Polymer Blends

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015) | Viewed by 80135

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA
Interests: polymer blends; polymer composites; polymer membranes and membrane separations; gas permeability; polymer structure/property relationships; polymers for emerging technologies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue of Polymers is dedicated to polymer blends. This subject has been a major area of polymer science and technology for almost five decades. The advances in this field have generated significant utility comprising a major component of available commercial polymeric materials. Topics of interest for this issue will include (but not be limited to) polymer miscibility studies, compatibilization methods, characterization methods, structure/property correlations, and application investigations. Papers directed towards the utility of polymer blends in emerging technologies including electronic materials, optoelectronics, membrane separation (gas or water), biomaterials, fuel cell membranes and new battery materials will particularly be of interest. The papers of this issue should be of interest to investigators in polymer science in academic, industrial and government institutions.

Prof. Dr. Lloyd M. Robeson
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • polymer blends
  • polymer miscibility
  • polymer blend compatibilization
  • polymer blend applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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3693 KiB  
Article
Phase Behavior and Its Effects on Crystallization in a Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/Phenoxy Resin Blend
by Su Jung Cho, Jae Han Cho and Kwang Hee Lee
Polymers 2016, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8010021 - 19 Jan 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4748
Abstract
Phase behavior and its effects on crystallization in an extruded poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/phenoxy resin blend were studied with time-resolved light scattering (TRLS), optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). During annealing in the molten state, a two-phase structure [...] Read more.
Phase behavior and its effects on crystallization in an extruded poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/phenoxy resin blend were studied with time-resolved light scattering (TRLS), optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). During annealing in the molten state, a two-phase structure with unique periodicity and phase connectivity was developed by liquid–liquid phase separation. After the formation of the phase-separated structure, the blend was homogenized by the interchange reactions between the two polymers. The crystallization behavior of PTT predominantly depended on the phase morphology developed during annealing. The pre-existing phase structures disturbed the lamellar orientation, resulting in a poorly ordered spherulitic superstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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3056 KiB  
Article
High Dielectric Performance of Polyamide 66/Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Flexible Blends Induced by Interfacial Copolymer for Capacitors
by Rui Li, Zixuan Chen and Jianzhong Pei
Polymers 2016, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym8010002 - 24 Dec 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6875
Abstract
The copolymer VAMA was synthesized from vinyl acetic and maleic anhydride. A new all-polymeric blend with a high dielectric constant (ε) has been developed by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with vinyl acetic-maleic anhydride modified polyamide (PA66-g-VM). The blend shows high dielectric [...] Read more.
The copolymer VAMA was synthesized from vinyl acetic and maleic anhydride. A new all-polymeric blend with a high dielectric constant (ε) has been developed by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with vinyl acetic-maleic anhydride modified polyamide (PA66-g-VM). The blend shows high dielectric constants (εblend = 20) and excellent mechanical properties. The SEM investigations suggest that the enhanced dielectric behavior originates from significant interfacial interactions between polymers. The XRD demonstrates that the compatibilizer affects the crystalline behavior of each component. Furthermore, the stable dielectric constants of the all-polymeric blends can be tuned by adjusting the content of the compatibilizer. The created high-ε all-polymeric blends represent a novel type of material that is technologically simple, easy to process, and of a relatively high dielectric constant, with application for flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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3474 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Functional Wrinkled Interfaces from Polymer Blends: Role of the Surface Functionality on the Bacterial Adhesion
by Marta Palacios-Cuesta, Aitziber L. Cortajarena, Olga García and Juan Rodríguez-Hernández
Polymers 2014, 6(11), 2845-2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6112845 - 14 Nov 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 8746
Abstract
The generation of nano-microstructured surfaces is a current challenge in polymer science. The fabrication of such surfaces has been accomplished mainly following two different alternatives i.e., by adapting techniques, such as molding (embossing) or nano/microimprinting, or by developing novel techniques including laser [...] Read more.
The generation of nano-microstructured surfaces is a current challenge in polymer science. The fabrication of such surfaces has been accomplished mainly following two different alternatives i.e., by adapting techniques, such as molding (embossing) or nano/microimprinting, or by developing novel techniques including laser ablation, soft lithography or laser scanning. Surface instabilities have been recently highlighted as a promising alternative to induce surface features. In particular, wrinkles have been extensively explored for this purpose. Herein, we describe the preparation of wrinkled interfaces by confining a photosensitive monomeric mixture composed of monofunctional monomer and a crosslinking agent within a substrate and a cover. The wrinkle characteristics can be controlled by the monomer mixture and the experimental conditions employed for the photopolymerization. More interestingly, incorporation within the material of a functional copolymer allowed us to vary the surface chemical composition while maintaining the surface structure. For that purpose we incorporated either a fluorinated copolymer that enhanced the surface hydrophobicity of the wrinkled interface or an acrylic acid containing copolymer that increased the hydrophilicity of the wrinkled surface. Finally, the role of the hydrophobicity on the bacterial surface adhesion will be tested by using Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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1552 KiB  
Article
Miscibility and Hydrogen Bonding in Blends of Poly(4-vinylphenol)/Poly(vinyl methyl ketone)
by Hana Bourara, Slimane Hadjout, Zitouni Benabdelghani and Agustin Etxeberria
Polymers 2014, 6(11), 2752-2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6112752 - 28 Oct 2014
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 10797
Abstract
The miscibility and phase behavior of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) with poly(vinyl methyl ketone) (PVMK) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that all blends of PVPh/PVMK are totally miscible. A DSC [...] Read more.
The miscibility and phase behavior of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVPh) with poly(vinyl methyl ketone) (PVMK) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that all blends of PVPh/PVMK are totally miscible. A DSC study showed the apparition of a single glass transition (Tg) over their entire composition range. When the amount of PVPh exceeds 50% in blends, the obtained Tgs are found to be significantly higher than those observed for each individual component of the mixture, indicating that these blends are capable of forming interpolymer complexes. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of preferential specific interactions via hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, which intensified when the amount of PVPh was increased in blends. Furthermore, the quantitative FTIR study carried out for PVPh/PVMK blends was also performed for the vinylphenol (VPh) and vinyl methyl ketone (VMK) functional groups. These results were also established by scanning electron microscopy study (SEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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1735 KiB  
Article
Polyamide 11/Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Vinyl Acetate-Maleic Anhydride Copolymer as Novel Blends Flexible Materials for Capacitors
by Dongliang Kuang, Rui Li and Jianzhong Pei
Polymers 2014, 6(8), 2146-2156; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6082146 - 11 Aug 2014
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 11589
Abstract
A novel all-polymeric blend with high dielectric constant (K) has been developed by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyamide (PA11) via co-melt-pressing technology with a compatilizer vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride (VA-MA) copolymer. Adding a copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride decreased the dielectric [...] Read more.
A novel all-polymeric blend with high dielectric constant (K) has been developed by blending polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyamide (PA11) via co-melt-pressing technology with a compatilizer vinyl acetate-maleic anhydride (VA-MA) copolymer. Adding a copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride decreased the dielectric loss (tan δ ≈ 0.057) and increased the dielectric constant (Kblend = 15). The blends show high dielectric constants, which give better frequency stability, and excellent mechanical properties. SEM investigations suggest that the enhanced dielectric behavior originates from significant interfacial polymer-polymer interactions. FT-IR, DSC and XRD demonstrate that blending PA11 with PVDF affects the crystalline behavior of each component. The high-K polymeric blends created represent a novel type of material that is flexible and easy to process, moreover, is appropriate for flexible micro-electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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3053 KiB  
Article
Effects of Additives on the Morphology and Performance of PPTA/PVDF in Situ Blend UF Membrane
by Hong-Bin Li, Wen-Ying Shi, Yu-Feng Zhang, Dong-Qing Liu and Xiao-Feng Liu
Polymers 2014, 6(6), 1846-1861; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6061846 - 20 Jun 2014
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 9138
Abstract
Poly(p-phenylene terephtalamide) (PPTA), a high-performance polymer with high modulus and good hydrophilicity, is often used as a reinforced material. However, due to its high crystallity, micro-phase separation often occurs in the blends. In this paper, PPTA/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) compatible blend solution [...] Read more.
Poly(p-phenylene terephtalamide) (PPTA), a high-performance polymer with high modulus and good hydrophilicity, is often used as a reinforced material. However, due to its high crystallity, micro-phase separation often occurs in the blends. In this paper, PPTA/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) compatible blend solution was synthesized by in situ polycondensation. Blend ultra-filtration membrane was prepared through the immersion phase inversion process. In order to obtain desired pore structure, the effects of different additives including hydrophilic polymer (polyethylene glycol (PEG)), inorganic salt (lithium chloride (LiCl)) and the surfactant (Tween-80) on the morphology and performance of PPTA/PVDF blend membranes were studied. The membrane formation process was investigated through ternary phase diagram (thermodynamics) and viscosities (kinetics) analysis. It was found that, with the increasing of LiCl content, a porous membrane structure with long finger-like pores was formed due to the accelerated demixing process which resulted in the increase of porosity and pore diameter as well as the enhancement of water flux and the decline of PEG rejection. When Tween content increased to over 3 wt%, dynamic viscosity became the main factor resulting in a decreased phase separation rate. The transfer of PEG and LiCl molecules onto membrane surface increased the surface hydrophilicity. The effect of Tween content on membrane hydrophilicity was also correlated with the compatibility of blend components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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2529 KiB  
Article
Strong Screening Effect of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS) Nanoparticles on Hydrogen Bonded Polymer Blends
by Chin-Wei Chiou, Yung-Chih Lin, Lei Wang, Chiharu Hirano, Yoshinori Suzuki, Teruaki Hayakawa and Shiao-Wei Kuo
Polymers 2014, 6(3), 926-948; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6030926 - 21 Mar 2014
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 11365
Abstract
In this study we used anionic living polymerization to prepare two different homopolymers: a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and a PMMA derivative presenting polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PMA-POSS) units as its side chains. We then employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, [...] Read more.
In this study we used anionic living polymerization to prepare two different homopolymers: a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and a PMMA derivative presenting polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PMA-POSS) units as its side chains. We then employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to investigate the miscibility and specific interactions of PMMA and PMA-POSS with three hydrogen bonding donor compounds: poly(vinyl phenol) (PVPh), phenolic resin, and bisphenol A (BPA). DSC revealed that all of the PVPh/PMMA, phenolic/PMMA, and BPA/PMMA blends exhibited a single glass transition temperature, characteristic of miscible systems; FTIR spectroscopic analyses revealed that such miscibility resulted from hydrogen bonding interactions between the C=O groups of PMMA and the OH groups of these three hydrogen bonding donor compounds. In contrast, all of the PVPh/PMA-POSS, phenolic/PMA-POSS, and BPA/PMA-POSS blends were immiscible: DSC revealed two glass transition temperatures arising from strong screening effects (FTIR spectroscopy) and high degrees of aggregation (WAXD) of the POSS nanoparticles. We propose that the value of the intramolecular screening effect (γ) should be very close to 1 for all PMA-POSS blend systems when POSS nanoparticles appear as the side chains of PMMA, such that the OH groups of the hydrogen bonding donor compounds cannot interact with the C=O groups of PMA-POSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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Review

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229 KiB  
Review
Historical Perspective of Advances in the Science and Technology of Polymer Blends
by Lloyd Robeson
Polymers 2014, 6(5), 1251-1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6051251 - 30 Apr 2014
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 15215
Abstract
This paper will review the important developments in the field of polymer blends. The subject of polymer blends has been one of the most prolific areas in polymer science and technology in the past five decades judging from publications and patents on the [...] Read more.
This paper will review the important developments in the field of polymer blends. The subject of polymer blends has been one of the most prolific areas in polymer science and technology in the past five decades judging from publications and patents on the subject. Although a continuing important subject, the peak intensity occurred in the 1970s and 1980s. The author has been active in this area for five decades and this paper is a recollection of some of the important milestones/breakthroughs in the field. The discussion will cover the development of the theory relevant to polymer blends, experimental methods, approaches to achieve compatibility in immiscible/incompatible blends, the nature of phase separation and commercial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Blends)
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