Advanced Polymer Hybrid Materials

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 November 2023) | Viewed by 4918

Special Issue Editors

Mantova Indústria de Tubos Plásticos Ltda., Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Interests: composites; creep; physical-chemistry; relaxation processes; artificial neural networks; hybrid composites
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Francisco Maciel Monticeli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Technological Institute of Aeronautics (ITA), São José dos Campos, Brazil
Interests: resin; composite material
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Materials, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil
Interests: waterborne polyurethane; physical-chemistry properties; thermoplastic polyurethane; nanocomposites; carbon dot

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hybrid polymeric materials combine the desirable characteristics of more than one class of materials and represent a wide range of applications with a rapidly growing research area englobing different applications such stimuli-responsive properties, energy conservation, organic electronics, catalysis, advanced composites and nanocomposites, among others. In this Special Issue, we welcome research papers and reviews focusing on hybrid polymer-based materials with advanced properties, in terms of synthesis/fabrication methods, characterization techniques, smart and responsive materials and recent applicative developments, including environmental sustainability and end-of-life issues. The aim is to present the state-of-the-art of advanced polymeric materials, highlighting the newest developments in structures and properties.

Prof. Dr. Heitor Luiz Ornaghi Júnior
Dr. Francisco Maciel Monticeli
Dr. Lucas Dall Agnol
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • advanced materials
  • composites and nanocomposites
  • process-structure-properties relationships
  • functional properties
  • characterization techniques
  • smart and responsive materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2163 KiB  
Article
Improving Durability of Dye-Based Polarizing Films Using Novel Reactive Dyes as Dichroic Materials
Polymers 2023, 15(22), 4365; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15224365 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Iodine is commonly used as a dichroic material in polarizing films, while dichroic dyes are employed when high heat resistance is necessary. Direct dyes, which can be applied to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in an acidic environment, are the most popular; however, their hydrogen [...] Read more.
Iodine is commonly used as a dichroic material in polarizing films, while dichroic dyes are employed when high heat resistance is necessary. Direct dyes, which can be applied to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in an acidic environment, are the most popular; however, their hydrogen bonding interaction with the PVA chain can weaken in high-humidity conditions, leading to a potential change in color value or polarization property. Reactive dyes offer a promising alternative for use in high-humidity environments. In this study, five novel reactive dyes were synthesized and used to prepare dye-based polarizing films. The dichroic ratios, order parameters, and transition moments of the reactive dyes were calculated and compared to those of corresponding direct dyes. Molecular orbital calculations indicated minimal effects on the optical anisotropy of the polarizing films due to the transition moments of the reactive dyes remaining close to their molecular axes. As a result, the dichroic ratios of the polarizing films were mainly dependent on the orientation of the dyes towards their stretching direction, and showed a similar behavior compared to direct dyes. Under high-temperature and high-humidity conditions, the polarizing film using reactive dyes showed superior durability compared to the direct dye-based film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Hybrid Materials)
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15 pages, 4378 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Polymer Composites Based on Polystyrene (PS) Used in the Melted and Extruded Manufacturing Technology
Polymers 2022, 14(22), 5000; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14225000 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
As part of the work, innovative hybrid polymer composites dedicated to rapid prototyping, especially for 3D printing with the melted and extruded manufacturing (MEM) technique, were developed. For this purpose, the influence of modified fillers, such as alumina-modified silica, bentonite modified with quaternary [...] Read more.
As part of the work, innovative hybrid polymer composites dedicated to rapid prototyping, especially for 3D printing with the melted and extruded manufacturing (MEM) technique, were developed. For this purpose, the influence of modified fillers, such as alumina-modified silica, bentonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt, and lignin/silicon dioxide hybrid filler, on the functional properties of polystyrene-based composites was investigated. The introduced additives were selected to improve the processing properties of polystyrene (PS), in particular its thermal stability, while maintaining good mechanical properties. In the first part of the work, using the proprietary technological line, filaments from unfilled PS and its composites were obtained, which contain modified fillers in the amount of 1.5% to 3.0% by weight. Samples for testing functional properties were obtained by 3D printing in MEM technology and injection technique. The rheological properties—mass melt flow rate (MFR), viscosity, and mechanical properties—are presented in the further part of the work. The size and the respective dispersion in the polystyrene polymer matrix of the fillers used were determined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The correct dispersion of additives in PS was also confirmed by wide-angle X-ray analysis (WAXS). A significant improvement in the thermal stability of the obtained composites after the introduction of fillers into the polymer matrix was confirmed on the basis of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The remaining tests of physicochemical properties, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FT-IR) allowed us to state no significant changes in relation to polystyrene. The obtained test results allowed us to conclude that the amount and type of fillers used in the PS polymer matrix significantly affect the performance properties of the tested hybrid composites. The composites obtained as part of the work can be successfully used in rapid prototyping technologies, especially for the production of details originally designed from PS, which are required to have higher thermal stability than is guaranteed only by the polymer matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Hybrid Materials)
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11 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Improved Synthetic Route of Incorporation of Nanosilicon Species into Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin and Preparation of Novel ZnAl-Layered Double-Hydroxide Hybrid Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin
Polymers 2022, 14(21), 4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14214684 - 02 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins represent one of the most important niche groups of binding systems for composites. New industrial needs, environmental requirements, and price fluctuations have led to further research on materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The preparation of novel hybrid [...] Read more.
Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins represent one of the most important niche groups of binding systems for composites. New industrial needs, environmental requirements, and price fluctuations have led to further research on materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The preparation of novel hybrid materials can be achieved by inclusion of various elements or functional groups in the organic polymer phenolic framework. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a PF-based hybrid material with different nanoscale silicone species and ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH). The main goals of this study were to improve the synthetic pathways of hybrid resin, as well as to prepare granulated composite materials and test samples and determine their characterization. Added inorganic species increased the glass-transition temperature by a minimum of 8 °C, which was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rheological properties (melting viscosity and flow distance) of the hybrid resin were measured. The homogeneity of distribution of added species across the organic matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With synthesized new hybrid-binding systems, we prepared different granulated composite materials and evaluated them with the measurements of rheological properties (flow curing characteristics). Tensile strength of samples, prepared from granulated composite material, improved by more than 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Hybrid Materials)
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Review

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24 pages, 5584 KiB  
Review
A Review on Polymers for Biomedical Applications on Hard and Soft Tissues and Prosthetic Limbs
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 4034; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15194034 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
In the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the use of polymers for biomedical applications. The global medical polymer market size was valued at USD 19.92 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.0% from [...] Read more.
In the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the use of polymers for biomedical applications. The global medical polymer market size was valued at USD 19.92 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.0% from 2023 to 2030 despite some limitations, such as cost (financial limitation), strength compared to metal plates for bone fracture, design optimization and incorporation of reinforcement. Recently, this increase has been more pronounced due to important advances in synthesis and modification techniques for the design of novel biomaterials and their behavior in vitro and in vivo. Also, modern medicine allows the use of less invasive surgeries and faster surgical sutures. Besides their use in the human body, polymer biomedical materials must have desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical, and degradation properties. This review summarizes the use of polymers for biomedical applications, mainly focusing on hard and soft tissues, prosthetic limbs, dental applications, and bone fracture repair. The main properties, gaps, and trends are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymer Hybrid Materials)
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