Gas Transport Behavior of Polymer Films

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 12462

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemical Sciences, Università degli Studi di Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
Interests: packaging materials; bio-based and biodegradable polymers; bio-based and biodegradable polyesters; green composites; polymerization of biopolymers; processing of bioplastics; sustainable polymer for food preservation; biopolymers for food packaging; edible films; compostable packaging; monomers from renewable resources; polymers from renewable resources; gas barrier properties; life cycle assessment (LCA) study; bioeconomy; circular economy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is well known that polymers, thanks to their versatility and their high resource efficiency, have become key materials for strategic sectors such as packaging, transportation, building and construction, electrical and electronic, agriculture, medical and sport devices. Furthermore, polymers have allowed for the development of products and services in many other sectors that would be not possible otherwise. Considering the fast growing population, the high security demand, and the control of climate change, our society is called to choose the most efficient solution, in order to guarantee the most sustainable development. Plastic materials and products offer these advantages, because they are extremely resource efficient during their service-life, and they help us to avoid waste, save energy, and decrease CO2 emissions.

In order to achieve the best engineering solution, the optimization of the barrier behavior is actually of crucial importance. In contrast to glass or metal packaging materials, plastic packaging is permeable to molecules such as gas, water vapor, and organic vapor, as well as the aromas, flavors, and additives that are present food, when polymers are employed in the field of food. The transfer of these molecules could range from high to low, depending on the barrier properties of such materials. Knowledge of the permeation behavior, together with the solution and diffusion of such molecules throughout the polymer films is of crucial importance, especially for polymers used in the field of food, where contamination from the external environment has to be avoided, while preserving the internal package’s atmosphere. The final properties of the packaging materials could be influenced by engineering procedures such as manufacturing, handling, and distribution, but the final barrier properties are strictly correlated to the intrinsic structure of the polymers, such as the degree of crystallinity, crystalline/amorphous phase ratio, thermal and mechanical treatment, food contact, nature of chemical groups present into the polymer, degree of crosslinking, thermal behavior, molecular weight, and so on. Furthermore, the intrinsic composition of the packed food, such as the pH, fat content, aroma compound, and so on, could influence the sorption characteristics of these materials, while the temperature and relative humidity may affect their barrier behavior.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect and provide an overview on the state-of-the-art of the barrier behavior of polymers, either fossil fuel-based or bio-based, that are used for packaging applications. This Special Issue could be considered as a chance for the academic and industrial world to present an overview of novel polymers, with focussed attention on their barrier performances in order to establish a structure–property relationship. The mechanisms and pathways of molecules’ transport behavior throughout polymer films will be taken into account.

Research papers, as well as reviews, are welcome.

Prof. Valentina Siracusa
Dr. Carlo Ingrao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gas barrier behavior
  • Gas diffusion through polymer films
  • Gas barrier properties of polymers
  • Gas barrier behavior of bio-based/biodegradable polymers
  • Gas permeability
  • Water vapor permeability
  • Gas barrier-properties relationship of polymers
  • Barrier properties for a sustainable packaging
  • Barrier behavior of food packaging materials
  • High gas barrier polymers
  • Gas barrier behavior of polymers after stressed treatments
  • Water vapor permeability after stressed treatments

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 4259 KiB  
Article
Permeation of a Range of Species through Polymer Layers under Varying Conditions of Temperature and Pressure: In Situ Measurement Methods
Polymers 2019, 11(6), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11061056 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5563
Abstract
Minimising the transport of corrosive reactants such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and chloride ions to the surfaces of carbon steel pipes by the use of polymer barrier layers is of major interest in the oil and gas sector. In these applications, there [...] Read more.
Minimising the transport of corrosive reactants such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and chloride ions to the surfaces of carbon steel pipes by the use of polymer barrier layers is of major interest in the oil and gas sector. In these applications, there is a requirement to assess the performance of these barrier layers although it is difficult to perform long-term predictions of barrier properties from the results of short-term measurements. New methodologies have been successfully developed to study the permeability of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through polymer layers under variable conditions of elevated temperatures of 100 °C and pressures of the order of 400 barg. In situ variation of the temperature and the inlet pressure of the gas (or gas mixture) allowed the activation energy and pressure dependence of the permeability to be determined without outgassing of the specimen. These methodologies have been applied to the measurement of the permeability of moulded polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) to supercritical CO2 in the presence of H2S. The diffusion coefficients of sodium chloride and potassium chloride through both PPS and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) at ambient temperature and pressure have also been measured. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport Behavior of Polymer Films)
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8 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
The Role of Surfaces in Gas Transport Through Polymer Membranes
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050910 - 20 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3119
Abstract
This paper describes a procedure to measure the permeability P, diffusivity D, and rate of adsorption k1, thus determining the solubility S and rate of desorption k2 of He, N2, O2, CH4, and [...] Read more.
This paper describes a procedure to measure the permeability P, diffusivity D, and rate of adsorption k1, thus determining the solubility S and rate of desorption k2 of He, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The described procedure is able to determine experimentally all the physical quantities that characterize the gas transport process through a thin rubber polymer membrane. The experiments were carried out at room temperature and at a transmembrane pressure of 1 atm. The results are in good agreement with the available data in the literature and offer an evaluation of k1 and k2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport Behavior of Polymer Films)
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11 pages, 3920 KiB  
Article
Effects of Gas Adsorption on the Mechanical Properties of Amorphous Polymer
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050817 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3136
Abstract
This study investigates the properties of a polymer–gas mixture formed through diffusion, based on the changes in the partial pressure and observed changes in the impact and tensile strengths owing to the gas dissolution. The high-pressure gas dissolves into a solid-state polymer through [...] Read more.
This study investigates the properties of a polymer–gas mixture formed through diffusion, based on the changes in the partial pressure and observed changes in the impact and tensile strengths owing to the gas dissolution. The high-pressure gas dissolves into a solid-state polymer through diffusion based on the difference in the partial pressure. This dissolved gas is present in the amorphous region within the polymeric material temporarily, which results in the polymer exhibiting different mechanical properties, while the gas remains dissolved in the polymer. In this study, the mechanical properties of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET) specimens prepared by dissolving CO2 using a high-pressure vessel were investigated, and the resulting impact and tensile strengths were measured. These experiments showed that the increase in sorption rate of CO2 caused an increase in the impact strength. At 2.9% CO2 absorption, the impact strength of APET increased 956% compared to that of the reference specimen. Furthermore, the tensile strength decreased by up to 71.7% at 5.48% CO2 sorption; the stress–strain curves varied with the gas sorption rate. This phenomenon can be associated with the change in the volume caused by CO2 dissolution. When the APET absorbed more than 2.0% CO2 gas, sample volume increased. A decrease in the network density can occur when the volume is increased while maintaining constant mass. The CO2 gas in the polymer acted as a cushion in impact tests which have sorption rates above 2%. In addition to the reduction in the network density in the polymer chain, Van Der Waals forces are decreased causing a decrease in tensile strength only while CO2 is present in the APET. These observations only occur prior to CO2 desorption from the polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Transport Behavior of Polymer Films)
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