Harmful Microalgae

A topical collection in Phycology (ISSN 2673-9410).

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
Interests: harmful microalgal; algae–bacteria interactions

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Microalgal, especially harmful microalgal, which caused eutrophication of lentic aquatic ecosystems, has been a serious threat to regional economic development, as well as to aquatic animal safety and human safety. It forces us to develop efficient methods to control the bloom of harmful algal blooms by understanding the behavior of harmful microalgal, and the interaction between harmful microalgal and other microorganisms in the environment.

Therefore, the aim of this collection is to encourage scientists to publish relevant papers about harmful microalgal, thus fitting the topics of interest of the journal Phycology.

In this collection, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following: harmful microalgal and the biocontrol of harmful microalgal; and algae–bacteria interactions. We welcome researches, such as harmful microalgal biocontrol methods based on single-species microorganisms and microbial aggregates, and methods for a rapid decrease in algal cells density, inhibition of harmful algal growth, and lysis of harmful algae.

Dr. Pengfei Sun
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • harmful microalgae
  • algae-bacteria interactions
  • harmful microalgal control
  • harmful algal bloom
  • biocontrol

Published Papers (5 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022

20 pages, 7103 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of the Benthic Dinoflagellate Amphidinium from Coastal Waters of Mexico
by Lorena María Durán-Riveroll, Oscar E. Juárez, Yuri B. Okolodkov, Ana Luisa Mejía-Camacho, Fabiola Ramírez-Corona, Dania Casanova-Gracia, María del Carmen Osorio-Ramírez, Victor A. Cervantes-Urieta and Allan D. Cembella
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 305-324; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020020 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
The genus Amphidinium Clap. & J. Lachm. comprises a high diversity of planktonic and benthic (epiphytic and sand-dwelling) dinoflagellates from marine and freshwater ecosystems. High morphological plasticity and vaguely defined genus characteristics (e.g., a small epicone size) have complicated the clear delineation of [...] Read more.
The genus Amphidinium Clap. & J. Lachm. comprises a high diversity of planktonic and benthic (epiphytic and sand-dwelling) dinoflagellates from marine and freshwater ecosystems. High morphological plasticity and vaguely defined genus characteristics (e.g., a small epicone size) have complicated the clear delineation of species boundaries. Although six Amphidinium morphospecies have been reported from Mexican coastal waters, species identifications are uncertain and not generally supported by molecular phylogenetic data. In this study, seven isolates of Amphidinium from diverse benthic coastal locations on the NE Pacific, Gulf of California, and southern Gulf of Mexico were subjected to critical morphological analysis using photonic and scanning electron microscopy. The phylogenetic reconstruction was based on nuclear-encoded, partial large-subunit (LSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) sequences. The revised phylogenetic analysis was consistent with the traditional subdivision of the genus Amphidinium into two sister groups: Herdmanii and Operculatum clades. This study provided the first confirmed records of A. theodorei and A. massartii from coastal waters of Mexico. The molecular phylogenetic evidence indicated that the morphologically described A. cf. carterae from Baja California was in fact more closely allied with A. eilatiensis sequences. A few Amphidinium species are known to form toxigenic (i.e., fish-killing) harmful algal blooms worldwide, and therefore knowledge on species diversity and biogeography is critical in developing effective strategies for evaluating the potential emerging threat in Mexican coastal waters. Full article
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13 pages, 1106 KiB  
Article
Coolia Species (Dinophyceae) from the Tropical South Atlantic Region: Evidence of Harmfulness of Coolia cf. canariensis Phylogroup II
by Agatha Miralha, Silvia M. Nascimento and Raquel A. F. Neves
Phycology 2023, 3(2), 242-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3020015 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Benthic dinoflagellates of the Coolia genus have been associated with cytotoxicity and lethal and sublethal effects on marine species. This study aimed to assess the harmful effects of C. cf. canariensis phylogroup II (PII) and C. malayensis strains through bioassays. Experimental exposures (24, [...] Read more.
Benthic dinoflagellates of the Coolia genus have been associated with cytotoxicity and lethal and sublethal effects on marine species. This study aimed to assess the harmful effects of C. cf. canariensis phylogroup II (PII) and C. malayensis strains through bioassays. Experimental exposures (24, 48, and 72 h) of Artemia salina nauplii to Coolia species (330–54,531 cells mL−1) were performed independently. When a concentration-dependent response was achieved, additional experiments were carried out to evaluate the cell-free medium toxicity. The two Coolia species were harmful to Artemia nauplii, inducing significant mortality and sublethal responses. Coolia cf. canariensis PII was the most toxic species, inducing significant lethality at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times, followed by C. malayensis. Only the survival curves achieved after 24 and 48 h of exposure to C. cf. canariensis PII fitted to a concentration–response curve with valid LC50s of 18,064 and 19,968 cells mL−1, respectively. Moreover, extracellular compounds (i.e., culture filtrates) of C. cf. canariensis PII induced significant mortality to nauplii after 48 and 72 h. The toxicity of C. cf. canariensis PII was demonstrated for the first time using bioassays, and it was surprisingly higher than that of the C. malayensis strain, which was previously demonstrated to induce biological activity at the cellular and subcellular levels. Our findings highlight the harmful and lethal effects induced by Coolia cells and the importance of bioassays for toxicity assessments. Full article
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27 pages, 5546 KiB  
Article
Morphological, Phylogenetic and Toxinological Characterization of Potentially Harmful Algal Species from the Marine Coastal Waters of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina)
by Jonás Adrián Tardivo Kubis, Francisco Rodríguez, Araceli E. Rossignoli, Pilar Riobó, Eugenia A. Sar and Inés Sunesen
Phycology 2023, 3(1), 79-105; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology3010006 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2564
Abstract
In the framework of a monitoring program of harmful microalgae from the marine coastal waters of the Buenos Aires Province, seven strains were isolated and characterized by morphological and molecular analysis (LSU rDNA partial sequencing, D1–D3 regions). Established strains belonged to Alexandrium catenella [...] Read more.
In the framework of a monitoring program of harmful microalgae from the marine coastal waters of the Buenos Aires Province, seven strains were isolated and characterized by morphological and molecular analysis (LSU rDNA partial sequencing, D1–D3 regions). Established strains belonged to Alexandrium catenella, Protoceratium reticulatum and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. The toxinological profile of the target strains were determined by UHPLC-FLD equipment for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and LC-MS/MS for lipophilic (LSTs) and amnesic toxins (ASTs). The toxin profile varied in the four strains of A. catenella, the predominant compounds were gonyautoxins (GTXs) GTX2,3 and GTX1,4 for strains LPCc001 and LPCc004, and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (Cs) C1,2 and GTX1,4 for strains LPCc002 and LPCc008. The obtained cellular toxicity values were moderate-to-high (12.38–46.40 pg saxitoxin equiv. cell−1). The toxin profile of P. reticulatum was dominated by yessotoxins (YTXs) (up to 94.40 pg cell−1) accompanied by homo-yessotoxin (Homo-YTX) traces. In P. multiseries, the toxin profiles were dominated by domoic acid (DA) (1.62 pg cell−1 and 1.09 pg cell−1) and secondarily by Isomer A (Iso-A), Epi-domoic acid (Epi-DA), Isomer-E (Iso-E) and Isomer-D (Iso-D). This study provides detailed information about representative HAB species in the area, useful for resource management, risk evaluation and related research on toxic dinoflagellates and diatoms. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023

13 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Physiological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Saxitoxin-Producing and Nonproducing Raphidiopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) under an Extremely High CO2 Environment
by Ricardo Rogers Paranhos, Mauro Vilar, Luísa Hoffmann, Thayane Bottaro, Rosane Silva, Renato C. Pereira and Sandra M. F. O. Azevedo
Phycology 2022, 2(3), 319-331; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology2030017 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Findings about CO2 dynamics in the Earth’s ancestral atmosphere have suggested much higher concentrations in past eras. Along this line, cyanobacteria are an early evolved photosynthetic group that is suggested to have experienced both high and low CO2 availability since their [...] Read more.
Findings about CO2 dynamics in the Earth’s ancestral atmosphere have suggested much higher concentrations in past eras. Along this line, cyanobacteria are an early evolved photosynthetic group that is suggested to have experienced both high and low CO2 availability since their Precambrian origin, and therefore, it is reasonable to assume that these microbes have the potential to cope with these scenarios by rapidly adjusting to various carbon dioxide levels. Thus, in this work, we performed a short-term (72-h) investigation of the physiological parameters (cell growth, photosynthesis and saxitoxin production) of toxic and nontoxic strains of the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii challenged by an extremely high pCO2 (40,000 ppm). Additionally, the transcriptomic profile (regarding the carbon concentrating mechanism and photosynthesis) of selected toxic and nontoxic strains is also presented. We found that short-term exposure to extremely elevated CO2 concentrations did not affect R. raciborskii physiology regardless of toxin production. However, transcripts related to bicarbonate transporters and the RuBisCO enzyme indicated the upregulation of CCM and downregulation of the Calvin cycle, respectively. According to our findings, at least at the initial growth phase, R. raciborskii was able to cope with a very high CO2 level, which shed light on the understanding that this species might have the potential to cope with carbon dioxide in water above the predicted levels. Full article
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16 pages, 10839 KiB  
Article
Rapidly Deployable Algae Cleaning System for Applications in Freshwater Reservoirs and Water Bodies
by Sirius Pui-Kam Tse, Ka-Fu Yung, Pak-Yeung Lo, Cheok-Kei Lam, Tsz-Wang Chu, Wing-Tak Wong and Samuel Chun-Lap Lo
Phycology 2022, 2(1), 60-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/phycology2010004 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2985
Abstract
Occurrence of large-scale harmful algal blooms (HABs) in our reservoirs and water bodies threaten both quality of our drinking water and economy of aquaculture immensely. Hence, rapid removal of HAB biomass during and after a bloom is crucial in protecting the quality of [...] Read more.
Occurrence of large-scale harmful algal blooms (HABs) in our reservoirs and water bodies threaten both quality of our drinking water and economy of aquaculture immensely. Hence, rapid removal of HAB biomass during and after a bloom is crucial in protecting the quality of our drinking water and preserve our water resources. We reported here a rapidly deployable algae cleaning system based on a high-capacity high-throughput (HCHT) spiral blade continuous centrifuge connected with inlet and effluent water tanks and a series of feed-in and feed-out pumps as well as piping, all fitted into a standard 20 feet metal shipping container. The system separates algal biomass from algae-laden water with a maximum flow rate of 4000 L/h and a centrifugal force of 4500× g. Cells collected by the system are still intact due to the low centrifugal force used. We showed that after HCHT centrifugation, cellular contents of HAB biomass were not found in the effluent water, and hence, could be discharged directly back to the water body. Furthermore, the addition of flocculants and chemicals prior to the separation process is not required. The system could operate continuously with proper programmed procedures. Taken overall, this system offered a much better alternative than the traditional flocculation- and sonication-based methods of HAB removal in a freshwater environment. This deployable system is the first of its kind being built and had been field-tested successfully. Full article
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