis model for cavitation bubbles. It analyzes the collapse time, velocity, as well as the motion and force characteristics of bubbles under different wall distances γ values. The results indicate that as the distance between the cavitation bubble and the wall decreases, the cavitation bubble collapse time increases, the displacement of the center of mass and the amplitude of translational velocity of the cavitation bubble increase, and the minimum radius of the cavitation bubble gradually decreases linearly. During the stage when the cavitation bubble collapses to its minimum radius, the Bjerknes force and resistance experienced by the bubble also increase as the distance to the wall decreases. Especially in the cases where γ = 1.3 and 1.5, during the rebound stage of the bubble, the Bjerknes force and resistance increase, causing the bubble to move away from the wall. Meanwhile, this study proposes a radiation pressure coefficient to characterize the radial vibration behavior of cavitation bubbles when analyzing the radiation sound pressure. It is found that the wall distance has a relatively minor effect on the radiation pressure coefficient, providing an important basis for future research on the effects of different scale bubbles and multiple bubbles. The overall idea of this paper is to numerically solve the bubble dynamics equation, explore the characteristics of bubble dynamics, and elucidate the specific manifestations of physical quantities that affect bubble motion. This provides theoretical references for further engineering applications and flow analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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21 pages, 15874 KiB  
Article
Control-Volume-Based Exergy Method of Truncated Busemann Inlets in Off-Design Conditions
by Meijun Zhu, Shuai Zhou, Yang Liu, Zhehong Li and Ziyun Chen
Processes 2024, 12(3), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12030535 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 629
Abstract
A scramjet engine consisting of several components is a highly coupled system that urgently needs a universal performance metric. Exergy is considered as a potential universal currency to assess the performance of scramjet engines. In this paper, a control-volume-based exergy method for the [...] Read more.
A scramjet engine consisting of several components is a highly coupled system that urgently needs a universal performance metric. Exergy is considered as a potential universal currency to assess the performance of scramjet engines. In this paper, a control-volume-based exergy method for the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solution of truncated and corrected Busemann inlets was proposed. An exergy postprocessing code was developed to achieve this method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of exergies in the Busemann inlets were performed. A complete understanding of the evolution process of anergy and the location where anergy occurs in the inlet at various operation conditions was also obtained. The results show that the exergy destroyed in the Busemann inlet can be decomposed into shock wave anergy, viscous anergy and thermal anergy. Shock wave anergy accounts for less than 4% of the total exergy destroyed while thermal anergy and viscous anergy, in a roughly equivalent magnitude, contribute to almost all the remaining. The vast majority of inflow exergy is converted into boundary pressure work and thermal exergy. Some of the thermal exergy excluded by the computation of the total pressure recovery coefficient belongs to the available energy, as this partial energy will be further converted into useful work in combustion chambers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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11 pages, 4060 KiB  
Article
Effect of Inclined Orifice in Air Impingement Freezer on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Steel Strip Surface
by Jing Xie, Xilan Luo, Jinfeng Wang and Yuyan Liu
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082410 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 661
Abstract
In order to improve the heat transfer characteristics of the air impingement freezer, an impingement freezer experimental table was designed as the research object in this paper. Numerical simulation technology was used to simulate the impingement freezer experimental table on the basis of [...] Read more.
In order to improve the heat transfer characteristics of the air impingement freezer, an impingement freezer experimental table was designed as the research object in this paper. Numerical simulation technology was used to simulate the impingement freezer experimental table on the basis of test verification. When the other structural parameters in the impingement freezer experimental table were constant, the effect of the inclination angle of the orifice plate (θ = 60°, 65°, 70°, 75°, 80°, 85°, and 90°) on the heat transfer characteristics of a steel strip surface was analyzed by two aspects, the average Nusselt number and the heat transfer uniformity. The results showed that with the increase in the inclination angle of the orifice plate (60° ≤ θ ≤ 90°), the average Nusselt number of the steel strip surface was increased by 19.39%, and the heat transfer uniformity index was decreased by 33.69%. When θ = 90°, the average Nusselt number on steel strip was the maximum, which was 263.68, and the heat transfer uniformity index was the minimum, which was 0.2039. Therefore, the heat transfer intensity and heat transfer uniformity in the air impingement freezer could be improved when the inclination angle of the orifice plates was 90°. This helps to improve the output of the air impingement freezer, reduce energy consumption, and improve the quality of frozen food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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19 pages, 4262 KiB  
Article
Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-Based Measurement of Properties in Liquid–Liquid Systems
by Laura Neuendorf, Pascal Müller, Keno Lammers and Norbert Kockmann
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051521 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1436
Abstract
The rise of artificial intelligence (AI)-based image analysis has led to novel application possibilities in the field of solvent analytics. Using convolutional neural networks (CNNs), better and more automated analysis of optically visible phenomena becomes feasible, broadening the spectrum of non-invasive measurements. These [...] Read more.
The rise of artificial intelligence (AI)-based image analysis has led to novel application possibilities in the field of solvent analytics. Using convolutional neural networks (CNNs), better and more automated analysis of optically visible phenomena becomes feasible, broadening the spectrum of non-invasive measurements. These so-called smart sensors have attracted increasing attention in pharmaceutical and chemical process engineering; their additional sensor data enables more precise process control as additional process parameters can be monitored. This contribution presents an approach to analyzing single rising droplets to determine their physical properties; for example, geometrical parameters such as diameter, projection area and volume. Additionally, the rising velocity is determined, as well as the density and interfacial tension of the rising liquid droplet, determined from the force balance. Thus, a method was developed for analyzing liquid–liquid properties suitable for real-time applications. Here, the size range of the investigated droplet diameters lies between 0.68 mm and 7 mm with an accuracy for AI detecting droplets of ±4 µm. The obtained densities lie between 0.822 kg·m−3 for rising n-butanol droplets and 0.894 kg·m−3 for toluene droplets. For the derived parameters, such as the interfacial tension estimation, all of the data points lie in a range from 12.75 mN·m−1 to 15.25 mN·m−1. The trueness of the investigated system thus is in a range from −1 to +0.4 mN·m−1, with a precision of ±0.3 to ±0.6 mN·m−1. For density estimation using our system, a standard deviation of 1.4 kg m−3 from the literature was determined. Using camera images in conjunction with image analysis improved by artificial intelligence algorithms, combined with using empirical mathematical formulas, this article contributes to the development of easily accessible, cheap sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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18 pages, 8000 KiB  
Article
Develop a New Correlation between Thermal Radiation and Heat Source in Dual-Tube Heat Exchanger with a Twist Ratio Insert and Dimple Configurations: An Experimental Study
by Jatoth Heeraman, Ravinder Kumar, Prem Kumar Chaurasiya, Naveen Kumar Gupta and Dan Dobrotă
Processes 2023, 11(3), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11030860 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
The goal of this research is to convey an outlook of heat transfer and friction factor in an exper-imental study with a double-pipe heat exchanger (DPHE). In process heat transformation (HT) and friction factor(f) in a DPHE counter-flow with a twisted tape (TT) [...] Read more.
The goal of this research is to convey an outlook of heat transfer and friction factor in an exper-imental study with a double-pipe heat exchanger (DPHE). In process heat transformation (HT) and friction factor(f) in a DPHE counter-flow with a twisted tape (TT) arrangement by dimple inserts. The grooves were a kind of concavity that enhanced thermal transfer while only slightly degrading pressure. Heat transmission (HT) and friction factor(f) were investigated employing dimples with twisting tape of varying diameters along with uniform diameter (D) to the diameter-to-depth ratio (D/H). The impact of using twisted tape with various dimpled diameters D = 2, 4, and 6 mm at a uniform (D/H) = 1.5, 3 and 4.5 on heat transmission and friction factor properties were discussed. The dimple diameter (D) was directly connected to the friction coefficient (f), hence the highest value of friction factor was established at (D) = 6 mm. Furthermore, the best performance of Nusselt number (Nu) and performance evaluation criteria (PEC) was determined at a diameter of 4 mm. As a result, dimpled twisted tape additions are an excellent and cost-effective approach to improve heat transformation in heat exchangers. With fluid as a water, lower parameters, and higher Reynolds number (Re) resulted in better thermal conditions. Thermal performance and friction factor(f) correlations were developed with regard to the ge-ometry of the dimple diameter (D), its ratio (D/H), ‘Re’, and a good correspondence with the experimental data was achieved. The novel geometry caused a smaller pressure drop despite its higher convection heat transfer coefficient. The results also showed that raising the ‘Re’ and nanofluid concentration, the pressure drop increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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13 pages, 5677 KiB  
Article
The Use of a Vortex Generator for the Efficient Cooling of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Ankit Singh Bisht, Vijay Singh Bisht, Prabhakar Bhandari, Kamal Singh Rawat, Tabish Alam and Paolo Blecich
Processes 2023, 11(2), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11020500 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1732
Abstract
High heat flux dissipation from the Lithium-ion battery pack of hybrid electric vehicles is one of the major concerns in the automotive sector, since it directly affects the performance and it may also lead to permanent failure. Among various thermal management systems, forced [...] Read more.
High heat flux dissipation from the Lithium-ion battery pack of hybrid electric vehicles is one of the major concerns in the automotive sector, since it directly affects the performance and it may also lead to permanent failure. Among various thermal management systems, forced air cooling is most favorable due to its light weight, compactness, lower cost, and design flexibility. In the present work, a battery thermal management system with the two types of vortex generator in the coolant passage has been used to enhance the performance. A numerical model has been developed in commercial code to investigate the performance of the delta winglet and circular protrusion type vortex generator. Apart from that, both types of vortex generator have been compared in terms of various parameters such as pressure drop, weight, and maximum temperature. From the results of the simulation, it has been observed that both vortex generators performed better at the attack angle of 30° in comparison to the attack angles of 45° and 60°. Furthermore, it has also been found that the cooling system with protrusion as the vortex generator has performed better in terms of thermos-hydraulic performance compared to the cooling system with the delta winglet vortex generator. In addition to that, the protruded system is lighter in weight compared to both the plain and delta winglet systems, and is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow)
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