Extracellular Vesicles for Early Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Biologics and Biosimilars".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 4593

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Health Outcomes, The Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799, USA
Interests: drug delivery; theranostics; cancer nanomedicine; imaging; cancer therapy; extracellular vesicles; exosomes
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Guest Editor
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA
Interests: extracellular vesicles; biomaterials; drug delivery; imaging; cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent progress in the field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has highlighted the importance of EVs as a biomarker in various physiological and pathological conditions including cancer.  The role of EVs in early events of malignancy leading to cancer progression and metastasis has been demonstrated in various cancer types, establishing a rationale for exploiting EVs for early cancer diagnosis and therapy. EVs (EVs) are a part of the cell secretome with a lipid-bilayered vesicular structure containing cellular cargo of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. All cells secrete heterogeneous populations of EVs which differ by size range (50-1000 nm) and sub-cellular origin (plasma membrane, endosome). Exosomes, which are often reported in the literature are a subtype of EVs with a typical size range of 50-200 nm and endosomal sub-cellular origin. As recommended by the International Society of Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV), we prefer to use “extracellular vesicles” unless the study provides clear evidence of identification of specific sub-type of EVs.

This special issue aims to add to the understanding of the role of EVs in early cancer diagnosis and therapy, and seek answers to some of the important issues in the field: How many roles do EVs have in cancer progression? Does all sub-type of EVs contribute to cancer progression? Is there a difference between the role of small EVs/large EVs in cancer progression? Can we block EV secretion as a therapeutic strategy? Can we use EVs as drug delivery agents and therapeutic targets against cancer? How do normal cell-secreted EVs vary from cancer cell-secreted EVs? Does the physicochemical environment alter EV secretion? Within this aim and scope, in this special issue of “Extracellular Vesicles for Early Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy”, we welcome original research articles and reviews from diverse backgrounds and expertise working in the field of EVs. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the characterization of different sub-types of EVs, the role of EVs in cancer progression, engineering EVs for cancer-targeted drug delivery, EVs as cancer therapeutic targets, and EVs-based biomarker discovery for early diagnosis of cancer. We look forward to receiving your contribution.

Dr. Santosh Aryal
Dr. Sagar Rayamajhi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles sub-types
  • extracellular vesicles for drug delivery
  • extracellular vesicles as cancer therapeutic target
  • extracellular vesicles-based biomarkers

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

26 pages, 2896 KiB  
Review
Interplay of Extracellular Vesicles and TLR4 Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Pathophysiology and Therapeutics
by Stavros P. Papadakos, Konstantinos Arvanitakis, Ioanna E. Stergiou, Christos Vallilas, Stavros Sougioultzis, Georgios Germanidis and Stamatios Theocharis
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(10), 2460; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15102460 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stands as a significant contributor to global cancer-related mortality. Chronic inflammation, often arising from diverse sources such as viral hepatitis, alcohol misuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), profoundly influences HCC development. Within this context, the interplay [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stands as a significant contributor to global cancer-related mortality. Chronic inflammation, often arising from diverse sources such as viral hepatitis, alcohol misuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), profoundly influences HCC development. Within this context, the interplay of extracellular vesicles (EVs) gains prominence. EVs, encompassing exosomes and microvesicles, mediate cell-to-cell communication and cargo transfer, impacting various biological processes, including inflammation and cancer progression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key sentinel of the innate immune system, recognizes both pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), thereby triggering diverse signaling cascades and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The intricate involvement of the TLR4 signaling pathway in chronic liver disease and HCC pathogenesis is discussed in this study. Moreover, we delve into the therapeutic potential of modulating the TLR4 pathway using EVs as novel therapeutic agents for HCC. This review underscores the multifaceted role of EVs in the context of HCC and proposes innovative avenues for targeted interventions against this formidable disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles for Early Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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16 pages, 1832 KiB  
Review
Exosome Cargos as Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Yulai Zeng, Shuyu Hu, Yi Luo and Kang He
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(9), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15092365 - 21 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1357
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Due to the insidiousness of HCC onset and the lack of specific early-stage markers, the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC are still unsatisfactory, leading to a poor prognosis. Exosomes are a [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Due to the insidiousness of HCC onset and the lack of specific early-stage markers, the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC are still unsatisfactory, leading to a poor prognosis. Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicle containing various components, which play an essential part in the development, progression, and metastasis of HCC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that exosomes could serve as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of HCC. These diagnostic components mainly include proteins, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and circular RNAs. The exosome biomarkers showed high sensitivity and high specificity in distinguishing HCC from health controls and other liver diseases, such as chronic HBV and liver cirrhosis. The expression of these biomarkers also exhibits correlations with various clinical factors such as tumor size, TMN stage, overall survival, and recurrence rate. In this review, we summarize the function of exosomes in the development of HCC and highlight their application as HCC biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles for Early Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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