Cellulose-Based Polymeric Materials

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 2310

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Chemical Process Engineering and Forest Products Research Centre (CIEPQPF), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Sílvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: particle technology, including particle characterization; multiphase processes, including modelling and experimental; rheology of suspensions; tomographic techniques for multiphase flow visualization; aggregation/flocculation of particles; valorization of ligno-cellulosic materials—development of natural polyelectrolytes and lignin-based surfactants; remediation of soils; microplastics identification and removal
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
CIEPQPF—Chemical Process Engineering and Forest Products Research Centre, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Sílvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: cellulose chemistry; cellulose dissolution and regeneration; nanocellulose production and characterization; cellulose and nanocellulose-based organic–inorganic hybrid materials; bio-based polyelectrolytes from lignocellulosic materials; lignin-based materials; rheology; surfactants; polymer–surfactant association; microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biopolymer-based materials are, in general, environmentally friendly materials, which can be obtained from renewable sources. Following a circular economy principle, cellulose can be obtained from biomass residues from forests or crop production. Cellulose, being the most abundant biopolymer on the planet, is an obvious choice to produce materials with favourable properties for a wide range of applications, such as biomedical applications, environmental applications, food packaging and electronic devices, thus being a logical substitute to petroleum-based polymers, especially plastics. Cellulose is also a remarkable starting material for chemical modification, due to the large available hydroxyl groups in its structure. Thus, the preparation of water-soluble cellulose derivatives is suitable as rheology modifiers, flocculants, etc., depending on the derivatization introduced. The derivatization can be carried out via different methods, leading to partially or fully dissolved cellulose. Other important classes of cellulosic materials are nanocelluloses (cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and bacterial cellulose (BC)). This class of biobased nanomaterials possesses outstanding properties and finds application in multiple areas.

In this Special Issue, the objective is to bring together recent advances in the field of cellulose-based materials, including the use of different cellulosic materials, wastes valorisation, preparation procedures, and application in different fields, including industrial application.

Dr. Maria Graça Rasteiro
Dr. Luis Alves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sustainability
  • bio-based materials
  • wastes valorisation
  • nanocelluloses
  • cellulose matrixes
  • bioflocculants
  • cellulose derivatives
  • cellulose dissolution
  • biomass fractionation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 9094 KiB  
Article
Preparation and Application of Responsive Nanocellulose Composites
by Yanhui Zhou, Lu Zhang and Yuan Li
Polymers 2024, 16(11), 1446; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16111446 - 21 May 2024
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Abstract
Cellulose nanofibrils/poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating networks (MMCNF-PNAs) were synthesized using an in situ fabrication (semi-IPN). The polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) (free radical) was conducted in the presence of magnetic modified cellulose nanofibrils (MMCNFs). The adsorption behaviors and surface morphology of the synthesized adsorbents were investigated [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofibrils/poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) semi-interpenetrating networks (MMCNF-PNAs) were synthesized using an in situ fabrication (semi-IPN). The polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) (free radical) was conducted in the presence of magnetic modified cellulose nanofibrils (MMCNFs). The adsorption behaviors and surface morphology of the synthesized adsorbents were investigated systematically. The adsorption behaviors of the as-prepared MMCNF-PNA towards methylene blue (MB, as the model contaminant) dye was studied, and the optimal adsorption conditions were also studied. The adsorption processes could be well fitted using pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models. Meanwhile, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to fit the adsorption which occurred at 25, 37 and 65 °C. The corresponding results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model fitted the adsorption process better, indicating that the dye’s adsorption happened via heterogeneous adsorptive energies on the prepared MMCNF-PNAs. Their desorption and reusability were also studied to verify magnetic responsivity. To sum up, MMCNF-PNAs are promising magnetic and thermal stimuli-responsive adsorbents, showing a controlled adsorption/desorption process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Polymeric Materials)
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11 pages, 2503 KiB  
Article
A High-Proton Conductivity All-Biomass Proton Exchange Membrane Enabled by Adenine and Thymine Modified Cellulose Nanofibers
by Chong Xie, Runde Yang, Xing Wan, Haorong Li, Liangyao Ge, Xiaofeng Li and Guanglei Zhao
Polymers 2024, 16(8), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16081060 - 11 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Nanocellulose fiber materials were considered promising biomaterials due to their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility, high hydrophilicity, and cost-effectiveness. However, their low proton conductivity significantly limited their application as proton exchange membranes. The methods previously reported to increase their proton conductivity often introduced non-biodegradable groups [...] Read more.
Nanocellulose fiber materials were considered promising biomaterials due to their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility, high hydrophilicity, and cost-effectiveness. However, their low proton conductivity significantly limited their application as proton exchange membranes. The methods previously reported to increase their proton conductivity often introduced non-biodegradable groups and compounds, which resulted in the loss of the basic advantages of this natural polymer in terms of biodegradability. In this work, a green and sustainable strategy was developed to prepare cellulose-based proton exchange membranes that could simultaneously meet sustainability and high-performance criteria. Adenine and thymine were introduced onto the surface of tempo-oxidized nanocellulose fibers (TOCNF) to provide many transition sites for proton conduction. Once modified, the proton conductivity of the TOCNF membrane increased by 31.2 times compared to the original membrane, with a specific surface area that had risen from 6.1 m²/g to 86.5 m²/g. The wet strength also increased. This study paved a new path for the preparation of environmentally friendly membrane materials that could replace the commonly used non-degradable ones, highlighting the potential of nanocellulose fiber membrane materials in sustainable applications such as fuel cells, supercapacitors, and solid-state batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Polymeric Materials)
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13 pages, 3060 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Periodate-Mediated Oxidation of Cellulose
by Nazmun Sultana, Ulrica Edlund, Chandan Guria and Gunnar Westman
Polymers 2024, 16(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16030381 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The oxidation of cellulose to dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) is a process that has received increased interest during recent years. Herein, kinetic modeling of the reaction with sodium periodate as an oxidizing agent was performed to quantify rate-limiting steps and overall kinetics of the [...] Read more.
The oxidation of cellulose to dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) is a process that has received increased interest during recent years. Herein, kinetic modeling of the reaction with sodium periodate as an oxidizing agent was performed to quantify rate-limiting steps and overall kinetics of the cellulose oxidation reaction. Considering a pseudo-first-order reaction, a general rate expression was derived to elucidate the impact of pH, periodate concentration, and temperature on the oxidation of cellulose and concurrent formation of cellulose degradation products. Experimental concentration profiles were utilized to determine the rate constants for the formation of DAC (k1), degradation constant of cellulose (k2), and degradation of DAC (k3), confirming that the oxidation follows a pseudo-first-order reaction. Notably, the increase in temperature has a more pronounced effect on k1 compared to the influence of IO4 concentration. In contrast, k2 and k3 display minimal changes in response to IO4 concentration but increase significantly with increasing temperature. The kinetic model developed may help with understanding the rate-limiting steps and overall kinetics of the cellulose oxidation reaction, providing valuable information for optimizing the process toward a faster reaction with higher yield of the target product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose-Based Polymeric Materials)
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